Volume 87, Issue 10
October 1978, pages 213-288
pp 213-224 October 1978 Genetics/Molecular Biology
32P labelled 5S RNA isolated fromMycobacterium smegmatis was digested withT1 and pancreatic ribonucleases separately and fingerprinted by two dimensional high voltage electrophoresis on thin-layer DEAE-cellulose plates. The radioactive spots were sequenced and their molar yields were determined. The chain length of the 5S RNA was found to be 120. It showed resemblances to both prokaryotic and eukaryotic 5S RNAs.
pp 225-230 October 1978 Genetics/Molecular Biology
Intergeneric transfer of streptomycin-resistance marker from a unicellular blue-green algaAnacystis nidulans to a filamentous blue-green algaAnabaena doliolum was demonstrated. Mutants ofA. nidulans resistant to streptomycin, occurring spontaneously or mutagenically-induced could be isolated easily. Naturally occurring streptomycin-resistant mutants ofA. doliolum could not be detected. Attempts at isolating such mutants either in nitrogen-free medium or in nitrate containing medium were unsuccessful. However, a streptomycin-resistant strain (recombinant) ofA. doliolum could be isolated in a mixed culture of streptomycin-sensitiveA. doliolum and streptomycin-resistantA. nidulans.
pp 231-241 October 1978 Microbiology and Cell Biology
The thermophilic fungus,Thermomyces lanuginosus, was grown in a glucose-asparagine liquid medium. Optimal mycelial growth occurred at 50°C. The conditions for sporulation were different from those required for vegetative growth. the former being favoured by lower nitrogen level and temperature. Trehalase (α, α-glu coside-l-glucohydrolase, EC 188.8.131.52) was one of the most active glycosidases at 50°C. Non-sporulating mycelium had higher levels of this enzyme than the sporulating mycelium. Trehalase was synthesized constitutively and its activity appears to be controlled by catabolite repression.
pp 243-246 October 1978 Microbiology and Cell Biology
The occurrence of facultative symbiotrophic N2-fixing associations in three rice soils of India is reported. Considerable variation in N2-fixing efficiency of these associations was noticed among the soil types studied. Associations from rice straw-amended alluvial soil under both flooded and non-flooded conditions exhibited higher N.-fixing efficiency than those from unamended soils of both water regimes. Despite high salinity and acidity an acid sulphate soil harboured N.-fixing symbiotrophic organisms with appreciable efficiency. Application of rice straw to the soil under both flooded and non-flooded conditions stimulated N2-fixation in alluvial, laterite and acid sulphate saline soils. These observations suggested the significant contribution of these associations to the nitrogen economy of different soil types.
pp 247-255 October 1978
The histomorphology and cholinesterase activity of the taste buds and the gustatory nerve fibre sin well-fed, in protein and protein-calorie deficient rats have been investigated. The nerve fibre arborisation in the taste buds is predominantly nonmyelinated and shows degenerative changes ranging from initial swelling to disintegration, fragmentation and finally complete disappearance with the increasing degree and duration of food deprivation. Coincident with these changes in the nerve fibre, the taste bud also shows various stages of degeneration. By contrast, the cholinesterase activity in the gustatory papillae shows an initial increase during the first week followed by a decline in the activity during the succeeding weeks; a second peak of cholinesterase activity appears during 4–6 weeks. The cholinesterase activity is barely detectable after the 8th week. In the more severely protein calorie restricted groups, the cholinesterase changes are more pronounced and abrupt in onset and show a total disappearance by 4–5 weeks.
pp 257-259 October 1978 Biochemistry
L-[U-14C]-2, 3-diaminopropionate was metabolised slowly in the rat. Nearly 75% of the total radioactivity could be accounted for by respiratory CO2 (60%) and by the concentration of the isotope in the liver and kidney (15%). The rate limiting step in its metabolism may be the activity of 2, 3-diaminopropionate: ammonia lyase in the liver. It is more readily metabolised than its 3-oxalyl derivative, which is neurotoxic.
pp 261-269 October 1978 Biochemistry
Azadirachta indica (neem) exudate gum was treated with pronase for 48 h followed by chromatography on TEAE-cellulose and the major polysaccharide was isolated. The polysaccharide covalently associated with remnant protein, was homogeneous as indicated by rechromatography on TEAE-cellulose, paper electrophoresis, gel chromatography under dissociating conditions on Bio-Gel P-l00 and P-300. The monosaccharide units, galactose, arabinose, glucuronic acid, fucose and glucosamine were present in a molar ratio of 86 ∶ 70 ∶ 30 ∶ 10 ∶ 1. Thirteen amino acids constituted the protein portion. The linkage between the polysaccharide and the protein was a glucosaminyl asparginyl bond. Limited hydrolysis showed that fucose and arabinose were at the non-reducing ends of the polysaccharide and galactose and glucuronic acid were in the central core.
pp 271-282 October 1978 Endocrinology
Prolactin secreting cells are identified in thepars distalis of Mus platythrix by conventional methods of light and electron microscopy. Two types of prolactin secreting cells are recognised. These types are estrone-sensitive, mammotrophic type I, and luteotrophic type II, respectively. Histochemical analysis revealed that the cells are rich in RNA, basic proteins, alkaline phosphatase and are resistant to extraction with 0·5% trichloroacetic acid. Quantitative data showed that the prolactin secreting cells increase during pregnancy, lactation and estrone treatment. Estrone at low dose levels caused immense hyperplasia whereas at higher levels there was no corresponding increase in the percentage of type I cells. Ultrastructurally, prolactin secreting cells are characterised by the presence of stacked endoplasmic reticulum, oval or irregular secretory granules. The Golgi apparatus is seen rich in vacuolar system.
pp 283-288 October 1978 Endocrinology
The ability of prolactin to influence the responsiveness of the lactating rat pituitary to luteinising hormone releasing hormone has been examinedin vitro. The pituitary responsivenessin vivo to luteinising hormone releasing hormone decreased as a function of increase in the lactational stimulus. Prolactin inhibited the spontaneousin vitro release of luteinising hormone and follicle stimulating hormone to a small extent, from the pituitary of lactating rats with the suckling stimulus. However, it significantly inhibited the release of these two hormones from luteinising hormone releasing hormone-stimulated pituitaries. The responsiveness of pituitaries of rats deprived of their litter 24 h earlier, to luteinising hormone releasing hormone was also inhibited by prolactin, although minimal. It was concluded that prolactin could be influencing the functioning of the pituitary of the lactating rat by (a) partially suppressing the spontaneous release of gonadotropin and (b) inhibiting the responsiveness of the pituitary to luteinising hormone releasing hormone.