Volume 6, Issue 4
December 1985, pages 171-277
pp 171-175 December 1985
This paper gives a full nonlinear version of Newtonian gravity in which the gravitational energy acts as a source of the gravitational field. The generalized field equation for the scalar gravitational potential is solved for a spherically symmetric localized distribution of matter. It is shown that the perihelia of orbits of test particles in such a field precess steadily. The effect is, however, too small to account for the observed shift in the perihelion of planet Mercury. Further, the bending of light in this theory is zero. It is suggested that these inadequacies of the quasi-Newtonian framework call for more sophisticated approaches to gravity.
pp 177-201 December 1985
A survey of the H 272 α recombination line at 325 MHz has been made towards 53 directions in the galactic plane using the Ooty Radio Telescope (ORT). 34 of these directions correspond to well-known Hn regions, 12 to SNRs and 6 to ‘blank’ areas selected so that the 5 GHz continuum is a minimum over the telescope beam of 2ℴ x 6 arcmin. Observing procedure and spectra of 47 sources towards which lines are detected are presented. Hydrogen recombination lines have been detected towards all the observed directions havingl <40ℴ. Carbon recombination lines are identified in 12 of the directions. The hydrogen line intensities are found to correlate well with the total continuum intensity (which includes the nonthermal galactic background) indicating that most of the lines arise due to stimulated emission by the background radiation. A preliminary discussion on the nature of the line-emitting regions is also presented.
pp 203-226 December 1985
The recent survey of H 272α recombination line (324.99 MHz) in the direction of 34 Hn regions, 12 SNRs and 6 regions of continuum minimum (‘blank’ regions) in the galactic plane is used to derive the properties of diffuse ionized gas in the inner Galaxy.
The intensity of radio recombination lines at high frequencies is dominated by spontaneous emission in high-density gas and that at low frequencies (325 MHz) by stimulated emission in low-density gas. We have used this property to obtain the electron density in the gas in the direction of blank regions and SNRs, by combining the H 272 α measurements (preceeding paper) with the published data at higher frequencies. Further, we have imposed constraints on the electron temperature and pathlength through this gas using the observed high-frequency continuum emission, average interstellar electron density and geometry of the line-emitting regions. The derived properties of the gas are (i) electron density 0.5–6 cm-3, (ii) electron temperature 3000–8000 K and (iii) emission measures 500–3000 pc cm-6 The corresponding pathlengths are 50–200 pc.
As the derived sizes of the low-density regions are small compared to the pathlength through the Galaxy, the low-frequency recombination lines cannot be considered as coming from a widely distributed component of the interstellar medium.
The Hn regions studied in the above survey cannot themselves produce the H 272α lines detected towards them because of pressure broadening, optical depth, and beam dilution. However, the agreement in velocity of these lines with those seen at higher frequencies suggests that the low-frequency recombination lines arise in low-density envelopes of the Hn regions. Assuming that the temperature of the envelopes are similar to those of the cores and invoking geometrical considerations we find that these envelopes should have electron densities in the range 1–10 cm-3 and linear sizes of 30–300 pc in order to produce the observed H 272α lines.
pp 227-231 December 1985
As dust emission in the far infrared (FIR) is a characteristic property of planetary nebulae we searched the Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) point-source catalogue for confirmatory evidence on the two new possible planetary nebulae S 68 and 248 - 5 identified by Fesen, Gull & Heckathorn (1983) and the high-excitation planetary nebula 76 + 36 detected by Sanduleak (1983). We identify the nebulae 248 - 5 and 76 + 36 with IRAS sources 07404 - 3240 and 17125 + 4919, respectively and have determined their dust temperature, total FIR emission and optical depth. We also set a lower limit ranging in value from 1.2 × 10-6 to 3.7 × 10-5 forMdust/Mbd of the nebula 248 - 5 depending on whether its grain material is silicate or graphite. S 68 could not be identified with an IRAS source.
pp 233-237 December 1985
We investigate the evolution of rotation period and spindown age of a pulsar whose surface magnetic field undergoes a phase of growth. Application of these results to the Crab pulsar strongly indicates that its parameters cannot be accounted for by the field growth theories.
pp 239-246 December 1985
We consider the effect of quantizing the homogeneous mode of a scalar field on inflation. It is shown that any semiclassical description of the scalar field is bound to lead to density inhomogeneities which are unacceptably large.
pp 247-260 December 1985
The effect of a perturbing mass on a homogeneous collisionless cloud of dark matter is considered in the linear approximation. It is shown that gravitational potential can have turning points, in sharp contrast with gravitating systems of finite extent. The model offers a reasonable explanation for the observed secondary maxima in the density distribution of rich clusters. The relevance of the model to the flatness of the rotation curves of galaxies is also discussed.
pp 261-277 December 1985
We argue that observations on Milky Way and dwarf spheroidals imply existence of individual haloes around dwarf spheroidals. If neutrinos (or any other ‘hot’ particle) provide the dark matter then we show that: (i) Embedding of visible matter inside large (∼ few Mpc) dark matter islands is observationally untenable. (ii) Dwarf spheroidals possess dark matter haloes of about 10 kpc radius around them, and have an (M/L) ratio of about 104. (iii) The haloes of spiral galaxies (e.g. Milky Way) extend to about 100 kpc in radius. If ‘cold’ dark matter makes up the haloes, then no significant constraints are obtained. We discuss briefly the effect of these constraints on larger scales.
Volume 40 | Issue 3
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