Volume 84, Issue 3
December 2005, pages 223-360
pp 223-226 December 2005 Commentary on J. Genet. Classic
pp 227-257 December 2005
pp 259-264 December 2005 Research Article
Sexual isolation inDrosophila is typically measured by multiple-choice mating tests. While many environmental variables during such tests are controlled by the researcher, there are some factors that are usually uncontrolled. We demonstrate, usingDrosophila melanogaster andD. pseudoobscura flies, that the temperature of rearing, preadult density, and level of consanguinity, can all produce differences in mating propensity between genetically equivalent flies. These differences in mating propensity, in turn, can give rise to statistically significant results in multiple-choice mating tests, leading to positive isolation values and the artifactual inference of sexual isolation between populations. This fact agrees with a nonrandom excess of significant positive tests found in a review of the literature ofDrosophila intraspecific mating choice. An overestimate of true cases of sexual isolation inDrosophila in the literature can, therefore, not be ruled out.
pp 265-281 December 2005 Research Article
Earlier studies have shown that of the four genes (Hsp60A, Hsp60B, Hsp60C, Hsp60D genes) predicted to encode the conserved Hsp60 family chaperones inDrosophila melanogaster, theHsp60A gene (at the 10A polytene region) is expressed in all cell types of the organism and is essential from early embryonic stages, while theHsp60B gene (at 21D region) is expressed only in testis, being essential for sperm individualization. In the present study, we characterized theHsp60C gene (at 25F region), which shows high sequence homology with the other threeHsp60 genes ofD. melanogaster. In situ hybridization of Hsp60C-specific riboprobe shows that expression of this gene begins in late embryonic stages (stage 14 onwards), particularly in the developing tracheal system and salivary glands; during larval and adult stages, it is widely expressed in many cell types but much more strongly in tracheae and in developing and differentiating germ cells. A P-insertion mutant (Hsp60C1) allele with the P transposon inserted at -251 position of theHsp60C gene promoter was generated. This early larval recessive lethal mutation significantly reduces levels ofHsp60C transcripts in developing tracheae and this is associated with a variety of defects in the tracheal system, including lack of liquid clearance. About 10% of the homozygotes survive as weak, shortlived and completely sterile adults. Testes of the surviving mutant males are significantly smaller, with fewer spermatocytes, most of which do not develop beyond the round spermatid stage.In situ and Northern hybridizations show significantly reduced levels of theHsp60C transcripts inHsp60C1 homozygous adult males. The absence of early meiotic stages in theHsp60C1 homozygous testes contrasts with the effect of testis-specificHsp60B (21D) gene, whose mutation affects individualization of sperm bundles later in spermiogenesis. In view of the specific effects in tracheal development and in early stages of spermatogenesis, it is likely that, besides its functions as a chaperone, Hsp60C may have signalling functions and may also be involved in cation transport across the developing tracheal epithelial cells.
pp 283-293 December 2005 Research Article
We present evidence for coexistence of three differentDrosophila species by rescheduling their life history traits in a natural population using the same resource, at the same time and same place.D. ananassae has faster larval development time (DT) and faster DT(egg-fly) than other two species thus utilizing the resources at maximum at both larval and adult stages respectively. Therefore,D. ananassae skips the interspecific competition at preadult stage but suffers more from intraspecific competition. However,D. melanogaster andD. biarmipes have rescheduled their various life history traits to avoid interspecific competition. Differences of ranks tests for various life history traits suggest that except for DT(egg-pupa), the difference of ranks is highest for the combination ofD. melanogaster andD. ananassae for all other life history traits. This difference is maintained by tradeoffs between larval development time and pupal period and between pupal period and DT(egg-pupa) inD. ananassae.
pp 295-301 December 2005 Research Article
Genetic diversity within the Marwari breed of horses was evaluated using 26 different microsatellite pairs with 48 DNA samples from unrelated horses. This molecular characterisation was undertaken to evaluate the problem of genetic bottlenecks also, if any, in this breed. The estimated mean (± s.e.) allelic diversity was 5.9 (± 2.24), with a total of 133 alleles. A high level of genetic variability within this breed was observed in terms of high values of mean (±s.e.) effective number of alleles (3.3 ± 1.27), observed heterozygosity (0.5306 ± 0.22), expected Levene’s heterozygosity (0.6612 ± 0.15), expected Nei’s heterozygosity (0.6535 ± 0.14), and polymorphism information content (0.6120 ± 0.03). Low values of Wright’s fixation index, FIS (0.2433 ± 0.05) indicated low levels of inbreeding. This basic study indicated the existence of substantial genetic diversity in the Marwari horse population. No significant genotypic linkage disequilibrium was detected across the population, suggesting no evidence of linkage between loci. A normal ‘L’ shaped distribution of mode-shift test, non-significant heterozygote excess on the basis of different models, as revealed from Sign, Standardized differences and Wilcoxon sign rank tests as well as non-significantM ratio value suggested that there was no recent bottleneck in the existing Marwari breed population, which is important information for equine breeders. This study also revealed that the Marwari breed can be differentiated from some other exotic breeds of horses on the basis of three microsatellite primers.
pp 303-306 December 2005 Research Note
pp 307-310 December 2005 Research Note
pp 311-316 December 2005 Research Note
pp 317-322 December 2005 Research Note
pp 323-327 December 2005 Research Note
pp 329-335 December 2005 Research Note
pp 337-340 December 2005 Research Note
Wheat line CSP44, a selection from an Australian bread wheat cultivar Condor, has shown resistance to stripe rust in India since the last twenty years. Seedlings and adult plants of CSP44 showed susceptible infection types against stripe rust race 46S119 but displayed average terminal disease severity of 2.67 on adult plants against this race as compared to 70.33 of susceptible Indian cultivar, WL711. This suggests the presence of nonhypersensitive adult plant stripe rust resistance in the line CSP44. The evaluation of F1, F2 and F3 generations and F6 SSD families from the cross of CSP44 with susceptible wheat cultivar WL711 for stripe rust severity indicated that the resistance in CSP44 is based on two genes showing additive effect. One of these two genes isYr18 and the second gene is not yet described.
pp 341-345 December 2005 Research Note
pp 347-349 December 2005 Book Review
pp 351-358 December 2005
pp 358-360 December 2005
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