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      Volume 39, Issue 2

      April 2018

    • Mid-term periodicities and heliospheric modulation of coronal index and solar flare index during solar cycles 22–23

      PRITHVI RAJ SINGH A. K. SAXENA C. M. TIWARI

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      We applied fast Fourier transform techniques and Morlet wavelet transform on the time series data of coronal index, solar flare index, and galactic cosmic ray, for the period 1986–2008, in order to investigate the long- and mid-term periodicities including the Rieger ($\sim$130 to $\sim$190 days), quasi-period ($\sim$200 to $\sim$374 days), and quasi-biennial periodicities ($\sim$1.20 to $\sim$3.27 years) during the combined solar cycles 22–23. We emphasize the fact that a lesser number of periodicities are found in the range of low frequencies, while the higher frequencies show a greater number of periodicities. The rotation rates at the base of convection zone have periods for coronal index of $\sim$1.43 years and for solar flare index of $\sim$1.41 year, and galactic cosmic ray, $\sim$1.35 year, during combined solar cycles 22–23. In relation to these two solar parameters (coronal index and solar flare index), for the solar cycles 22–23, we found that galactic cosmic ray modulation at mid cut-offrigidity (${\rm Rc} = 2.43$GV) is anti-correlated with time-lag of few months.

    • Formation of Thorne–$\dot{\rm Z}$ytkow objects in close binaries

      BUMAREYAMU HUTILUKEJIANG CHUNHUA ZHU ZHAOJUN WANG GUOLIANG L$\ddot{\rm U}$

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      Thorne– $\dot{\rm Z}$ytkow objects (T$\dot{\rm Z}$Os), originally proposed by Thorne and $\dot{\rm Z}$ytkow, may form as a result of unstable mass transfer in a massive X-ray binary after a neutron star (NS) is engulfed in the envelope of its companion star. Using a rapid binary evolution program and the Monte Carlo method, we simulated the formation of T$\dot{\rm Z}$Os in close binary stars. The Galactic birth rate of T$\dot{\rm Z}$Os is about $1.5 \times 10^{−4}$ yr$^{−1}$. Their progenitors may be composed of a NS and a main-sequence star, a star in the Hertzsprung gap or a core-helium burning, or a naked helium star. The birth rates of T$\dot{\rm Z}$Os via the above different progenitors are $1.7 \times 10^{−5}$,$1.2 \times 10^{−4}$, $0.7\times 10^{−5}$, $0.6\times 10^{−5}$ yr$^{−1}$, respectively. These progenitors may be massive X-ray binaries. Wefound that the observational properties of three massive X-ray binaries (SMC X-1, Cen X-3 and LMC X-4) in which the companions of NSs may fill their Roche robes were consistent with those of their progenitors.

    • Gravitational instability in isotropic MHD plasma waves

      ALEMAYEHU MENGESHA CHERKOS

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      The effect of compressive viscosity, thermal conductivity and radiative heat-loss functions on the gravitational instability of infinitely extended homogeneous MHD plasma has been investigated. By taking in account these parameters we developed the six-order dispersion relation for magnetohydrodynamic (MHD)waves propagating in a homogeneous and isotropic plasma. The general dispersion relation has been developed from set of linearized basic equations and solved analytically to analyse the conditions of instability and instability of self-gravitating plasma embedded in a constant magnetic field. Our result shows that the presence of viscosity and thermal conductivity in a strong magnetic field substantially modifies the fundamental Jeans criterion of gravitational instability.

    • Planck absolute entropy of a rotating BTZ black hole

      S. M. JAWWAD RIAZ

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      In this paper, the Planck absolute entropy and the Bekenstein–Smarr formula of the rotating Banados–Teitelboim–Zanelli (BTZ) black hole are presented via a complex thermodynamical system contributed by its inner and outer horizons. The redefined entropy approaches zero as the temperature of the rotating BTZ black hole tends to absolute zero, satisfying the Nernst formulation of a black hole. Hence, it can be regarded as the Planck absolute entropy of the rotating BTZ black hole.

    • Dust color temperature distribution of two FIR cavities at IRIS and AKARI maps

      A. K. JHA B. ARYAL

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      By systematically searching the region of far infrared loops, we found a number of huge cavity-like dust structures at 60 $\mu$m and 100 $\mu$m IRIS maps.By checking these with AKARI maps (90 $\mu$m and 140 $\mu$m), twonew cavity-like structures (sizes $\sim 2.7 {\rm pc}\times 0.8$ pc and $\sim 1.8 {\rm pc} \times 1$ pc) located at R.A. $({\rm J2000}) = 14^{\rm h}41^{\rm m}23^{\rm s}$ and Dec. $ ({\rm J2000}) = −64^{\circ}04'17''$ and R.A. $({\rm J2000}) = 05^h05^m35^s$ and Dec. $({\rm J2000}) = −69^{\circ}35'25''$ wereselected for the study. The difference in the average dust color temperatures calculated using IRIS and AKARI maps of the cavity candidates were found to be $3.2 \pm 0.9$ K and $4.1 \pm 1.2$ K, respectively. Interestingly, the longer wavelength AKARI map gives larger values of dust color temperature than that of the shorter wavelength IRIS maps. Possible explanation of the results will be presented.

    • Identifying Li-rich giants from low-resolution spectroscopic survey

      YERRA BHARAT KUMAR BACHAM ESWAR REDDY GANG ZHAO

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      In this paper we discuss our choice of a large unbiased sample used for the survey of red giant branch stars for finding Li-rich K giants, and the method used for identifying Li-rich candidates using low-resolution spectra. The sample has 2000 giants within a mass range of 0.8 to 3.0$M_{\odot}$. Sample stars were selected from the Hipparcos catalogue with colour (B–V) and luminosity (L/L$_{\odot}$) in such way that the sample covers RGB evolution from its base towards RGB tip passing through first dredge-up and luminosity bump. Low-resolution (R $\approx$ 2000, 3500, 5000) spectra were obtained for all sample stars. Using core strength ratios of lines at Li I 6707{\AA} and its adjacent line Ca I 6717{\AA} we successfully identified 15 K giants with A(Li) > 1.5 dex, which are defined as Li-rich K giants. The results demonstrate the usefulness of low-resolution spectra to measure Li abundance and identify Li-rich giants from a large sample of stars in relatively shorter time periods.

    • Creating an isotopically similar Earth–Moon system with correct angular momentum from a giant impact

      BRYANT M. WYATT JONATHAN M. PETZ WILLIAM J. SUMPTER TY R. TURNER EDWARD L. SMITH BAYLOR G. FAIN TAYLOR J. HUTYRA SCOTT A. COOK JOHN H. GRESHAM MICHAEL F. HIBBS SHAUKAT N. GODERYA

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      The giant impact hypothesis is the dominant theory explaining the formation of our Moon. However, the inability to produce an isotopically similar Earth–Moon system with correct angular momentum has cast a shadow on its validity. Computer-generated impacts have been successful in producing virtual systems that possess many of the observed physical properties. However, addressing the isotopic similarities between the Earth and Moon coupled with correct angular momentum has proven to be challenging. Equilibration and evection resonance have been proposed as means of reconciling the models. In the summer of 2013, the Royal Society called a meeting solely to discuss the formation of the Moon. In this meeting, evection resonance and equilibration were both questioned as viable means of removing the deficiencies from giant impact models. Themain concerns were that models were multi-staged and too complex.We present here initial impact conditions that produce an isotopically similar Earth–Moon system with correct angular momentum. This is done in a single-staged simulation. The initial parameters are straightforward and the results evolve solely from the impact. This was accomplished by colliding two roughly half-Earth-sized impactors, rotating in approximately the same plane in a high-energy, off-centered impact, where both impactors spin into the collision.

    • Effect of electron temperature on small-amplitude electron acoustic solitary waves in non-planar geometry

      SONA BANSAL MUNISH AGGARWAL TARSEM SINGH GILL

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      Effects of electron temperature on the propagation of electron acoustic solitary waves in plasma with stationary ions, cold and superthermal hot electrons is investigated in non-planar geometry employing reductive perturbation method. Modified Korteweg–de Vries equation is derived in the small amplitude approximation limit. The analytical and numerical calculations of the KdV equation reveal that the phase velocity of the electron acoustic waves increases as one goes from planar to non planar geometry. It is shown that the electrontemperature ratio changes the width and amplitude of the solitary waves and when electron temperature is not taken into account,our results completely agree with the results of Javidan & Pakzad (2012). It is found thatat small values of τ , solitary wave structures behave differently in cylindrical ($m = 1$), spherical ($m = 2$) and planar geometry ($m = 0$) but looks similar at large values of τ . These results may be useful to understand the solitary wave characteristics in laboratory and space environments where the plasma have multiple temperature electrons.

  • Journal of Astrophysics and Astronomy | News

    • Continuous Article Publication

      Posted on January 27, 2016

      Since January 2016, the Journal of Astrophysics and Astronomy has moved to Continuous Article Publishing (CAP) mode. This means that each accepted article is being published immediately online with DOI and article citation ID with starting page number 1. Articles are also visible in Web of Science immediately. All these have helped shorten the publication time and have improved the visibility of the articles.

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