Volume 87, Issue 7
July 1978, pages 147-212
pp 147-160 July 1978 Genetics/Moelcular Biology
Some olfactory and gustatory mutants ofDrosophila melanogaster are described. Theolf mutants are insensitive to the repellent, benzaldehyde or the attractant ethyl acetate or simultaneously to both. Thegust mutants are unable to taste quinine or NaCl or sucrose. Electrophysiological tests show that one of the sugar non-tasters has an altered primary chemoreceptor response to sucrose.
pp 161-167 July 1978 Physiology
Adult male rats injected with cadmium chloride were compared with controls with respect to serum levels of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), androgens and testicular histology. A single injection of cadmium chloride (9 mg/kg) was found to bring about no consistent short term changes in the plasma levels of FSH or LH, but after a long period the levels of both these hormones were elevated. In contrast, the levels of androgen showed a sharp increase at 6 h which declined by 12 h. In accordance with the elevated levels of gonadotropins found at 9–28 days after cadmium chloride injection, the androgen levels showed a drastic reduction. Histological aspect of the testis revealed acute necrotic changes of which the vacuolation of spermatid nuclei and fibrosis of Leydig cells are noteworthy.
pp 169-175 July 1978 Endocrinology
Serum thyroglobulin levels in 39 patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma and in 10 healthy volunteers were studied by radioimmunoassay. Sera from two of these patients were analysed preoperatively. Both of these sera showed thyroglobulin levels higher than that obtained from normal individuals. Serum thyroglobulin levels of 10 normal subjects varied between 1·0 to 20·0 ng/ml, Thirteen patients who were in remission showed serum thyroglobulin levels between 0·1 to 18.5 ng/ml which is within the normal range. Patients with bone metastasis had elevated serum thyroglobulin levels while those with lung metastasis had normal serum thyroglobulin levels. Salivary secretion from normal subjects showed thyroglobulin levels between 0·8 to 7·0 ng/ml., while that from thyroid cancer patients ranged between 0.4 to 27.5 ngjml, It appears that salivary thyroglobulin is atpari passu with serum thyroglobulin levels.
pp 177-179 July 1978 Microbiology and Cell Biology
2-Hydroxy 3-methyl 1,4-benzoquinone 5,6 epoxide was identified as secondary metabolite of a strain ofAspergillus terreus, a common contaminant of animal feeds. In addition, the following compounds were also tentatively identified to be produced by this organism: 2-hYdroxy 3-methyl 1,4-benzoquinone; 2-methyl 1,4-benzoquinone 5,6-epoxide; naphthazarin epoxide; and 2-hydroxy 3-methyl 1,4-benzoquinone 5, 6-epoxide.
pp 181-187 July 1978
Live bacteria in modifiedDiamond’s axenic medium did not support growth ofEntamoeba histolytica. Cysteine hydrochloride, required for the multiplication of amoeba, was broken down by live bacteria and toxic substances were produced which were lethal for amoebae. Monoxenic and xenic cultures ofaxenically grownE. histolytica could be established in Boeck and Drbohlav medium with bacteria and rice starch. Bacterial lipids prepared from 15 human intestinal bacteria supported growth and multiplication ofE. histolytica in axenic medium. In a pilot experiment using lipids ofStreptococcus faecalis, free fatty acids did stimulate the multiplication of amoebae. When total lipids of this bacteria were fractionated into neutral lipids and phospholipids by chromatography and used, neither fraction was found to stimulate growth. Free fatty acids prepared by chemical hydrolysis of the total lipids, neutral lipids and phospholipids stimulated growth ofE. histolytica, The sterols present in the bacterial lipids (neutral lipids or non-saponifiable fractions) stimulated growth of amoebae. It was found thatE. histolytica is incapable of liberating fatty acids from di- or triglyceridesof phospholipids and the multiplication of the organism is stimulated by the presence of free fatty acids and sterols (cholesterol).
pp 189-194 July 1978 Biochemistry
A few constituents of the brain of rats subjected to long-term shock avoidance training in the jump-box were investigated. The effects of training and that of the concomitant stress on these constituents were differentially examined. Brain DNA increased in both the trained rats and those subjected to stress. The total RNA showed a specific decrease in the trained rats. The total protein content remained unaffected, while the content of soluble protein showed a greater increase in the trained rats compared to that in animals subjected to stress. The Na+, K+-ATPase activity in the brain decreased in the trained rats, whereas the glial carbonic anhydrase activity increased in the stressed as well as the trained rats. No change was found in the activities of Mg++-ATPase and pseudocholinesterase in the experimental groups.
pp 195-203 July 1978 Biochemistry
The heterogeneity of chicken prealbumin (PA) has been shown to be due to the occurrence of three different plasma proteins (PA1 PA2 and PA3). Equilibrium dialysis studies revealed that the thyroid hormones bind specifically to PA2. These hormones bind at the same site on PA2. Circular dichroism studies failed to reveal conformational changes on interaction of retinol-binding protein and thyroid hormone with PA2. Both retinol-binding protein and thyroid hormone are independently transported by PA2.
pp 205-212 July 1978 Biochemistry
The method for the purification of goat serum retinol-binding protein consists of DEAE-cellulose chromatography of the serum followed by preparative polyacrylamide disc gel electrophoresis. After electrophoresis, the retinol-binding protein containing zone is identified by the specific fluorescence of retinol. For raising the antibodies, the portion of the gel containing retinol binding protein is homogenized and injected intradermally and intramuscularly to rabbits. The availability of this simple method for the isolation of retinol-binding protein and production of its antibodies enables the development of a radioimmunoassay for this protein.