Volume 2, Issue 4
December 1981, pages 1-437
pp 1- December 1981 Erratum
pp 349-363 December 1981
Head-on collisions of two identical spherical galaxies are studied for two initial velocities (1) nearly equal to and (2) greater than the capture velocity. Orbits of about 500 representative stars are computed taking into account the effects of dynamical friction in the motion of the galaxies. From the computer studies the changes in the structure of the galaxies are deduced. The galaxies contract at closest approach and expand as they recede from each other. When the initial velocity is nearly equal to the capture velocity, the mean radius expands to almost double its size and the galaxies have a prolate structure until the closest approach with the longer axis in the direction of motion. The prolate structure is destroyed as the galaxies recede. For larger collision velocity (V ∼ 1.5 Vcap), the mean radius expands by 50 per cent and the galaxies are prolate until the closest approach and distinctly oblate after the collision. The fractional increase in the binding energy is 0.46 in the first case and 0.30 in the second case.
pp 365-377 December 1981
From an analysis of the distribution of sunspot groups with respect to their maximum areas we find that this distribution consists of two distinct components. One component contributes to spot groups of all possible values of A* with a distribution density varying as ∼ exp (b1 á*1/2) with b1 nearly constant from cycleto cycle and having a mean value ∼10-4 km-1. The other component is predominantly responsible for spot groups withA* ≲, 30 *10-6 hemisphere but may provide a few spot groups even above 50 * l0-6 hemisphere. This component may follow a distribution density ∼ exp (-b2 A*). We also determine the widths of the latitude zones over which spot groups in various intervals of A* appear and study their variation with time. These widths and their variations indicate that the two statistical samples of spot groups may be produced by two families of flux-tube clusters as suggested earlier in a phenomenological model. Very thin flux-tube clusters in the statistical samples seem to be related to the ephemeral active regions and X-ray bright points.
pp 379-385 December 1981
The mechanism of spatial resonance of Alfven waves for heating a collisionless plasma is studied in the presence of a twisted magnetic field. In addition to modifying the equilibrium condition for a cylindrical plasma, the azimuthal component of the magnetic field gives extra contribution to the energy deposition rate of the Alfven waves. This new term clearly brings out the effects associated with the finite lifetime of the Alfven waves. The theoretical system considered here conforms to the solar coronal regions.
pp 387-403 December 1981
Previous first-order analytic treatments of rotation acting upon stellar equilibria are extended to include later, post-Helium burning, stages of stellar evolution. Strong differential rotation is capable of substantially increasing the photon luminosities of post-main sequence stars, and thus accelerating their evolution. On the other hand, uniform rotation reduces the photon flux for a wide range of stellar interior types and conditions. Similar conclusions are drawn regarding the effects of rotation on the emission of neutrinos in pre-collapse phases of evolution. A brief discussion of the gravitational radiation emitted during these phases is also given.
pp 405-419 December 1981
Equilibrium configuration of the magnetosphere of a star loaded by the gravitationally accreted plasma having its own magnetic field is investigated. Axisymmetry around the star’s magnetic axis is assumed for simplicity. It is seen that two distinct configurations appear for the cases of parallel and antiparallel magnetic field of the accreted plasma with respect to the star’s magnetic moment. If the external field is antiparallel to the star’s magnetic moment, the stellar magnetosphere is confined within a spherical region surrounded by the external field with a separatric surface between them. This is an extension of the case of the spherical accretion of non-magnetic plasma dealt with thus far in connection with the mass accretion by the degenerate stars in X-ray binaries. It is noticed that the mass slides down along the field lines to the point closest to the star and is stratified hydrostatically in equilibrium to form a disk in the equatorial plane. The mass loading compresses the sphere as a whole in this case. If, on the other hand, the external field is parallel to the star’s magnetic moment, there appears a ring of magnetic neutral point in the equatorial plane. Polar field is open and extends to infinity while the low-latitude field is closed and faces the external field of opposite polarity across the neutral point. The increase of the loaded mass in this case causes a shrink of the closed field region, and the open polar flux is increased. Therefore, the transition between equilibria with small and large amount of the loaded mass requires the reconnection of magnetic lines of force, and the reconnection of the flux through the magnetic neutral ring is proposed as the mechanism of the steady or the intermittent mass leakage like the ones postulated for some X-ray bursters.
pp 421-437 December 1981
In this paper we have presented a very general class of solutions for rotating fluid disks around massive objects (neglecting the self gravitation of the disk) with density as a function of the radial coordinate only and pressure being nonzero. Having considered a number of cases with different density and velocity distributions, we have analysed the stability of such disks under both radial and axisymmetric perturbations. For a perfect gas disk with γ= 5/3 the disk is stable with frequency (MG/r3)1/2 for purely radial pulsation with expanding and contracting boundary. In the case of axisymmetric perturbation the critical γc for neutral stability is found to be much less than 4/3 indicating that such disks are mostly stable under such perturbations.
Volume 40 | Issue 5
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