• Volume 21, Issue 3-4

      September 2000,   pages  103-475

    • The Kodaikanal observatory – A historical account

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    • Foreword

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    • Active region magnetic fields

      Robert F. Howard

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      The tilt angles of sunspot groups are defined, using the Mount Wilson data set. It is shown that groups with tilt angles greater than or less than the average value (≈ 5 deg) show different latitude dependences. This effect is also seen in synoptic magnetic field data defining plages. The fraction of the total sunspot group area that is found in the leading spots is discussed as a parameter that can be useful in studying the dynamics of sunspot groups. This parameter is larger for low tilt angles, and small for extreme tilt angles in either direction. The daily variations of sunspot group tilt angles are discussed. The result that sunspot tilt angles tend to rotate toward the average value is reviewed. It is suggested that at some depth, perhaps 50 Mm, there is a flow relative to the surface that results from a rotation rate faster than the surface rate by about 60 m/sec and a meridional drift that is slower than the surface rate by about 5 m/sec. This results in a slanted relative flow at that depth that is in the direction of the average tilt angle and may be responsible for the tendency for sunspot groups (and plages) to rotate their magnetic axes in the direction of the average tilt angle.

    • New initiatives for synoptic observations

      C. U. Keller

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      Several new synoptic facilities for long-term studies of the Sun will become operational within the next few years. This paper summarizes information on some of these projects, in particular GONG+, ISOON, GOES/SXI, and SOLIS. SOLIS, the Synoptic Optical Long-Term Investigations of the Sun, is currently being built by the National Solar Observatory and will become operational in 2001. It consists of a 50-cm vector spectromagnetograph, a 14-cm full-disk patrol, and an 8-mm sun-as-a-star spectrometer.

    • New high resolution observations of the solar diameter from space and ground with the microsatellite program PICARD

      Luc Damé

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      The PICARD microsatellite mission will provide 2 to 6 years simultaneous measurements of the solar diameter, differential rotation and solar constant to investigate the nature of their relations and variabilities. The 100 kg satellite has a 40 kg payload consisting of 3 instruments which will provide an absolute measure (better than 10 milliarcsec) of the diameter and the solar shape, a measure of total solar irradiance, and UV and visible flux in selected wavelength bands. Now in Phase B, PICARD is expected to be launched before mid-2003. The engineering model of the diameter telescope will be used on ground simultaneously with the satellite to investigate the atmospheric bias and state on the possible accuracy of the ground measurements carried up to now. We review the scientific goals linked to the diameter measurement, present the payload, and give a brief overview of the program aspects.

    • Introduction to the solar space telescope

      G. Ai S. Jin S. Wang B. Ye S. Yang

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      The design of the space solar telescope (SST) (phase B) has been completed. The manufacturing is under development. At the end of 2000, it will be assembled. The basic aspect will be introduced in this paper.

    • Results from Kodaikanal synoptic observations

      K. R. Sivaraman

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      The synoptic observations of Kodaikanal form one of the longest unbroken solar data from the beginning of the 20th century to the present day, and consists of the white light and monochromatic images of the sun. In this review, I shall discuss the results of the investigations in two areas using these data: (i) Tilt angles of the magnetic axes of bipolar spot groups, and (ii) structure and dynamics of large scale unipolar magnetic regions on the solar surface.

      The observed properties and patterns of behaviour of the tilt angles can be used as effective diagnostics to infer the physical conditions in the subsurface layers of the sun, and thus get an insight into the physical effects that act on the rising magnetic flux tubes during their journey through the convection zone to the surface.

      The second topic of discussion here, namely, the studies of the dynamics of unipolar regions over several solar cycles, show that the global solar activity has a high latitude component which manifests in the form of polar faculae, in addition to the well known sunspot activity at the middle and low latitudes. This raises the question about the origin of this high latitude component.

    • Sunspot groups as tracers of sub-surface processes

      M. H. Gokhale

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      Data on sunspot groups have been quite useful for obtaining clues to several processes on global and local scales within the sun which lead to emergence of toroidal magnetic flux above the sun’s surface. I present here a report on such studies carried out at Indian Institute of Astrophysics during the last decade or so.

    • The large-scale magnetic field and sunspot cycles

      V. I. Makarov A. G. Tlatov

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    • Cyclic evolution of sunspots: Gleaning new results from old data

      S. K. Solanki M. Fligge P. Pulkkinen P. Hoyng

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      The records of sunspot number, sunspot areas and sunspot locations gathered over the centuries by various observatories are reanalysed with the aim of finding as yet undiscovered connections between the different parameters of the sunspot cycle and the butterfly diagram. Preliminary results of such interrelationships are presented.

    • 22-Year periodicity in the solar differential rotation

      J. Javaraiah

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      Using the data on sunspot groups compiled during 1879–1975, we determined variations in the differential rotation coefficientsA andB during the solar cycle. The variation in the equatorial rotation rateA is found to be significant only in the odd numbered cycles, with an amplitude ∼ 0.01 μ rads-1. There exists a good anticorrelation between the variations of the differential rotation rateB derived from the odd and even numbered cycles, suggesting existence of a ‘22-year’ periodicity inB. The amplitude of the variation ofB is ∼ 0.05 μ rad s-1.

    • Is a sunspot in static or dynamic equilibrium?

      P. Venkatakrishnan

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    • Periodic variation of the north-south asymmetry of solar activity phenomena

      V. K. Verma

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      We report here a study of various solar activity phenomena occurring in both north and south hemispheres of the Sun during solar cycles 8–23. In the study we have used sunspot data for the period 1832–1976, flare index data for the period 1936-1993, Hα flare data 1993–1998 and solar active prominences data for the period 1957–1998. Earlier Verma reported long-term cyclic period in N-S asymmetry and also that the N-S asymmetry of solar activity phenomena during solar cycles 21, 22, 23 and 24 will be south dominated and the N-S asymmetry will shift to north hemisphere in solar cycle 25. The present study shows that the N-S asymmetry during solar cycles 22 and 23 are southern dominated as suggested by Verma.

    • Solar filaments as tracers of subsurface processes

      D. M. Rust

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      Solar filaments are discussed in terms of two contrasting paradigms. The standard paradigm is that filaments are formed by condensation of coronal plasma into magnetic fields that are twisted or dimpled as a consequence of motions of the fields’ sources in the photosphere. According to a new paradigm, filaments form in rising, twisted flux ropes and are a necessary intermediate stage in the transfer to interplanetary space of dynamo-generated magnetic flux. It is argued that the accumulation of magnetic helicity in filaments and their coronal surroundings leads to filament eruptions and coronal mass ejections. These ejections relieve the Sun of the flux generated by the dynamo and make way for the flux of the next cycle.

    • Coronal structures as tracers of sub-surface processes

      Alexei A. Pevtsov Richard C. Canfield

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      The solar corona – one of the most spectacular celestial shows and yet one of the most challenging puzzles – exhibits a spectrum of structures related to both the quiet Sun and active regions. In spite of dramatic differences in appearance and physical processes, all these structures share a common origin: they are all related to the solar magnetic field. The origin of the field is beneath the turbulent convection zone, where the magnetic field is not a master but a slave, and one can wonder how much the coronal magnetic field “remembers” its dynamo origin. Surprisingly, it does. We will describe several observational phenolmena that indicate a close relationship between coronal and sub-photospheric processes.

    • Polar magnetic field reversals of the Sun in Maunder Minimum

      V. I. Makarov A. G. Tlatov

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      A possible scenario of polar magnetic field reversal of the Sun during the Maunder Minimum (1645–1715) is discussed using data of magnetic field reversals of the Sun for 1880–1991 and the14C content variations in the bi-annual rings of the pine-trees in 1600–1730 yrs.

    • Periodic variations in the coronal green line intensity and their connection with the white-light coronal structures

      Milan Minarovjech Milan Rybanský Vojtech Rušin

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      We present an analysis of short time-scale intensity variations in the coronal green line as obtained with high time resolution observations. The observed data can be divided into two groups. The first one shows periodic intensity variations with a period of 5 min. the second one does not show any significant intensity variations. We studied the relation between regions of coronal intensity oscillations and the shape of white-light coronal structures. We found that the coronal green-line oscillations occur mainly in regions where open white-light coronal structures are located.

    • Long-term cyclic variations of prominences, green and red coronae over solar cycles

      Vojtech Rušin Milan Minarovjech Milan Rybanský

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      Long-term cyclic variations in the distribution of prominences and intensities of green (530.3 nm) and red (637.4 nm) coronal emission lines over solar cycles 18–23 are presented. Polar prominence branches will reach the poles at different epochs in cycle 23: the north branch at the beginning in 2002 and the south branch a year later (2003), respectively. The local maxima of intensities in the green line show both poleward- and equatorward-migrating branches. The poleward branches will reach the poles around cycle maxima like prominences, while the equatorward branches show a duration of 18 years and will end in cycle minima (2007). The red corona shows mostly equatorward branches. The possibility that these branches begin to develop at high latitudes in the preceding cycles cannot be excluded.

    • Large-scale motion of solar filaments

      Pavel Ambrož Alfred Schroll

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      Precise measurements of heliographic position of solar filaments were used for determination of the proper motion of solar filaments on the time-scale of days. The filaments have a tendency to make a shaking or waving of the external structure and to make a general movement of whole filament body, coinciding with the transport of the magnetic flux in the photosphere. The velocity scatter of individual measured points is about one order higher than the accuracy of measurements.

    • The magnetic sun from different views: A comparison of the mean and background magnetic field observations made in different observatories and in different spectral lines

      M. L. Demidov

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      A comparison is made of observational data on the mean magnetic field of the Sun from several observatories (a selection of published information and new measurements). Results of correlation and regression analyses of observations of background magnetic fields at the STOP telescope of the Sayan solar observatory in different spectral lines are also presented. Results obtained furnish an opportunity to obtain more unbiased information about largescale magnetic fields of the Sun and, in particular, about manifestations of strong (kilogauss) magnetic fields in them.

    • Vector magnetic fields, subsurface stresses and evolution of magnetic helicity

      Richard Canfield Alexei Pevtsov

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      Observations of the strength and spatial distribution of vector magnetic fields in active regions have revealed several fundamental properties of the twist of their magnetic fields. First, the handedness of this twist obeys a hemispheric rule: left-handed in the northern hemisphere, right-handed in the southern. Second, the rule is weak; active regions often disobey it. It is statistically valid only in a large ensemble. Third, the rule itself, and the amplitude of the scatter about the rule, are quantitatively consistent with twisting of fields by turbulence as flux tubes buoy up through the convection zone. Fourth, there is considerable spatial variation of twist within active regions. However, relaxation to a linear force-free state, which has been documented amply in laboratory plasmas, is not observed.

    • Cyclical variability of prominences, CMEs and flares

      J. L. Ballester

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      Solar flares, prominences and CMEs are well known manifestations of solar activity. For many years, qualitative studies were made about the cyclical behaviour of such phenomena. Nowadays, more quantitative studies have been undertaken with the aim to understand the solar cycle dependence of such phenomena as well as peculiar behaviour, such as asymmetries and periodicities, occurring within the solar cycle. Here, we plan to review the more recent research concerning all these topics.

    • Analysis of the 9th November 1990 flare

      Anita Joshi Wahab Uddin

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      In this paper we present complete two-dimensional measurements of the observed brightness of the 9th November 1990Hα flare, using a PDS microdensitometer scanner and image processing software MIDAS. The resulting isophotal contour maps, were used to describe morphological-cum-temporal behaviour of the flare and also the kernels of the flare. Correlation of theHα flare with SXR and MW radiations were also studied.

    • A rapidly evolving active region NOAA 8032 observed on April 15th, 1997

      Shibu K. Mathew Ashok Ambastha

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      The active region NOAA 8032 of April 15, 1997 was observed to evolve rapidly. The GOES X-ray data showed a number of sub-flares and two C-class flares during the 8–9 hours of its evolution. The magnetic evolution of this region is studied to ascertain its role in flare production. Large changes were observed in magnetic field configuration due to the emergence of new magnetic flux regions (EFR). Most of the new emergence occured very close to the existing magnetic regions, which resulted in strong magnetic field gradients in this region. EFR driven reconnection of the field lines and subsequent flux cancellation might be the reason for the continuous occurrence of sub-flares and other related activities.

    • Low frequency radio emission from the ‘quiet’ Sun

      R. Ramesh

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      We present observations of the ‘quiet’ Sun close to the recent solar minimum (Cycle 22), with the Gauribidanur radioheliograph. Our main conclusion is that coronal streamers also influence the observed radio brightness temperature.

    • Stokes polarimetry at the Kodaikanal tower tunnel telescope

      K. Sankarasubramanian G. Srinivasulu A. V. Ananth P. Venkatakrishnan

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      A Stokes Polarimeter has been developed using a masked CCD arrangement for the measurement of the vector magnetic field of sunspots. Charge shifting within the CCD is used to record near simultaneous orthogonal polarisation. The testing of the Stokes Polarimeter and the behavior of the integrated system combined with the Kodaikanal tower tunnel telescope will be discussed.

    • Twist of magnetic fields in solar active regions

      Hongqi Zhang Lirong Tian Shudong Bao Mei Zhang

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    • The photospheric flow near the flare locations of active regions

      Debi Prasad Choudhary

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    • Solar energetic particle events at the rise phase of the 23rd solar activity cycle registered aboard the spacecraft “INTERBALL-2”

      Vladislav Timofeev Sergey Starodubtsev

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      The experiment with 10K-80 aboard the INTER-BALL-2 (which detects protons with energies > 7, 27–41, 41–58, 58–88, 88–180 and 180–300 MeV) registered six events of the solar energetic particle (SEP) increase. These events are during the initial rise phase of the 23rd solar activity cycle. Solar flares with the SEP generation are accompanied by coronal mass ejection (CME). Here we analyze the dynamics of the differential energy spectrum at different phases of the SEP increase.

    • An operator perturbation method of polarized line transfer V. Diagnosis of solar weak magnetic fields

      K. N. Nagendra H. Frisch M. FaurobertScholl F. Paletou

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      We present an application of the PALI (Polarized Approximate Lambda Iteration) method to the resonance scattering in spectral lines formed in the presence of weak magnetic fields. The method is based on an operator perturbation approach, and can efficiently give solutions for oriented vector magnetic fields in the solar atmosphere.

    • On the possibility of radio emission from quasi-parallel and quasi-perpendicular propagation of shocks

      A. Shanmugaraju S. Umapathy

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      A set of 21 solar type II radio bursts observed using Hiraiso radio spectrograph have been analysed to study the direction of propagation of coronal shocks. A simple analysis is carried out to find the approximate angle between the shock normal and magnetic field by solving the Rankine-Hugoniot MHD relation with assumption of Alfven speed and plasma beta. From this analysis, it is suggested that both quasi-parallel shocks (favourable) and quasi-perpendicular shocks can generate type II bursts depending upon the circumstances of the corona.

    • Emergence of twisted magnetic flux related sigmoidal brightening

      K. Sundara Raman K. B. Ramesh R. Selvendran P. S. M. Aleem K. M. Hiremath

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    • Tessellation of SoHO magnetograms

      R. Srikant Jagdev Singh

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      A gradient based algorithm which divides arbitrary images into non-overlapping surface filling tiles of opposite polarity is used to study the flux and size distributions of large scale magnetic flux concentrations in solar and heliospheric observatory (SoHO) magnetograms. The mean absolute flux and size of the concentrations at the considered scale is found to be about 1.7 × 1018Mx and 5.2Mm for both polarities. The form of the flux distribution is characterized by a skewness of α3 = 4.9 and a kurtosis of α4 = 42.8. The fall in the distribution in the range 6.5 × 1017 Mx to 5×1018 Mx is described by an exponential fit, in agreement with a model for the sustenance of quiet region flux.

    • Parametric study of molecular line polarization in the solar atmosphere

      K. E. Rangarajan D. Mohan Rao

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    • Relationship of non-potentiality and flaring: Intercomparison for an M-class flare

      Ashok Ambastha Shibu K. Mathew

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      We have made an attempt to obtain relationship of magnetic shear and vertical currents in NOAA AR7321. Intercomparison of changes observed at several flaring and non-flaring sites associated with an M4/2B flare observed on October 26, 1992 is reported.

    • Properties of flux tubes and the relation with solar irradiance variability

      M. Fligge S. K. Solanki

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      At the solar surface the magnetic field is bundled into discrete elements of concentrated flux, often referred to as magnetic flux tubes, which cover only a small fraction of the solar surface. Flux tubes span a whole spectrum of sizes, ranging from sunspots to features well below the best currently obtainable spatial resolution.

      Whereas sunspots have been well studied, our knowledge of the true brightness of small-scale magnetic features is hampered by the insufficient spatial resolution of the observations. A better understanding of the thermal and magnetic properties of these small-scale features, however, is crucial for an understanding of (climate-relevant) long-term solar irradiance variations.

    • Dynamical processes in flux tabes and their role in chromospheric heating

      S. S. Hasan

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      We model the dynamical interaction between magnetic flux tubes and granules in the solar photosphere which leads to the excitation of transverse (kink) and longitudinal (sausage) tube waves. The investigation is motivated by the interpretation of network oscillations in terms of flux tube waves. The calculations show that for magnetic field strengths typical of the network, the energy flux in transverse waves is higher than in longitudinal waves by an order of magnitude. But for weaker fields, such as those that might be found in internetwork regions, the energy fluxes in the two modes are comparable. Using observations of footpoint motions, the energy flux in transverse waves is calculated and the implications for chromospheric heating are pointed out.

    • Infrared photometry of solar active regions

      M. Sobotka M. Vázquez M. Sánchez Cuberes J. A. Bonet A. Hanslmeier

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      Simultaneous time series of broad-band images of two active regions close to the disk center were acquired at the maximum (0.80Μm) and minimum (1.55Μm) continuum opacities. Dark faculae are detected in images obtained as weighted intensity differences between both wave-length bands. The elements of quiet regions can be clearly distinguished from those of faculae and pores in scatter plots of brightness temperatures. There is a smooth transition between faculae and pores in the scatter plots. These facts are interpreted in terms of the balance between the inhibition of convective energy transport and the lateral radiative heating.

    • CaII K imaging to understand UV irradiance variability

      R. Kariyappa

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      To identify and understand the underlying physical mechanisms of total solar and UV irradiance variability and to estimate the contribution of various chromospheric features to UV irradiance, detailed analysis of spatially resolved data is required. The various chromospheric features have been segregated and different parameters have been derived from CaII K Spectroheliograms of NSO/Sac Peak and Kodaikanal Observatory and compared with UV irradiance flux measured in MgII h and k lines by NOAA 9 satellite. The important results of this detailed analysis of CaII K Images of 1992 together with UV irradiance data will be discussed in this paper.

    • Models of flux tubes from constrained relaxation

      A. Mangalam V. Krishans

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      We study the relaxation of a compressible plasma to an equilibrium with flow. The constraints of conservation of mass, energy, angular momentum, cross-helicity and relative magnetic helicity are imposed. Equilibria corresponding to the energy extrema while conserving these invariants for parallel flows yield three classes of solutions and one of them with an increasing radial density profile, relevant to solar flux tubes is presented.

    • The hemispheric sign rule of current helicity during the rising phase of cycle 23

      S. D. Bao G. X. Ai H. Q. Zhang

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      We compute the signs of two different current helicity parameters (i.e., αbest andHc) for 87 active regions during the rise of cycle 23 The results indicate that 59% of the active regions in the northern hemisphere have negative αbest and 65% in the southern hemisphere have positive. This is consistent with that of the cycle 22. However, the helicity parameterHcshows a weaker opposite hemispheric preference in the new solar cycle. Possible reasons are discussed.

    • Magnetoconvection and the solar dynamo

      å. Nordlund S. B. F. Dorch R. F. Stein

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      We review current understanding of the interaction of magnetic fields with convective motions in stellar convection zones. Among the most exciting recent results is the discovery that magnetic fields need not primarily be confined to the stable layer below the convection zone; numerical simulations have shown that surprisingly, strong magnetic fields can be maintained in the interior of the convection zone.

    • Large-scale flow and transport of magnetic flux in the solar convection zone

      P. Ambrož

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      Horizontal large-scale velocity field describes horizontal displacement of the photospheric magnetic flux in zonal and meridian directions. The flow systems of solar plasma, constructed according to the velocity field, create the large-scale cellular-like patterns with up-flow in the center and the down-flow on the boundaries. Distribution of the largescale horizontal eddies (with characteristic scale length from 350 to 490 Mm) was found in the broad equatorial zone, limited by 60‡ latitude circles on both hemispheres. The zonal averages of the zonal and meridian velocities, and the total horizontal velocity for each Carrington rotation during the activity cycles no. 21 and 22 varies during the 11-yr activity cycle. Plot of RMS values of total horizontal velocity is shifted about 1.6 years before the similarly shaped variation of the magnetic flux.

    • The space stellar photometry mission COROT: Asteroseismology and search for extrasolar planets

      Annie Baglin Gérard Vauclair

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      The main scientific objectives, asteroseismology and search for extrasolar planets for the COROT photometric mission are presented, and its interest in terms of stellar variability. A description of the payload, details of the scientific program, the ground based preparatory observations and bibliography can be found at http://www.astrsp-mrs.fr/corot/ pagecorot.html.

    • Helioseismology and the solar interior dynamics

      S. Vauclair

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      The inversion of helioseismic modes leads to the sound velocity inside the Sun with a precision of about 0.1 per cent. Comparisoons of solar models with the “seismic sun” represent powerful tools to test the physics: depth of the convection zone, equation of state, opacities, element diffusion processes and mixing inside the radiative zone. We now have evidence that microscopic diffusion (element segregation) does occur below the convection zone, leading to a mild helium depletion in the solar outer layers. Meanwhile this process must be slowed down by some macroscopic effect, presumably rotation-induced mixing. The same mixing is also responsible for the observed lithium depletion. On the other hand, the observations of beryllium and helium 3 impose specific constraints on the depth of this mildly mixed zone. Helioseismology also gives information on the internal solar rotation: while differential rotation exists in the convection zone, solid rotation prevails in the radiative zone, and the transition layer (the so-called “tachocline”) is very small. These effects are discussed, together with the astrophysical constraints on the solar neutrino fluxes.

    • Perspectives on the interior of the Sun

      S. M. Chitre

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      The interior of the Sun is not directly accessible to observations. Nonetheless, it is possible to infer the physical conditions inside the Sun with the help of structure equations governing its equilibrium and with the powerful observational tools provided by the neutrino fluxes and oscillation frequencies. The helioseismic data show that the internal constitution of the Sun can be adequately represented by a standard solar model. It turns out that a cooler solar core is not a viable solution for the measured deficit of neutrino fluxes, and the resolution of the solar neutrino puzzle should be sought in the realm of particle physics.

    • Seismic tomography of the near solar surface

      L. Gizon T. L. Duvall R. M. Larsen

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      Surface gravity waves have been used to probe flows in the two megameters beneath the photosphere using the techniques of timedistance helioseismology. The results suggest that supergranule velocities are smaller than at the surface. The outward flow outside a sunspot penumbra (the moat) is observed, as is an inward flow in the region beyond the moat.

    • Helioseismic search for magnetic field in the solar interior

      H. M. Antia S. M. Chitre M. J. Thompson

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      The observed splittings of solar oscillation frequencies can be utilized to study possible large-scale magnetic fields present in the solar interior. Using the GONG data on frequency splittings an attempt is made to infer the strength of magnetic fields inside the Sun.

    • Helioseismic solar cycle changes and splitting coefficients

      S. C. Tripathy Kiran Jain A. Bhatnagar

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      Using the GONG data for a period over four years, we have studied the variation of frequencies and splitting coefficients with solar cycle. Frequencies and even-order coefficients are found to change significantly with rising phase of the solar cycle. We also find temporal variations in the rotation rate near the solar surface.

    • Temporal variation of large scale flows in the solar interior

      Sarbani Basu H. M. Antia

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      We attempt to detect short-term temporal variations in the rotation rate and other large scale velocity fields in the outer part of the solar convection zone using the ring diagram technique applied to Michelson Doppler Imager (MDI) data. The measured velocity field shows variations by about 10 m/s on the scale of few days.

    • Observation of hysteresis between solar activity indicators andp-mode frequency shifts for solar cycle 22

      S. C. Tripathy Brajesh Kumar Kiran Jain A. Bhatnagar

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      Using intermediate degreep-mode frequency data sets for solar cycle 22, we find that the frequency shifts and magnetic activity indicators show a “hysteresis” phenomenon. It is observed that the magnetic indices follow different paths for the ascending and descending phases of the solar cycle while for radiative indices, the separation between the paths are well within the error limits.

    • Non-radial oscillations in an axisymmetric MHD incompressible fluid

      A. Satya Narayanan

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      It is well known from Helioseismology that the Sun exhibits oscillations on a global scale, most of which are non-radial in nature. These oscillations help us to get a clear picture of the internal structure of the Sun as has been demonstrated by the theoretical and observational (such as GONG) studies. In this study we formulate the linearised equations of motion for non-radial oscillations by perturbing the MHD equilibrium solution for an axisymmetric incompressible fluid. The fluid motion and the magnetic field are expressed as scalarsU, V, P andT, respectively. In deriving the exact solution for the equilibrium state, we neglect the contribution due to meridional circulation. The perturbed quantitiesU *, V *, P *, T * are written in terms of orthogonal polynomials. A special case of the above formulation and its stability is discussed.

    • Mechanism of cyclically polarity reversing solar magnetic cycle as a cosmic dynamo

      Hirokazu Yoshimura

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      We briefly describe historical development of the concept of solar dynamo mechanism that generates electric current and magnetic field by plasma flows inside the solar convection zone. The dynamo is the driver of the cyclically polarity reversing solar magnetic cycle. The reversal process can easily and visually be understood in terms of magnetic field line stretching and twisting and folding in three-dimensional space by plasma flows of differential rotation and global convection under influence of Coriolis force. This process gives rise to formation of a series of huge magnetic flux tubes that propagate along iso-rotation surfaces inside the convection zone. Each of these flux tubes produces one solar cycle. We discuss general characteristics of any plasma flows that can generate magnetic field and reverse the polarity of the magnetic field in a rotating body in the Universe. We also mention a list of problems which are currently being disputed concerning the solar dynamo mechanism together with observational evidences that are to be constraints as well as verifications of any solar cycle dynamo theories of short and long term behaviors of the Sun, particularly time variations of its magnetic field, plasma flows, and luminosity.

    • The current status of kinematic solar dynamo models

      Arnab Rai Choudhuri

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      This review provides a historical overview of how research in kinematic solar dynamo modeling evolved during the last few decades and assesses the present state of research. The early pioneering papers assumed the dynamo to operate in the convection zone. It was suggested in the 1980s that the dynamo operates in a thin layer at the bottom of the convection zone. Some researchers in recent years are arguing that the poloidal field is produced near the surface—an idea that goes back to Babcock (1961) and Leighton (1969).

    • Solar internal rotation and dynamo waves: A two-dimensional asymptotic solution in the convection zone

      Gaetano Belvedere Kirill Kuzanyan Dmitry Sokoloff

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    • The role of magnetic buoyancy in a Babcock-Leighton type solar dynamo

      Dibyendu Nandy Arnab Rai Choudhuri

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      We study the effects of incorporating magnetic buoyancy in a model of the solar dynamo—which draws inspiration from the Babcock-Leighton idea of surface processes generating the poloidal field. We present our main results here.

    • Alpha-effect current and kinetic helicities for magnetically driven turbulence and solar dynamo

      Gaetano Belvedere V. V. Pipin G. Rüdiger

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    • Cyclical variation of the quiet corona and coronal holes

      Takashi Sakurai

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      Recent advances in the understanding of the quiet corona and coronal holes are reviewed. The review is based on long-term accumulation of data from eclipse observations, coronagraph observations, helium 10830 å spectroheliograms, and X-ray observations.

    • The EUV spectrum of sunspot plumes observed by SUMER on SOHO

      W. Curdt B. N. Dwivedi U. Feldman

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      We present results from sunspot observations obtained by SUMER on SOHO. In sunspot plumes the EUV spectrum differs from the quiet Sun; continua are observed with different slopes and intensities; emission lines from molecular hydrogen and many unidentified species indicate unique plasma conditions above sunspots. Sunspot plumes are sites of systematic downflow. We also discuss the properties of sunspot oscillations

    • Exploring coronal structures with SOHO

      M. Karovska B. Wood J. Chen J. Cook R. Howard

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      We applied advanced image enhancement techniques to explore in detail the characteristics of the small-scale structures and/or the low contrast structures in several Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs) observed by SOHO. We highlight here the results from our studies of the morphology and dynamical evolution of CME structures in the solar corona using two instruments on board SOHO: LASCO and EIT.

    • Electron density and temperature measurements, and abundance anomalies in the solar atmosphere

      Anita Mohan Bhola N. Dwivedi Enrico Landi

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      Using spectra obtained from the SUMER (Solar Ultraviolet Measurements of Emitted Radiation) spectrograph on the spacecraft SOHO (Solar and Heliospheric Observatory), we investigate the height dependence of electron density, temperature and abundance anomalies in the solar atmosphere. In particular, we present the behaviour of the solar FIP effect (the abundance enhancement of elements with first ionization potential < 10 eV in the corona with respect to photospheric values) with height above an active region observed at the solar limb, with emphasis on the so-called transition region lines.

    • Microwave enhancement in coronal holes: Statistical properties

      N. Gopalswamy K. Shibasaki M. Salem

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      We report on the statistical properties of the microwave enhancement (brightness temperature, area, fine structure, life time and magnetic field strength) in coronal holes observed over a period of several solar rotations.

    • The enhanced coronal green line intensity and the magnetic field gradients

      K. B. Ramesh B. S. Nagabhushana B. A. Varghese

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    • Multibaseline observations of the occultation of Crab Nebula by the solar corona at decameter wavelengths

      K. R. Subramanian

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    • Solar wind variation with the cycle

      I. S. Veselovsky A. V. Dmitriev A. V. Suvorova M. V. Tarsina

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      The cyclic evolution of the heliospheric plasma parameters is related to the time-dependent boundary conditions in the solar corona. “Minimal” coronal configurations correspond to the regular appearance of the tenuous, but hot and fast plasma streams from the large polar coronal holes. The denser, but cooler and slower solar wind is adjacent to coronal streamers. Irregular dynamic manifestations are present in the corona and the solar wind everywhere and always. They follow the solar activity cycle rather well. Because of this, the direct and indirect solar wind measurements demonstrate clear variations in space and time according to the minimal, intermediate and maximal conditions of the cycles. The average solar wind density, velocity and temperature measured at the Earth’s orbit show specific decadal variations and trends, which are of the order of the first tens per cent during the last three solar cycles. Statistical, spectral and correlation characteristics of the solar wind are reviewed with the emphasis on the cycles.

    • Heliospheric magnetic fields, energetic particles, and the solar cycle

      Péter Király

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      The heliosphere is the region filled with magnetized plasma of mainly solar origin. It extends from the solar corona to well beyond the planets, and is separated from the interstellar medium by the heliopause. The latter is embedded in a complex and still unexplored boundary region. The characteristics of heliospheric plasma, fields, and energetic particles depend on highly variable internal boundary conditions, and also on quasi-stationary external ones. Both galactic cosmic rays and energetic particles of solar and heliospheric origin are subject to intensity variations over individual solar cycles and also from cycle to cycle. Particle propagation is controlled by spatially and temporally varying interplanetary magnetic fields, frozen into the solar wind. An overview is presented of the main heliospheric components and processes, and also of the relevant missions and data sets. Particular attention is given to flux variations over the last few solar cycles, and to extrapolated effects on the terrestrial environment.

    • Remote sensing of the heliospheric solar wind using radio astronomy methods and numerical simulations

      S. Ananthakrishnan

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      The ground-based radio astronomy method of interplanetary scintillations (IPS) and spacecraft observations have shown, in the past 25 years, that while coronal holes give rise to stable, reclining high speed solar wind streams during the minimum of the solar activity cycle, the slow speed wind seen more during the solar maximum activity is better associated with the closed field regions, which also give rise to solar flares and coronal mass ejections (CME’s). The latter events increase significantly, as the cycle maximum takes place. We have recently shown that in the case of energetic flares one may be able to track the associated disturbances almost on a one to one basis from a distance of 0.2 to 1 AU using IPS methods. Time dependent 3D MHD models which are constrained by IPS observations are being developed. These models are able to simulate general features of the solar-generated disturbances. Advances in this direction may lead to prediction of heliospheric propagation of these disturbances throughout the solar system.

    • Tomography of the solar wind using interplanetary scintillation

      Divya Oberoi A. Pramesh Rao

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    • Ulysses observations of nonlinear wave-wave interactions in the source regions of type III solar radio bursts

      G. Thejappa R. J. MacDowall

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      The Ulysses Unified Radio and Plasma Wave Experiment (URAP) has observed Langmuir, ion-acoustic and associated solar type III radio emissions in the interplanetary medium. Bursts of 50–300 Hz (in the spacecraft frame) electric field signals, corresponding to long-wavelength ion-acoustic waves are often observed coincident in time with the most intense Langmuir wave spikes, providing evidence for the electrostatic decay instability. Langmuir waves often occur as envelope solitons, suggesting that strong turbulence processes, such as modulational instability and soliton formation, often coexist with weak turbulence processes, such as electrostatic decay, in a few type III burst source regions.

    • Summary lecture

      J. O. Stenflo

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      This summary lecture makes no attempt to summarize what was actually said at the meeting, since this is well covered by the other contributors. Instead I have structured my presentation in three parts: First I try to demonstrate why the Sun is unique by comparing it with laboratory plasmas. This is followed by some personal reminiscences that go back a significant fraction of the century. I conclude in the form of a poem about this memorable conference in honor of the centennial anniversary of the Kodaikanal Observatory.

    • List of Participants

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    • Author Index

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    • Subject Index

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  • Journal of Astrophysics and Astronomy | News

    • Continuous Article Publication

      Posted on January 27, 2016

      Since January 2016, the Journal of Astrophysics and Astronomy has moved to Continuous Article Publishing (CAP) mode. This means that each accepted article is being published immediately online with DOI and article citation ID with starting page number 1. Articles are also visible in Web of Science immediately. All these have helped shorten the publication time and have improved the visibility of the articles.

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