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      Volume 128, Issue 1

      February 2019

    • A new find of calc-alkaline lamprophyres in Thanewasna area, Western Bastar Craton, India

      Meshram R R Dora M L Naik R Shareef M Gopalakrishna G Meshram T Baswani S R Randive K R

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      Lamprophyre dykes within the granitoid and charnockite are reported for the first time from the Western Bastar Craton, Chandrapur district, Maharashtra. It shows porphyritic–panidiomorphic texture under a microscope, characterised by the predominance of biotite phenocrysts with less abundance of amphibole and clinopyroxene microphenocryst. The groundmass is composed more of K-feldspars over plagioclase, amphiboles, clinopyroxene, biotite, chlorite, apatite, sphene and magnetite. The mineral chemistry of biotite and magnesio-hornblende is indicative of minette variety of calc-alkaline lamprophyre (CAL), which is further supported by preliminary major oxides and trace element geochemistry. This unique association of CAL with granitoid provides an opportunity to study the spatio-temporal evolution of the lamprophyric magma in relation to the geodynamic perspective of the Bastar Craton.

    • Evaluation of TanDEMx and SRTM DEM on watershed simulated runoff estimation

      Nagaveni Chokkavarapu Pavan Kumar K Venkata Ravibabu Mandla

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      In hydrological models, digital elevation models (DEMs) are being used to extract stream network and delineation of the watershed. DEMs represent elevation surfaces of earth landscape. Spatial resolution refers to the dimension of the cell size representing the area covered on the ground. Spatial resolution is the main parameter of a DEM. The grid cell size of raster DEM has significant effects on derived terrain variables such as slope, aspect, curvature, the wetness index, etc. Selection of appropriate spatial resolution DEM depends on other input data being used in the model, type of application and analysis that needs to be performed, the size of the database and response time. Each DEM contains inherent errors due to the method of acquisition and processing. The accuracy of each DEM varies with spatial resolution. The present paper deals with Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), TerraSAR-X add-on for Digital Elevation Measurements (TanDEM DEMs) and compares their watershed delineation, slope, stream network and height with ground control points. It was found that the coarse resolution DEM-derived attributes and terrain morphological characteristics were strongly influenced by DEM accuracy. The objective of the present study is to investigate the impact of DEM resolution on topographic parameters and runoff estimation using TanDEM-12, TanDEM-30 and SRTM-90 m with the Soil and Water Assessment Tool. The analysis of the results using different DEM resolutions gave a varied number of sub-basins, Hydrological Response Units (HRUs) and watershed areas. The results were optimum at a specific threshold value as extraction of drainage network has a significant influence on simulated results. The accuracy of DEM is important, as the source of construction of DEM is the main factor causing uncertainty in the output. The results showed variable amounts of runoff at the watershed level, which may be attributed to varied stream lengths, minimum and maximum elevations and sub-basin areas.

    • Lithofacies correlation in Early Permian fluvial Gondwana stratigraphy of southeastern India using cross-association statistics

      Zahid A Khan Ram Chandra Tewari

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      The cross-association statistical technique is used to correlate major and minor lithofacies and the corresponding facies areas in the widely separated two borehole log profiles of Early Permian succession from the Kaghaznagar and Kothagudem sub-basins of Pranhita–Godavari Graben (PGG) of southeastern India. The one-to-one correspondence of the cross-association of major lithofacies and facies areas is strikingly similar and matches significantly more than expected. It indicates the continuity of single homogenous succession deposited under an identical depositional environment in the widely separated two sub-basins of PGG. However, the dissimilarity between the micro-lithofacies, on the other hand, suggests a different sub-environment through space and time. The significant correlation of major lithofacies and facies areas of the two sub-basins suggests meandering stream depositional facies model of the Early Permian Barakar succession in PGG. It may also provide information regarding the exploration of coal. The dissimilarities of cross-association at the micro-lithofacies level may reflect the differential subsidence through space and time.

    • Assessment of Met Office Unified Model (UM) quantitative precipitation forecasts during the Indian summer monsoon: Contiguous Rain Area (CRA) approach

      Kuldeep Sharma Raghavendra Ashrit Elizabeth Ebert Ashis Mitra Bhatla R Gopal Iyengar Rajagopal E N

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      The operational medium range rainfall forecasts of the Met Office Unified Model (UM) are evaluated over India using the Contiguous Rainfall Area (CRA) verification technique. In the CRA method, forecast and observed weather systems (defined by a user-specified rain threshold) are objectively matched to estimate location, volume, and pattern errors. In this study, UM rainfall forecasts from nine (2007–2015) Indian monsoon seasons are evaluated against 0.5$^{\circ }\times$ 0.5$^{\circ }$ IMD–NCMRWF gridded observed rainfall over India (6.5$^{\circ }{-}$38.5$^{\circ }$N, 66.5$^{\circ }{-}$100.5$^{\circ }$E). The model forecasts show a wet bias due to excessive number of rainy days particularly of low amounts (<1 mm d$^{-1}$). Verification scores consistently suggest good skill the forecasts at threshold of 10 mm d$^{-1}$, while moderate (poor) skill at thresholds of <20 mm d$^{-1}$ (<40 mm d$^{-1}$). Spatial verification of rainfall forecasts is carried out for 10, 20, 40 and 80 mm d$^{-1}$ CRA thresholds for four sub-regions namely (i) northwest (NW), (ii) southwest (SW), (iii) eastern (E), and (iv) northeast (NE) sub-region. Over the SW sub-region, the forecasts tend to underestimate rain intensity. In the SW region, the forecast events tended to be displaced to the west and southwest of the observed position on an average by about 1$^{\circ }$ distance. Over eastern India (E) forecasts of light (heavy) rainfall events, like 10 mm d$^{-1}$ (20 and 40 mm d$^{-1}$) tend to be displaced to the south on an average by about 1$^{\circ }$ (southeast by 1$-2^{\circ }$). In all four regions, the relative contribution to total error due to displacement increases with increasing CRA threshold. These findings can be useful for forecasters and for model developers with regard to the model systematic errors associated with the monsoon rainfall over different parts of India.

    • The worthiness of using information on land-use–land-cover in watershed models for Western Ghats: A case study

      Yadupathi Putty Mysuru R Kavya B M

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      The variable source area (VSA) theory of runoff generation mechanisms has been proved to hold good in many wet mountainous areas, decades ago. According to this theory, infiltration-excess overland flow is limited to very small areas in mountainous and forested catchments. But, the perception that the land surface characteristics, including land-use–land-cover (LULC), form the major factors influencing the response of the catchment to rainfall has dominated the thought in hydrology to such an extent that models based on the overland flow theory continue to be used even in such areas. The present study was taken up in order to understand the worthiness of using parameters, including the curve number (CN), that are based on the physiographic characteristics of the catchment in a watershed model designed to estimate runoff in the wet mountainous areas of the Western Ghats in southern India, where the VSA theory has been proved to hold good. The study has been accomplished by applying the NITK model developed for estimating runoff using daily rainfall data. This model is believed to estimate reliably the streamflow in the region using parameter values that can be computed from catchment characteristics. In the present study, it is applied on three gauged streams in the region of Western Ghats in Karnataka. Initially, the performance of the model has been studied with the parameters fixed using the catchment characteristics. Later, the model has been used as a tool to test hypotheses concerning the catchment response, by varying the parameter values, adopting a trial and error procedure. Initial results showed that the model performance is poor as the coefficients of efficiency vary between $–$66.9 and 82%. The sensitivity analysis carried out subsequently showed that the model parameters are required to be altered greatly for good performance and that the model simulations are not sensitive to the parameter CN. Further, the performance of this model was compared with that of a VSA model, known to suit the region well. This showed that even after all the changes in the model parameters, the model results are not highly reliable. Hence, in order to understand the reasons for the poor performance of the model, a technique was developed to compute the CN values that would be actually necessary to simulate daily direct runoff (DRO) reliably in this method, the daily values of CN are computed by applying backwards the expression for runoff on the DRO estimated by the VSA model. The variations in the values of CN computed using this method are then studied. It is found that the variations in daily CN are high and highly random too, whereas the NITK model uses only three fixed values of CN. It is thus concluded that factors other than those on which the CN is popularly believed to depend control the runoff generation in the region and that influence of LULC on runoff is not discernible at all from the kind of data that is commonly available.

    • Probabilistic seismic hazard assessment of Peshawar District, Pakistan

      Ahmad Hammad Khaliq Muhammad Waseem Sarfraz Khan Waqas Ahmed Muhammad Asif Khan

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      The seismic provisions for the Building Code of Pakistan were revised after the 2005 Kashmir earthquake and these have resulted in the introduction of a macrozonation ground motion hazard map in the seismic provisions. The macrozonation map proposes a peak ground acceleration (PGA) for the return period of 475 yr for Pakistan for flat rock sites. After the macrozonation, the next step is to develop the surface ground motion assessment studies for the cities, districts and tehsils of Pakistan. In this study, the probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA) approach is used for the Peshawar District. The PSHA, consistent with the classical Cornell approach, is carried out to obtain the seismic hazard curves and uniform hazard spectra of PGA values for the return periods of 150, 475, 975 and 2475 yr at a grid spacing of 0.1$^{\circ }\times$ 0.1$^{\circ }$. The PGA for Peshawar at 150, 475, 975 and 2475 yr return period is estimated as 0.23, 0.34, 0.39 and 0.45g, respectively, for rock flat outcrop site conditions. The surface ground motion maps proposed in this study incorporate the local soil effects using amplification factors based on shear wave velocity obtained as a proxy to the topographic slope. The resultant ground surface hazard assessment proposes the PGA value of 0.63g for the return period of 475 yr and 0.89g for the return period of 2475 yr. The maps developed in the current study are important inputs for the structural designing, risk assessment and land use planning of the Peshawar District.

    • Mapping sediment thickness of the Abbottabad basin, Pakistan

      Zahid Hussain Sarfraz Khan Muhammad Asif Khan Muhammad Waseem Waqas Ahmed

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      The Abbottabad basin is mainly composed of different loose and indurated sediments such as fine to medium grain silt and clay and large to medium sized boulders and cobbles, occupying a low land between the hills. These sediments are primarily stream deposits and variably compacted in the form of rock, suggested name Havelian group after their maximum thickness into Havelian area. Numerous streams converge at the Abbottabad intermontane basin from the north–northeast and join to form a single channel that passes through a narrow gorge on the western side of the Sirban hill. Geomorphically, the Abbottabad city is underlain by a thick sequence of loose Quaternary–Recent alluvial sediments, making it vulnerable to seismic hazards. This research determines the sediment thickness for the Abbottabad basin using a geophysical approach. In this regard, thirteen lithologic profiles were developed in the Abbottabad basin at different locations. These profiles were ultimately combined to develop a Fence diagram showing a generalized stratigraphic pattern of the Quaternary–Recent unconsolidated sediments in the basin. Standard Penetration Test (SPT) and H/V analysis were used to characterize the site and shear wave velocity at a different location of Abbottabad basin and surrounding area. Based on H/V data (using Tromino Engy Plus instrument) Abbottabad basin and immediate surroundings have an average fundamental frequency from 0.5 to 9 Hz, which represents the deposition of alluvial sediments (i.e., stiff and dense soil).

    • Source characteristics of the upper mantle 21 May, 2014 Bay of Bengal earthquake of $M_{w}$5.9

      Prantik Mandal Koushik Biswas Akhileshwar Prasad

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      We measure source parameters for the 21 May, 2014 Bay of Bengal earthquake through inversion modeling of S-wave displacement spectra from radial–transverse–vertical (RTZ) components recorded at ten broadband stations in the eastern Indian shield. The average source parameters are estimated using estimates from seven near stations (within epicentral distances $\leq$ 500 km). The average seismic moment and source radius are determined to be 1.0$\times$ 10$^{18}$ N-m and 829 m, respectively, while average stress drop is found to be 76.5 MPa. The mean corner frequency and moment magnitude are calculated to be 1.6 $\pm$ 0.1 and 5.9 $\pm$ 0.2 Hz, respectively. We also estimated mean radiated energy and apparent stress, which are found to be 6.1$\times$10$^{13}$ joules and 1.8 MPa, respectively. We observe that mean $E_{s}$/$M_{o}$ estimate of 5.5 $\times$ 10$^{-5}$ is found to be larger than the global average for oceanic strike-slip events. This observation along with large stress drop and apparent stress estimates explains the observed remarkably felt intensity data of the 2014 event. The full waveform moment tensor inversion of the band-passed (0.03–0.12 Hz) broadband displacement data suggests the best fit for the multiple point sources on a plane located at 65 km depth, with a moment magnitude 6.4, and a focal mechanism with strike 318$^{\circ}$, dip 87$^{\circ}$, and rake 34$^{\circ}$.

    • Analysis of deformation characteristics and stability mechanisms of typical landslide mass based on the field monitoring in the Three Gorges Reservoir, China

      Yonggang Zhang Shuyun Zhu Weiqiang Zhang Hui Liu

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      Based on a large number of data including GPS monitoring of surface deformation and inclinometer monitoring of internal deformation over 7 years, we find that the displacement of a typical landslide mass has the stepped evolution characteristics as: the variation of the reservoir water level under the different years and months in the Three Gorges Reservoir and the deformation of landslide mass surges in the flood season. On the contrary, the deformation of landslide mass slows down in the non-flood season. Especially, in 2007, 2009 and 2011, the fluctuation of the surface monitoring displacement is more intense than that in the other years. In addition, the whole landslide mass has a characteristic of the trial-type sliding. The surface displacement is greater than the internal displacement. Based on that, deformation characteristics, stability mechanisms and the influencing factors of landslide mass are studied deeply. The results show that the drawdown of the water level of the Three Gorges Reservoir region is the main controlling factor of the deformation of the landslide mass. The results of the study have a significant value of reference on the stability analysis of landslide mass under the similar engineering geological conditions.

    • Zebra layers and palaeoenvironment of Late Miocene Stratum in the Linxia Basin, northwestern China

      Xiuqing Nian Xiuming Liu Hui Guo Zhi Liu Bin Lu Fengqing Han

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      Miocene strata in the Linxia Basin (Gansu, China) are usually interpreted as lacustrine sediments. However, the red–grey inter-beds known as ‘Zebra layers’ commonly tilt with respect to the terrain on the side slopes of the modern valley, which may be due to mantling palaeotopography (similar to aeolian loess). The anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility, which reflects the original arrangement of magnetic particles in sediments, was applied to investigate this phenomenon. The results showed that the tilting of the inter-beds in the side slope was due to mantle palaeotopography rather than soil creep, and that they were not deposited in a subaqueous environment. The grain sizes of sediments showed similar features as aeolian loess. We speculate that Miocene sediments were deposited by mantling the palaeotopography where aeolian materials accumulated. After deposition, flowing water submerged these strata, which caused the side slope to become gradually thinner from top to bottom and stirred the magnetic particles in these sediments. The grey colour of the Zebra layers may not be original, as it may be due to waterlogging and deoxidation after deposition; finally, when the iron oxides in these sediments were transformed or removed, their colours became grey. The formation of Zebra layers indicates that the Late Miocene palaeoenvironment of northwestern China was similar to that in which Quaternary aeolian loess was deposited.

    • Grain-size distribution of surface sediments of climbing and falling dunes in the Zedang valley of the Yarlung Zangbo River, southern Tibetan plateau

      Jiaqiong Zhang Chunlai Zhang Qing Li Xinghui Pan

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      Climbing and falling dunes are widespread in the wide valleys of the middle reaches of the Yarlung Zangbo River. Along a sampling transect running from northeast to southwest through 10 climbing dunes and two falling dunes in the Langsailing area, the surface sediments were sampled to analyse the grain-size characteristics, to clarify the transport pattern of particles with different grain sizes, and to discuss the effects of terrain factors including dune slope, mountain slope, elevation and transport distance to sand transport. Sand dunes on both sides of the ridge are mainly transverse dunes. Fine and medium sands were the main particles, with few very fine and coarse particles in the surface sediments. Particles >4.00$\Phi$ were blown upslope by suspension, particles 1.00${-}$4.00$\Phi$ were mainly transported upslope by saltation with opposite change tendency, and particles <1.00$\Phi$ mainly moved by creep were found almost exclusively at the bottom of the slopes. As terrain factors, elevation and transport distance were more important factors influencing the distribution of grain size and particle fraction on dunes. Local winds observation might be helpful for the transport mechanism study of particles on climbing and falling dunes, while the wind data from nearby weather station was hardly helpful.

    • Simulation of the fate and transport of boron nanoparticles in two-dimensional saturated porous media

      Chunmei Bai Baisha Weng Huan Sheng Lai

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      The wide production and application of engineered nanomaterials (ENMS) inevitably lead to their release in the groundwater environment. However, the release and transport of boron nanoparticles in the multi-dimensional subsurface remain largely unknown. In this work, a multi-dimensional numerical simulator for the transport of boron nanoparticles in the saturated porous media was first developed and validated. Hypothetical scenarios for the release of boron nanoparticles into a layered two-dimensional (2D) and heterogeneous 2D saturated porous media were then explored, and compared with the fullerene nanoparticles. The results demonstrated that the soil heterogeneity influenced the fate of nanoparticles, with high permeable layers and high aqueous-phase concentration. Besides, the boron nanoparticles tend to accumulate at the inlet zones, where it was closer to a nanoparticles source. Different layers of interface interaction also impact the concentration of nanoparticles. In general, the mobility and aqueous-phase concentration of fullerene nanoparticles were higher than those of the boron nanoparticles. In addition, the mobility of boron nanoparticles was found to be sensitive to release concentration, soil porosity and nanoparticle aggregate size.

    • Multi-year satellite observations of tropospheric NO$_{2}$ concentrations over the Indian region

      Madhav Haridas M K Biswadip Gharai Subin Jose Prajesh T

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      An assessment of satellite-derived long-term tropospheric nitrogen dioxide (NO$_{2}$) data is performed over the Indian region and their implications on the regional air quality are discussed. The Indo-Gangetic plain (IGP) shows an increasing trend in NO$_{2}$ of the order of 3$\times$ 10$^{13}$ mol/cm$^{2}$/ yr. The pixel-wise (0.25 km) trend for the period 2005–2014 reveals various regions having increased rates of pollution over the study period. Further, the mean seasonal concentrations of NO$_{2}$ are segregated for different parts of the country including oceanic regions and the trends are brought out. The highest rate of increase of tropospheric NO$_{2}$ (2$\times$ 10$^{14}$ mol/cm$^{2}$/yr) is seen around coal mining areas and certain industrial areas such as ports and thermal power stations. Using the data spanning 10 years, the wavelet analysis is carried out to study the influence of semi-annual oscillations (SAO) on trace gas concentrations in different parts of the country. The study reveals that the SAO are stronger in the northern parts of India, including IGP and western India, whereas South India and oceanic regions are having very low SAO component and strong annual oscillation component.

    • Generalised extreme value model with cyclic covariate structure for analysis of non-stationary hydrometeorological extremes

      Jagtap R S Gedam V K Mohan M Kale

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      Studies carried out recently on hydrometeorological extremes report the evidence of non-stationarity induced by potential long-term climatic fluctuations and anthropogenic factors. A critical examination of the stationarity assumption has been carried out and a non-stationary generalised extreme value model with cyclic covariate structure for modelling magnitude and variation of data series with some degrees of correlation for real-world applications is proposed. Interestingly, the sinusoidal function with periodicity around 30 yr has been derived as a suitable covariate structure to deal with the ambiguous nature of temporal trends and this could possibly be linked to ‘Sun cycles’. It has adequately explained the cyclic patterns recognised in the annual rainfall which are helpful for realistic estimation of quantiles. Various diagnostic plots and statistics support the usefulness of the proposed covariate structure to tackle potential non-stationarities in the data characterising extreme events in various fields such as hydrology, environment, finance, etc.

    • Holocene environmental changes in Red River delta, Vietnam as inferred from the stable carbon isotopes and C/N ratios

      Nguyen Tai Tue Dang Minh Quan Pham Thao Nguyen Luu Viet Dung Tran Dang Quy Mai Trong Nhuan

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      The present study applied stable carbon isotopes, C/N ratios, and sedimentological indicators to reconstruct environmental changes during Holocene and to test the hypothesis that $\delta^{13}$C and C/N ratios are accurate proxies of sea level change in the Red River delta (RRD), Vietnam. A 36 m long sediment core was mechanically drilled in the wave-dominated region of the RRD. The covariation of lithological characteristics, sediment grain-size distribution and geochemical proxies (LOI, TOC, C/N, $\delta^{13}$C) suggested that the sediment core could be divided into six depositional environments, consisting of sub- and inter-tidal flats (formed before 8860 cal. year BP), shelf-prodelta, delta front slope (formed from 8860 to 2290 cal. year BP), delta front platform, tidal flat, and flood plain (from 2290 to 0 cal. year BP). Covariation of $\delta^{13}$C and C/N ratios in the sediment core allowed for tracing the origin of sedimentary organic carbon, which shifted from the dominance of mangroves and C3 plants at the sub- and inter-tidal flats to marine phytoplankton at the shelf-prodelta and delta front slope. The sedimentary sources of the delta front platform, tidal flat and flood plain were a mixture of phytoplankton and C3 plants, with the later source being dominant.

    • Arctic summer sea-ice seasonal simulation with a coupled model: Evaluation of mean features and biases

      Saheed P P Ashis K Mitra Imranali M Momin Rajagopal E N Helene T Hewitt Ann B Keen Sean F Milton

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      Current state of the art weather/climate models are representation of the fully coupled aspects of the components of the earth system. Sea-ice is one of the most important components of these models. Simulation of sea-ice in these models is a challenging problem. In this study, evaluation of the hind-cast data of 14 boreal summer seasons with global coupled model HadGEM3 in its seasonal set-up has been performed over the Arctic region from 9th May start dates. Along with the biases of the sea-ice variables, related atmosphere and oceanic variables have also been examined. The model evaluation is focused on seasonal mean of sea-ice concentration, sea-ice thickness, ocean surface current, SST, ice-drift velocity and sea-ice extent. To diagnose the sea-ice biases, atmospheric variables like, 10 m wind, 2 m air temperature, sea-level pressure and ocean sub-surface temperatures were also examined. The sea-ice variables were compared with GIOMAS dataset. The atmospheric and the oceanic variables were compared with the ERA Interim and the ECMWF Ocean re-analysis (ORAP5) datasets, respectively. The model could simulate the sea-ice concentration and thickness patterns reasonably well in the Arctic Circle. However, both sea-ice concentration and thickness in the model are underestimated compared to observations. A positive (warm) bias is seen both in 2 m air temperature and SST, which are consistent with the negative sea-ice bias. Biases in ocean current and related ice drift are not related to biases in the atmospheric winds. The magnitude of the oceanic subsurface warm biases is seen to be gradually decreasing with depth, but consistent with sea-ice biases. These analyses indicate a possibility of deeper warm subsurface water in the western Arctic Ocean sector (Pacific and Atlantic exchanges) affecting the negative biases in the sea-ice at the surface. The model is able to simulate reasonably well the summer sea-ice melting process and its inter-annual variability, and has useable skill for application purpose.

    • Mapping magnetic lineaments and subsurface basement beneath parts of Lower Benue Trough (LBT), Nigeria: Insights from integrating gravity, magnetic and geologic data

      Mukaila Abdullahi Upendra K Singh Ravi Roshan

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      In this study, we present the analysis of the aeromagnetic data of parts of the Lower Benue Trough. Lineament analysis of the aeromagnetic data demonstrated four tectonic trends of the basement terrain. The lineaments are in the northeast to southwest (NE–SW), east, northeast to west, southwest (ENE–WSW), north to south (N–S), and east, southeast to west, northwest (ESE–WNW) directions. The NE–SW and ENE–WSW are the most dominant whereas the N–S and ESE–WNW are the minor trends. The estimated magnetic basement using spectral analysis vary between 3.5 and 5 km and the shallow magnetic sources (depth to top of intrusions) vary between 0.24 and 1.2 km. The result of the basement estimation from the magnetic data is comparable with the previous results from other studies as well as with the basement depth estimated from the gravity data of part of the present study area are incorporated in the study. From the gravity data, we identified sub-basin around Makurdi and basement of the sedimentary basin (5 km) is estimated using GPSO algorithm and Oasis Montaj (Geosoft).

    • The first record of active methane (cold) seep ecosystem associated with shallow methane hydrate from the Indian EEZ

      Mazumdar A Dewangan P Peketi A Gullapalli S Kalpana M S Naik G P Shetty D Pujari S Pillutla S P K Gaikwad V V Nazareth D Sangodkar N S Dakara G Kumar A Mishra C K Singha P Reddy R

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      Here we report the discovery of cold-seep ecosystem and shallow methane hydrates (2–3 mbsf) associated with methane gas flares in the water column from the Indian EEZ for the first time. The seep-sites are located in the Krishna–Godavari (K–G) basin at water depths of 900–1800 m and are characterized by gas flares in the water-column images. The occurrence of methane gas hydrates at very shallow depths (2–3 mbsf) at some of the seep-sites is attributed to high methane flux and conducive P–T conditions, necessary for the stability of methane hydrate. Chemosymbiont bearing Bivalves (Vesicomidae, Mytilidae, Thyasiridae and Solemyidae families); Polychaetes (Siboglinidae family) and Gastropods (Provannidae family) are also identified from seep-sites.

    • Geological, geochemical and Rb–Sr isotopic studies on tungsten mineralised Sewariya–Govindgarh granites of Delhi Fold Belt, Rajasthan, NW India

      Sivasubramaniam R Vijay Anand Sundarrajan Pandian M S Balakrishnan S

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      Neoproterozoic granites are widespread in the Delhi Fold Belt of the Aravalli craton, some of which are associated with tungsten mineralisation. In one such instance, the volcano-sedimentary sequence of Barotiya Group in the South Delhi Fold Belt is intruded by a pluton of biotite granite gneiss known as Sewariya Granite (SG) and later by stocks and dyke swarm of tourmaline leucogranite known as Govindgarh Granite (GG). GG magmatism was associated with wolframite mineralisation in hydrothermal quartz veins occurring along the sheared contact between SG pluton and Barotiya mica schist. SG pluton shows the evidence of ductile and brittle deformations, whereas GG is by and large undeformed. Apart from quartz and feldspars, SG contains biotite and muscovite, and GG contains muscovite, tourmaline and garnet. Although both SG and GG are peraluminous, SG has a wide range of SiO$_{2}$ and narrow range of alkalis, and GG has a narrow range of SiO$_{2}$ and a wide range of alkalis. REE (rare Earth elements) modelling shows that the parent magma of SG and GG was derived from partial melting at different crustal levels. Rb–Sr isotope data of GG yield a mineral isochron age of 860 $\pm$ 7.4 Ma which represent the time of igneous crystallisation and cooling of the granite to less than 400$^{\circ }$C.

    • Seasonal variability of sea-surface temperature fronts associated with large marine ecosystems in the north Indian Ocean

      Kankan Sarkar Aparna S G Shrikant Dora Shankar D

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      We use 14 years of satellite-derived sea-surface temperature (SST) data to compute a monthly frontal probability index (FPI) to determine the existence of a front in a pixel. A persistent SST front is deemed to exist if the FPI in a narrow region exceeds that in the surrounding ocean. We describe the seasonal variability of 17 persistent SST fronts (eight associated with the shelf-slope boundary and five with the mixing between different water masses) in the north Indian Ocean. Only weak fronts exist during a few months in the strong upwelling regimes off Somalia and Oman.

    • Wyrtki Jets: Role of intraseasonal forcing

      Prerna S Abhisek Chatterjee Mukherjee A Ravichandran M Shenoi S S C

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      Direct current measurements observed from the acoustic Doppler current profilers in the equatorial Indian Ocean (EIO) and solutions from an ocean general circulation model are investigated to understand the dynamics of the Wyrtki jet. These jets are usually described as semiannual direct wind forced zonal currents along the central and eastern EIO. We show that both, spring and fall, Wyrtki jets show predominant semiannual spectral peaks, but significant intraseasonal energy is evident during spring in the central and eastern EIO. We find that for the semiannual band, there is a strong spectral coherence between the overlying winds and the currents in the central EIO, but no coherency is observed in the eastern part of the EIO. Moreover, for the intraseasonal band, strong coherency between the winds and currents is evident. During spring, intraseasonal currents induced by the Madden–Julian oscillation (MJO) superimpose constructively with semiannual currents and thus intensify the strength of the spring Wyrtki jet. Also, the atmospheric intraseasonal variability accounts for the interannual variabilities observed in spring Wyrtki jets.

    • Fractal dimension analysis for seismicity spatial and temporal distribution in the circum-Pacific seismic belt

      Yin Lirong Li Xiaolu Zheng Wenfeng Yin Zhengtong Song Lihong Ge Lijun Zeng Qingchuan

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      In this study, we present the fractal characteristics of the spatio-temporal sequence for seismic activity in the circum-Pacific seismic belt and vicinity regions, which is one of the most active seismic zones worldwide. We select the seismic dataset with magnitude $M \geq$ 4.4 in the circum-Pacific seismic belt region and its vicinity from 1900–2015 as the objects. Based on the methods of capacity dimension and information dimension, using ln(1/$\delta$)–ln N($\delta$) of the relationship to evaluate and explain, the results show that (1) in the circum-Pacific seismic belt and the surrounding areas, for the seismic activity with magnitude $M \geq$ 4.4, the time series dimension is 0.63, the spatial distribution dimension is 0.52 and they have fractal structure. (2) For the earthquakes with $M \geq$ 7.0, the time series dimension increases greatly, which indicates that the cluster characteristics in time is greatly reduced. And the earthquakes with magnitude 7.0 $\geq$ $M \geq$ 4.4 have significant impact on the characterized by clustering in time in the study region. (3) There is significant fractal structure at spatio-temporal distribution of earthquakes in the circum-Pacific seismic belt. It reveals the tectonic movements keep continuous, obvious anisotropism characteristic of geological structure and the distribution of surface stress field is spatio-temporal heterogeneity in the study area.

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