• Volume 5, Issue 1

      March 1984,   pages  1-98

    • Foreword

      V. Radhakrishnan

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    • The general theory of relativity: Why “It is probably the most beautiful of all existing theories”

      S. Chandrasekhar

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    • Type I supernovae and iron nucleosynthesis in the universe

      I. S. Shklovskii

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      It is argued that the iron nucleosynthesis rate in the universe due to SNI outbursts is dependent on the mass function of star formation. Since the mass function depends on the chemical composition and since the masses of SNI precursors have upper limits, the iron nucleosynthesis rate was low at an earlier evolutionary epoch of the universe when mainly massive stars were formed. The iron nucleosynthesis rate should reach a maximum near z ∼ 0.5. At such or similar value of z the well-known ‘step’ in the cosmic γ-ray background spectrum may be explained by the presence of γ-gray quanta accompanying the radioactive56Co →56Fe decay. An argument is presented against the identification of the hidden mass of the universe with black-hole remnants of ‘type III’ stars.

    • Measuring the sizes of stars

      R. Hanbury Brown

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      The Chatterton Astronomy Department aims to apply interferometers with very high resolving power to optical astronomy. The programme of the stellar intensity interferometer at Narrabri Observatory was completed in 1972 and since then the work has been directed towards building a more sensitive instrument with higher resolving power. As a first step a much larger intensity interferometer was designed but was not built because it was large, expensive and not as sensitive as desired. Efforts are now being made to design a more sensitive and cheaper instrument. A version of Michelson’s stellar interferometer is being built using modern techniques. It is hoped that it will reach stars of magnitude +8 and will work reliably in the presence of atmospheric scintillation. It is expected to cost considerably less than an intensity interferometer of comparable performance. The pilot model of this new instrument is almost complete and should be ready for test in 1984.

    • Distribution of quasars on the sky

      Halton Arp

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      It is shown that high-redshift quasars of bright apparent magnitude are concentrated in the direction of the centre of the Local Group of galaxies. A number of them are distributed along a line originating from the Local Group companion galaxy, M 33. A similar, but shorter and fainter line of quasars is seen emanating from the spiral galaxy NGC 300 in the next nearest, Sculptor Group of galaxies.

      The concentration of bright quasars in the Local Group direction is supported by bright radio sources catalogued in high-frequency surveys. One of the consequences of this large-scale inhomogeneity is to explain the different gradient of radio source counts in the direction of the Local Supercluster, a result discovered in 1978 but never investigated further.

      Previously reported homogeneity and isotropy of radio-source counts over the sky would seem to be an effect of integrating nearby, large-scale groupings with more distant, smaller-scale groupings over different directions in the sky. More careful analyses as a function of flux strength and spectral index on various scales over the sky are now required. Previous conclusions about radio source and quasar luminosity and number evolution drawn from logN- logS counts would then need to be re-evaluated.

    • The radio spectra of galactic centre features

      B. Y. Mills M. J. Drinkwater

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      The radio source Sgr A and neighbouring features have been mapped at a frequency of 843 MHz with a beamwidth of 43 × 87 arcsec. Comparisons have been made with published maps of comparable resolution at different frequencies in order to differentiate thermal and nonthermal regions. The arc feature to the north of Sgr A appears to consist of low-temperature ionized hydrogen and to extend partly over Sgr A itself causing patchy absorption at low frequencies; there is some evidence that the hydrogen in the arc has been expelled from the galactic nucleus. Previous suggestions that Sgr A East is a supernova remnant have been examined and the interpretation is found to be quite likely, but not compelling. The diffuse component of Sgr A West appears to be due entirely to ionized hydrogen surrounding the nucleus.

    • Ionospheric refraction in radio source observations at long radio wavelengths

      W. C. Erickson

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      Ionospheric refraction effects encountered in radio source observations in the 30 to 75 MHz range with the Clark Lake TPT telescope are discussed. It is found that simple calibration procedures are sufficient to provide positions of unknown sources with an accuracy of approximately one arcmin. Observations made near sunrise, or during disturbed ionospheric conditions must be discarded. If no corrections are applied, RMS errors of a few arcmin are to be expected.

    • Nonconservation of baryons in cosmology—revisited

      J. V. Narlikar

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      The concept of the steady-state universe discussed by Hoyle & Narlikar two decades ago is revived in the light of the present discussions of the phase transition in the early big-bang universe. It is shown that with suitable scaling the bubble universe solution bears a striking similarity to the inflationary scenarios being discussed today. The currently discussed idea of cosmic baldness was also anticipated in the C-field cosmology of the steady-state universe.

    • Cosmology: Myth or science?

      Hannes Alfvén

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  • Journal of Astrophysics and Astronomy | News

    • Continuous Article Publication

      Posted on January 27, 2016

      Since January 2016, the Journal of Astrophysics and Astronomy has moved to Continuous Article Publishing (CAP) mode. This means that each accepted article is being published immediately online with DOI and article citation ID with starting page number 1. Articles are also visible in Web of Science immediately. All these have helped shorten the publication time and have improved the visibility of the articles.

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