Volume 20, Issue 3-4
December 1999, pages 89-289
pp 89-89 December 1999
pp 91-101 December 1999
pp 103-120 December 1999
In this article, we first consider briefly the basic properties of the non-rotating Schwarzschild black hole and the rotating Kerr black hole Rotational effects are then described in static and stationary spacetimes with arial symmetry by studying inertial forces, gyroscopic precession and gravi-electromagnetism. The results are applied to the black hole spacetimes.
pp 121-129 December 1999
Plenty of nothing: Black hole entropy in induced gravity
We demonstrate how Sakharov's idea of induced gravity allows one to explain the statistical-mechanical origin of the entropy of a black hole. According to this idea, gravity becomes dynamical as the result of quantum effects in the system of heavy constituents of the underlying theory.The black hole entropy is related to the properties of the vacuum in the induced gravity in the presence of the horizon. We obtain the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy by direct counting the states of the constituents.
pp 131-148 December 1999
Hawking radiation in string theory
We review some of the progress in understanding the statistical basis of black hole thermodynamics in string theory. The emphasis is on the “derivation” of Hawking radiation from the unitary decay of near extremal D-brane states. We also review recent progress in understanding Schwarzschild black holes by relating them to D-brane black holes via “boosts” in M-theory.
pp 149-164 December 1999
This contribution gives a personal view on recent attempts to find a unified framework for non-perturbative string theories, with special emphasis on the hidden symmetries of supergravity and their possible role in this endeavor. A reformulation ofd =11 supergravity with enlarged tangent space symmetry SO(1, 2) × SO(16) is discussed from this perspective, as well as an ansatz to construct yet further versions with SO(1, 1) × SO(16)^{∞} and possibly even SO(1, 1)_{+} × ISO(16)^{∞} tangent space symmetry. It is suggested that upon “third quantization”, dimensionally reduced maximal supergravity may have an equally important role to play in this unification as the dimensionally reduced maximally supersymmetricSU(∞) Yang Mills theory.
pp 165-185 December 1999
Observational evidence for massive black holes in the centers of active galaxies
J. M. Moran L. J. Greenhill J. R. Herrnstein
Naturally occurring water vapor maser emission at 1.35 cm wavelength provides an accurate probe for the study of accretion disks around highly compact objects, thought to be black holes, in the centers of active galaxies. Because of the exceptionally fine angular resolution, 200 microarcseconds, obtainable with very long baseline interferometry, accompanied by high spectral resolution, <0.1 km s^{-1}, the dynamics and structures of these disks can be probed with exceptional clarity. The data on the galaxy NGC 4258 are discussed here in detail. The mass of the black hole binding the accretion disk is 3·9 × 10^{7} M_{⊙}. Although the accretion disk has a rotational period of about 800 years, the physical motions of the masers have been directly measured with VLBI over a period of a few years. These measurements also allow the distance from the earth to the black hole to be estimated to an accuracy of 4 per cent. The status of the search for other maser/black hole candidates is also discussed.
pp 187-196 December 1999
The massive black hole at the galactic center
At the dynamic center of the Milky Way high spatial resolution, near-infrared imaging and spectroscopy have made it possible in the last few years to measure stellar velocities down to separations of less than five light days from the compact radio source SgrA* (in the constellation Sagittarius). These measurements make a compelling case for the presence of a compact, central dark mass of 2.6 × 10^{6} solar masses. Simple physical considerations show that this dark mass cannot consist of a stable cluster of stars, stellar remnants, substellar condensations or a degenerate gas of elementary particles. Energy equipartition requires that at least 105 solar masses must be associated with SgrA* itself and is enclosed within less than 8 light minutes (equivalent to 15 Schwarzschild radii of a million solar mass black hole). If one accepts these arguments it is hard to escape the conclusions that there must be a massive black hole at the core of the Milky Way.
pp 197-210 December 1999
Observational evidence for stellar mass black holes
I review the evidence for stellar mass black holes in the Galaxy. The unique properties of the soft X-ray transient (SXTs) have provided the first opportunity for detailed studies of the mass-losing star in low-mass X-ray binaries. The large mass functions of these systems imply that the compact object has a mass greater than the maximum mass of a neutron star, strengthening the case that they contain black holes. The results and techniques used are discussed. I also review the recent study of a comparison of the luminosities of black hole and neutron star systems which has yielded compelling evidence for the existence of event horizons.
pp 211-220 December 1999
Gravitational waves: The future of black hole physics
The new millennium will witness the operation of several long-baseline ground-based interferometric detectors, possibly a space-based detector too, which will make it possible to directly observe black holes by catching gravitational waves emitted by them during their formation or when they are perturbed or when a binary consisting of black holes in-spirals due to radiation reaction. Such observations will help us not only to test some of the fundamental predictions of Einstein's general relativity but will also give us the unique opportunity to map black hole spacetimes, to measure the masses and spins of black holes and their population, etc.
pp 221-232 December 1999
Gravitational collapse, black holes and naked singularities
This article gives an elementary review of gravitational collapse and the cosmic censorship hypothesis. Known models of collapse resulting in the formation of black holes and naked singularities are summarized. These models, when taken together, suggest that the censorship hypothesis may not hold in classical general relativity. The nature of the quantum processes that take place near a naked singularity, and their possible implication for observations, is briefly discussed.
pp 233-248 December 1999
The question of cosmic censorship
Cosmic censorship is discussed in its various facets. It is concluded that rather little clear-cut progress has been made to date, and that the question is still very much open.
pp 249-257 December 1999
New mathematical approaches to classical censorship problems
An account is given of recent advances in mathematical techniques for extending space-times through weak singularities. This gives one more hope of proving a cosmic censorship theorem, and hence of understanding whether the final state of gravitational collapse will indeed be a black hole.
pp 259-268 December 1999
Some aspects of four-dimensional black hole solutions in gauss-bonnet extended string gravity
An internal singularity of a string four-dimensional black hole with second order curvature corrections is investigated. A restriction to a minimal size of a neutral black hole is obtained in the frame of the model considered. Vacuum polarization of the surrounding space-time caused by this minimal-size black hole is also discussed.
pp 269-280 December 1999
Black hole dynamics: A survey of black hole physics from the point of view of perturbation theory
This article is a brief survey of the contribution of perturbative studies to our understanding of black hole physics. For natural reasons, I will not be able to discuss all details required for an exhaustive understanding of a field that has been active for the last forty years. Neither will — I be able to cover all problem areas where perturbation theory has been applied. My aim is simply to provide the interested reader with a few pointers that can serve as useful starting points for an odyssey through the literature.
pp 281-289 December 1999
Analytic black hole perturbation approach
In this talk, I review an analytic method for calculating gravitational radiation from a small mass particle orbiting a massive black hole. This method allows a systematic evalutation of the gravitational radiation to a very high order in post-Newtonian expansion, hence gives us useful information on the evolution of coalescing compact binary stars.
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