pp 255-268 June 2015
Modeling the Emission from Turbulent Relativistic Jets in Active Galactic Nuclei
Victoria Calafut Paul J. Wiita
We present a numerical model developed to calculate observed fluxes of relativistic jets in active galactic nuclei. The observed flux of each turbulent eddy is dependent upon its variable Doppler boosting factor, computed as a function of the relativistic sum of the individual eddy and bulk jet velocities, and our viewing angle to the jet. The total observed flux is found by integrating the radiation from the eddies over the turbulent spectrum. We consider jets that contain turbulent eddies that have either standard Kolmogorov or recently derived relativistic turbulence spectra. We also account for the time delays in receiving the emission of the eddies due to their different simulated positions in the jet, as well as due to the varying beaming directions as they turn over. We examine these theoretical light curves and compute power spectral densities (PSDs) for a range of viewing angles, bulk velocities of the jet, and turbulent velocities. These PSD slopes depend significantly on the turbulent velocity, and are essentially independent of viewing angle and bulk velocity. The flux variations produced in the simulations for realistic values of the parameters tested are consistent with the types of variations observed in radio-loud AGN as, for example, recently measured with the Kepler satellite, as long as the turbulent velocities are not too high.
pp 269-280 June 2015
Tree Level Potential on Brane after Planck and BICEP2
M. Ferricha-Alami A. Safsafi L. Lahlou H. Chakir M. Bennai
The recent detection of degree scale B-mode polarization in the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) by the BICEP2 experiment implies that the inflationary ratio of tensor-to-scalar fluctuations is 𝑟 = 0.2$^{+0.07}_{-0.05}$, which has opened a new window in the cosmological investigation. In this regard, we propose a study of the tree level potential inflation in the framework of the Randall–Sundrum type-2 braneworld model. We focus on three branches of the potential, where we evaluate some values of brane tension 𝜆. We discuss how the various inflationary perturbation parameters can be compatible with recent Planck and BICEP2 observations.
pp 281-290 June 2015
The Scale Invariant Synchrotron Jet of Flat Spectrum Radio Quasars
L. M. Du J. M. Bai Z. H. Xie T. F. Yi Y. B. Xu R. Xue X. H. Wang
In this paper, the scale invariance of the synchrotron jet of Flat Spectrum Radio Quasars has been studied using a sample of combined sources from FKM04 and from SDSS DR3 catalogue. Since the research of scale invariance has been focused on sub-Eddington cases that can be fitted onto the fundamental plane, while near-Eddington sources such as FSRQs have not been explicitly studied. The extracted physical properties of synchrotron jet of FSRQs have been shown to be scale invariant using our sample. The results are in good agreement with theoretical expectations of Heinz & Sunyaev (2003). Therefore, the jet synchrotron is shown to be scale independent, regardless of the accretion modes. Results in this article thus lend support to the scale invariant model of the jet synchrotron throughout the mass scale of black hole systems.
pp 291-305 June 2015
Out-of-Plane Equilibrium Points in the Photogravitational CR3BP with Oblateness and P-R Drag
Jagadish Singh Tajudeen Oluwafemi Amuda
This paper investigates the motion of a test particle around the out-of-plane equilibrium points in the circular photogravitational restricted three-body problem when the effect of radiation pressure from the smaller primary and its Poynting-Robertson (P-R) drag are taken into account, and the bigger primary is modeled as an oblate spheroid. These points lie in the 𝑥𝑧-plane almost directly above and below the center of the oblate primary. The equilibrium points are sought, and we observe that, there are two coordinate points 𝐿_{6,7} which depend on the oblateness of the bigger primary, and the radiation pressure force and P-R drag of the smaller primary. The positions and linear stability of the problem are investigated both analytically and numerically for the binary system Cen X-4. The out-of-plane equilibrium points are found to be unstable in the sense of Lyapunov due to the presence of a positive real root.
pp 307-323 June 2015
Spicules Intensity Oscillations in SOT/HINODE Observations
E. Tavabi A. Ajabshirizadeh A. R. Ahangarzadeh Maralani S. Zeighami
Aims. We study the coherency of solar spicules intensity oscillations with increasing height above the solar limb in quiet Sun, active Sun and active region using observations from HINODE/SOT. Existence of coherency up to transition region strengthens the theory of the coronal heating and solar wind, through energy transport and photospheric oscillations. Methods. Using time sequences from the HINODE/SOT in Ca II H line, we investigate oscillations found in intensity profiles at different heights above the solar limb. We use the Fourier and wavelet analysis to measure dominant frequency peaks of intensity at the heights, and phase difference between oscillations at two certain heights, to find evidence for the coherency of the oscillations.
Results. The results of fast Fourier transform (FFT) for the quiet Sun, active Sun and active region show frequency peaks of order 3.6 mHz, 5.5 mHz and 7.3 mHz at four separate heights. The fluctuations of powers are random for the three datasets, i.e., independent from height and solar activity. The wavelet results for quiet Sun, active Sun and active region indicate dominant frequencies similar to FFT results. Results of coherency represent frequencies at about 3.5 mHz and 5.5 mHz for all three datasets. Histograms of frequencies corresponding to maximum coherency for quiet Sun, active region and active sun display frequencies of about 3.5 mHz, 4.2 mHz, 4.6 mHz, 5.3 mHz and 5.8 mHz. The phase speeds of 50–450 km s^{−1} are measured for quiet Sun, 50–560 km s^{−1} for active region and 50–550 km s^{−1} for active Sun. The majority of the measured phase speeds in locations where there is known to be considerable dynamic activity are more than quiet Sun, and the phase speeds obtained from three datasets increase with height. We also find strong evidence for upwardly propagating waves with high coherency in three datasets. Intensity oscillations may result from the presence of the coherent waves, which could provide significant energy to heat the solar atmosphere. Finally, we can calculate the energy and the mass transported by spicules providing energy equilibrium, according to density values of spicules at different heights. To extend this work, we can also consider coherent oscillations at different latitudes and suggest the study of oscillations, which may be obtained from observations of other satellites.
pp 325-334 June 2015
Standing Slow MHD Waves in Radiatively Cooling Coronal Loops
The standing slow magneto-acoustic oscillations in cooling coronal loops are investigated. There are two damping mechanisms which are considered to generate the standing acoustic modes in coronal magnetic loops, namely, thermal conduction and radiation. The background temperature is assumed to change temporally due to optically thin radiation. In particular, the background plasma is assumed to be radiatively cooling. The effects of cooling on longitudinal slow MHD modes is analytically evaluated by choosing a simple form of radiative function, that ensures the temperature evolution of the background plasma due to radiation, coincides with the observed cooling profile of coronal loops. The assumption of low-beta plasma leads to neglecting the magnetic field perturbation and, eventually, reduces the MHD equations to a 1D system modelling longitudinal MHD oscillations in a cooling coronal loop. The cooling is assumed to occur on a characteristic time scale, much larger than the oscillation period that subsequently enables using the WKB theory to study the properties of standing wave. The governing equation describing the time-dependent amplitude of waves is obtained and solved analytically. The analytically derived solutions are numerically evaluated to give further insight into the evolution of the standing acoustic waves. We find that the plasma cooling gives rise to a decrease in the amplitude of oscillations. In spite of the reduction in damping rate caused by rising the cooling, the damping scenario of slow standing MHD waves strongly increases in hot coronal loops.
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Volume 40 | Issue 6
December 2019
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