Article ID 0000008 June 2016
A generalized Langevin equation driven by fractional Brownian motion is used to describe the vertical oscillations of general relativistic disks. By means of numerical calculation method, the displacements, velocities and luminosities of oscillating disks are explicitly obtained for different Hurst exponent $H$. The results show that as $H$ increases, the energies and luminosities of oscillating disk are enhanced, and the spectral slope at high frequencies of the power spectrum density of disk luminosity is also increased. This could explain the observational features related to the Intra Day Variability of the BL Lac objects.
Article ID 0000009 June 2016
Support Vector Machine (SVM) is one of the important stellar spectral classification methods, and it is widely used in practice. But its classification efficiencies cannot be greatly improved because it does not take the class distribution into consideration. In view of this, a modified SVM-named Minimum within-class and Maximum between-class scatter Support Vector Machine (MMSVM) is constructed to deal with the above problem. MMSVM merges the advantages of Fisher’s Discriminant Analysis (FDA) and SVM, and the comparative experiments on the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) show that MMSVM performs better than SVM.
Article ID 0000010 June 2016
Power Spectrum Density of Stochastic Oscillating Accretion Disk
G. B. Long J. W. Ou Y. G. Zheng
In this paper, we employ a stochastic oscillating accretion disk model for the power spectral index and variability of BL Lac object S5 0716+714. In the model, we assume that there is a relativistic oscillation of thin accretion disks and it interacts with an external thermal bath through a friction force and a random force. We simulate the light curve and the power spectrum density (PSD) at (i) over-damped, (ii) critically damped and (iii) under-damped cases, respectively. Our results show that the simulated PSD curves depend on the intrinsic property of the accretion disk, and it could be produced in a wide interval ranging from 0.94 to 2.05 by changing the friction coefficient in a stochastic oscillating accretion disk model. We argue that accretion disk stochastic oscillating could be a possible interpretation for observed PSD variability.
Article ID 0000011 June 2016
A large number of terrestrial planets in the classical habitable zone of stars of different spectral types have already been discovered and many are expected to be discovered in the near future. However, owing to the lack of knowledge on the atmospheric properties, the ambient environment of such planets are unknown. It is known that sufficient amount of Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) radiation from the star can drive hydrodynamic outflow of hydrogen that may drag heavier species from the atmosphere of the planet. If the rate of mass loss is sufficiently high, then substantial amount of volatiles would escape causing the planet to become uninhabitable. Considering energy-limited hydrodynamical mass loss with an escape rate that causes oxygen to escape alongwith hydrogen, an upper limit for the ratio between the EUV and the bolometric luminosities of stars which constrains the habitability of planets around them is presented here. Application of the limit to planet-hosting stars with known EUV luminosities implies that many M-type of stars should not have habitable planets around them.
Article ID 0000012 June 2016
Stellar Spectral Classification with Locality Preserving Projections and Support Vector Machine
With the help of computer tools and algorithms, automatic stellar spectral classification has become an area of current interest. The process of stellar spectral classification mainly includes two steps: dimension reduction and classification. As a popular dimensionality reduction technique, Principal Component Analysis (PCA) is widely used in stellar spectra classification. Another dimensionality reduction technique, Locality Preserving Projections (LPP) has not been widely used in astronomy. The advantage of LPP is that it can preserve the local structure of the data after dimensionality reduction. In view of this, we investigate how to apply LPP+SVM in classifying the stellar spectral subclasses. In the comparative experiment, the performance of LPP is compared with PCA. The stellar spectral classification process is composed of the following steps. Firstly, PCA and LPP are respectively applied to reduce the dimension of spectra data. Then, Support Vector Machine (SVM) is used to classify the 4 subclasses of K-type and 3 subclasses of F-type spectra from Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). Lastly, the performance of LPP+SVM is compared with that of PCA+SVM in stellar spectral classification, and we found that LPP does better than PCA.
Article ID 0000013 June 2016
Braneworld Inflation in Supergravity with a Shift Symmetric K$\"{a}$hler Potential
Z. Mounzi M. Ferricha-Alami A. Safsafi M. Bennai
We propose a new solution to the $\eta$-problem in supergravity using a shift symmetric K\"{a}hler potential in the context of the Randall–Sundrum type II model. We focus on a F-term supergravity inflation with a minimal K\"{a}hler potential taking into account the radiative corrections. The slow-roll conditions are ensured by the shift symmetry where a very small value of $\eta$ $(\eta \ll 1)$ is obtained. In this context, we derive all known spectrum inflationary parameters which are widely consistent with Planck 2015 data for a particular choice of brane tension and coupling constant values. A suitable observational central value of $n_{s}=0.96$ is also obtained in the case of minimal K$\"{a}$hler potential.
Article ID 0000014 June 2016
Large Scale Earth’s Bow Shock with Northern IMF as Simulated by PIC Code in Parallel with MHD Model
In this paper, we propose a 3D kinetic model (particle-in-cell, PIC) for the description of the large scale Earth’s bow shock. The proposed version is stable and does not require huge or extensive computer resources. Because PIC simulations work with scaled plasma and field parameters, we also propose to validate our code by comparing its results with the available MHD simulations under same scaled solar wind (SW) and (IMF) conditions. We report new results from the two models. In both codes the Earth’s bow shock position is found to be $\approx 14.8 R_{{\rm E}}$ along the Sun–Earth line, and $\approx 29 R_{{\rm E}}$ on the dusk side. Those findings are consistent with past in situ observations. Both simulations reproduce the theoretical jump conditions at the shock. However, the PIC code density and temperature distributions are inflated and slightly shifted sunward when compared to the MHD results. Kinetic electron motions and reflected ions upstream may cause this sunward shift. Species distributions in the foreshock region are depicted within the transition of the shock (measured $\approx$2$c/\omega_{pi}$ for $ \Theta_{Bn}=90^{\circ}$ and $M_{{\rm MS}} = 4.7 $) and in the downstream. The size of the foot jump in the magnetic field at the shock is measured to be ($1.7 c/ \omega_{pi} $). In the foreshocked region, the thermal velocity is found equal to 213 km $s^{−1}$ at $15R_{{\rm E}}$ and is equal to $63 km s^{-1}$ at $12 R_{{\rm E}}$ (magnetosheath region). Despite the large cell size of the current version of the PIC code, it is powerful to retain macrostructure of planets magnetospheres in very short time, thus it can be used for pedagogical test purposes. It is also likely complementary with MHD to deepen our understanding of the large scale magnetosphere.
Article ID 0000015 June 2016
Plane Symmetric Dark Energy Models in the Form of Wet Dark Fluid in ${f(R, T )}$ Gravity
In this paper, we have investigated the plane symmetric space-time with wet dark fluid (WDF), which is a candidate for dark energy, in the framework of $f(R, T)$ gravity Harko et al. 2011, Phys. Rev. D, 84, 024020), where $R$ and $T$ denote the Ricci scalar and the trace of the energy–momentum tensor respectively. We have used the equation of state in the form of WDF for the dark energy component of the Universe. It is modeled on the equation of state $p = \omega(\rho−\rho^∗)$. The exact solutions to the corresponding field equations are obtained for power-law and exponential volumetric expansion. The geometrical and physical parameters for both the models are studied. Also, we have discussed the well-known astrophysical phenomena, namely the look-back time, proper distance, the luminosity distance and angular diameter distance with red shift.
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Volume 40 | Issue 5
October 2019
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