Volume 2, Issue 3
September 1981, pages 215-347
pp 215-244 September 1981
Photoelectric aperture-photometry ofω Cen inU, B, V, R andI bands has established that the cluster is bluer between 2 arcmin and 4 arcmin from the centre, than it is elsewhere. The difference inB - I colour between the centre and this blue zone is ≃ 0.45 mag. The core radius is found to be dependant on the wavelength band chosen for observation, the smallest core radius being for theI band. Equidensitometry ofω Cen inB, V and infrared bands shows a wavelength dependence with the cluster being nearly spherical in the infrared band. It shows a maximum ellipticity around 3 arcmin from the cluster centre. The blue contribution in this zone comes from both a diffuse background of unresolved stars and an increase in the relative abundance of horizontal branch (HB) stars. The similarity between the diffuse background and the HB stars has been demonstrated. A photographic subtraction technique is used to study the distribution of HB stars in the cluster.
Results of equidensitometry of the cluster 47 Tuc, obtained in the present study, are compared with the earlier results of photoelectric photometry. Here too an increase in ellipticity is associated with an increase in the blueness of the cluster. All globular clusters studied so far for ellipticity show a similarity in the dependence of the ellipticity on the distance from the centre. The ellipticity has small values near the centre and in the outer regions, with the maximum value in between. We suggest that the red stars in globular clusters have a nearly spherical distribution. The blue stars form a bulge around the core with a more elliptical distribution and a different orientation. A similarity between the ellipticity aspects of both the globular clusters and rotation in the nucleus of M 31 is pointed out; the M 31 nucleus may thus show a bluer colour and smaller UV excess around the region where the rotation curve shows a peak.
pp 245-252 September 1981
The partial frequency redistribution function for zero natural line width with dipole scattering (RI) has been considered in obtaining the simultaneous solution of the statistical equilibrium and line transfer equations in the comoving frame of the expanding gas. We have considered a non-LTE two level atom in an expanding spherical medium whose outer radii are 3, 10 and 20 times the stellar radius with a total optical depthT ≃ 2 × 103. In all the cases, we have calculated the population ratio of the two levels N2/N1 and compared these results with those obtained by using different expansion velocities and geometrical extensions. Initially, the upper level population (N2) is set equal to zero. The converged simultaneous solution shows that the upper level population is enhanced considerably from the initial value. Variation in velocity gradients seem to have little effect on the ratio N2/N1 when the geometrical thickness of the medium is 3 or 10 times the stellar radius. However, when the thickness is increased to 20 times the central radius, the velocity gradients change the ratio N2/N1 considerably in the region where log T ≤ 2. The effect of variation of geometrical thickness is to reduce the N2/N1 ratio atτ = 0.
pp 253-276 September 1981
On the basis of the effective temperature scale proposed previously for cool carbon stars (Paper I), other intrinsic properties of them are examined in detail. It is shown that the major spectroscopic properties of cool carbon stars, including those of molecular bands due to polyatomic species (SiC2, HCN, C2H2etc.), can most consistently be understood on the basis of our new effective temperature scale and the theoretical prediction of chemical equilibrium. Various photometric indices of cool carbon stars also appear to be well correlated with the new effective temperatures. Furthermore, as effective temperatures of some 30 carbon stars are now obtained, the calibration of any photometric index is straightforward, and some examples of such a calibration are given. In general, colour index-effective temperature calibrations for carbon stars are quite different from those for K-M giant stars. It is found that the intrinsic (R —I)0 colour is nearly the same for N-irregular variables in spite of a considerable spread in effective temperatures, and this fact is used to estimate the interstellar reddening of carbon stars.
An observational HR diagram of red giant stars, including carbon stars as well as K-M giant stars, is obtained on the basis of our colour index-effective temperature calibrations and the best estimations of luminosities. It is shown that carbon stars and M giant stars are sharply divided in the HR diagram by a nearly vertical line at aboutTeff = 3200 K (logTeff = 3.50) and the carbon stars occupy the upper right region of M giant stars (except for some high luminosity, high temperature J-type stars in the Magellanic Clouds; also Mira variables are not considered). Such an observational HR diagram of red giant stars shows rather a poor agreement with the current stellar evolution models. Especially, a more efficient mixing process in red giant stars, as compared with those ever proposed, is required to explain the formation of carbon stars.
pp 277-284 September 1981
We have investigated the effects of increasing optical depths on spectral lines formed in a rotating and expanding spherical shell. We have assumed a shell whose outer radius is 3 times the inner radius, with the radial optical depths equal to 10, 50, 100, 500. We have employed a constant velocity with no velocity gradients in the shell. The shell is assumed to be rotating with velocities varying as 1/ρ, whereρ is the perpendicular distance from the axis of rotation, implying the conservation of angular momentum. Two expansion (radial) velocities are treated: (1)V = 0 (static case) and (2)V = 10 mean thermal units. The maximum rotational velocities areVrot = 0, 5, 10 and 20. In the shell where there are no radial motions, we obtain symmetric lines with emission in the wings forVrot = 0 and 5 while forVrot ≥ 10 we obtain symmetric absorption lines. In the case of an expanding shell, we obtain lines with central emission.
pp 285-288 September 1981
The theoretical estimates of the oscillator strengths by Kirby, Saxon and Liu (1979) for theA II2 — XΣ2 system of the MgH molecule are compared with the solar photospheric results. It is found that the two results are in reasonable agreement.
pp 289-307 September 1981
We examine a Doppler theory of quasars in which it is assumed that a fraction of the total population of quasars are fired from centres of explosion with moderate cosmological redshifts. It is argued that the substantial part of the redshift of a typical high redshift quasar could be of Doppler origin. If Hoyle’s recent hypothesis that quasars emit the bulk of their radiation in a narrow backward cone is given a quantitative form, it is shown that the kinematic and emission parameters of this model can explain the observed features of the four aligned triplets of quasars discovered by Arp and Hazard (1980) and by Saslaw (personal communication). The model predicts a small but nonzero fraction of quasars with blueshifts. Further observational tests of the model are discussed.
pp 309-313 September 1981
Photoelectric radial-velocity measurements show that the eighth-magnitude star HD 115968 is a spectroscopic binary with a period of 16.195 days. The star has a large proper motion, and is unlikely to have the luminosity corresponding to the spectral type of G8 III favoured by Zaitseva. It is most probably a late-G dwarf.
pp 315-337 September 1981
We make a statistical analysis of the periodsP and period-derivativesP of pulsars using a model independent theory of pulsar flow in theP-P diagram. Using the available sample ofP andP values, we estimate the current of pulsars flowing unidirectionally along theP-axis, which is related to the pulsar birthrate. Because of radio luminosity selection effects, the observed pulsar sample is biased towards lowP and highP. We allow for this by weighting each pulsar by a suitable scale factor. We obtain the number of pulsars in our galaxy to be 6.05−2.80+3.32 × 105 and the birthrate to be 0.048−0.011+0.014 pulsars yr−1 galaxy−1. The quoted errors refer to 95 per cent confidence limits corresponding to fluctuations arising from sampling, but make no allowance for other systematic and random errors which could be substantial. The birthrate estimated here is consistent with the supernova rate. We further conclude that a large majority of pulsars make their first appearance at periods greater than 0.5 s. This ‘injection’, which runs counter to present thinking, is probably connected with the physics of pulsar radio emission. Using a variant of our theory, where we compute the current as a function of pulsar ‘age’ (1/2P/P), we find support for the dipole braking model of pulsar evolution upto 6 × 106 yr of age. We estimate the mean pulsar braking index to be 3.7−0.8+0.8.
pp 339-347 September 1981
We have observed the large supernova remnant Cygnus Loop at 34.5 MHz with the low frequency radio telescope at Gauribi-danur, India. A radio map of the region with a resolution of 26 arcmin × 40 arcmin (α × δ) is presented. The integrated flux density of the Cygnus Loop at this frequency is 1245 ± 195 Jy. The radio fluxes of different parts of the nebula at this frequency were also measured and used to construct their spectra. It is found that the spectrum of the region associated with the optical nebulosity NGC 6992/5 is not flat at low frequencies, and also exhibits a break at a frequency around 400 MHz. The spectrum of the region associated with NGC 6960 also shows a break but around 1000 MHz, while the spectrum of the region associated with NGC 6974 is straight in the entire frequency range 25 to 5000 MHz. The implication of these results on the basis of existing theories of the origin of radio emission from supernova remnants is discussed.
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