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      Volume 127, Issue 5

      July 2018

    • Effect of grain packing tightness on strain estimation from the Fry method

      Arun Kumar Ojha Deepak C Srivastava

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      How tightly should a sample be packed for strain estimation by the Fry method? We address this issue using synthetic simulations of 900 images such that each image contains 200 randomly distributed grains, but differs from other images with respect to the packing tightness and the degree of sorting. Each image is coaxially distorted by various known strain ratios and the strain estimates from distorted images are obtained by the Fry method. The statistical errors in the strain stimates are found to grow larger with the decrease in the packing tightness irrespective of the level of distortion. We demonstrate that a progressive decrease in the packing tightness results in an increasingly clustered nature of grain center distribution and hence the larger errors. These results, obtained from the synthetic images, arecorroborated by two natural examples of sandstone, one loosely packed and the other tightly packed. Based on the results of tests on synthetic and natural examples, we recommend that the Fry method should be used only on those samples that have >30% packing density.

    • Statistical analysis of geo-electric imaging and geotechnical test results – a case study

      Rambhatla G Sastry Sumedha Chahar Manohar N Viladkar

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      For conjunctive use of geoelectric imaging and geotechnical site investigations in geotechnical characterization of major civil engineering construction sites, an objective assessment of influencing factors is important. Here, we present multiple regression analyses of both geoelectric (Electrical Resistivity Tomography, ERT; Induced Polarization Imaging, IPI) and geotechnical site investigations (Standard Penetration Test, SPT) for two profiles at a construction site for CGEWHO Complex in Greater Noida region, Delhi to assess the role of influencing formation factors like sand, fines and water content. Achieved results show that SPT ‘N’ and IPI are well predicted by a linear multiple regression. On an average, the nonlinear regression has improved predicted SPT ‘N’, resistivity and chargeability by 28.55%, 22.45% and 9.58%, respectively. The influence of sand and fines content is more than thatof water content in the prediction of chargeability and SPT ‘N’. RMS error is less in prediction of IPI chargeability (average error of 1.96%) in comparison to SPT ‘N’ value (average error of 11.35%). As factors affecting chargeability (IPI) and SPT ‘N’ are similar, non-invasive IPI can be used along with few geotechnical site investigations for detailed geotechnical site investigations.

    • Quantification of groundwater–surface water interactions using environmental isotopes: A case study of Bringi Watershed, Kashmir Himalayas, India

      Nadeem A Bhat Gh Jeelani

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      Environmental isotopes including $\delta^{18}$O, $\delta^{2}$H and $^3$H of precipitation, streams and springs were determined in the mountainous Bringi catchment of Kashmir Himalaya, dominated by carbonate lithology. The isotopic signature of winter precipitation is reflected in stream and spring water in late spring and is, therefore, representative of snow melting. The spring waters in September bear the enriched isotopic signatures of summer rainfall. The strong correlation $(r^2 = 0.97)$ between the isotopic composition of streams and springs indicates the streams and springs either share similar catchments or the springs are recharged by the streams. Chloride mass balance and isotopic mass balance studies suggest that the surface recharge component averages 337.35 m$^3$/s, which is about 75% of total stream discharge during the high flow period. Similarly, the contribution of surface water to groundwater recharge during the low flow period averages 7.5m$^3$/s, which is about 18.6% of total stream flow. Furthermore, the mean residence time of the springs calculated from the tritium decay equation is very short (<1 year). The residence time is longer for Kongamnag and short for Achabalnag, which is further supported by dye testing.

    • Linear regression models for estimating true subsurface resistivity from apparent resistivity data

      Sabiu Bala Muhammad Rosli Saad

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      Simple linear regression (SLR) models for rapid estimation of true subsurface resistivity from apparent resistivity measurements are developed and assessed in this study. The objective is to minimize the processing time and computer memory required to carry out inversion with conventional algorithms. The arrays considered areWenner,Wenner–Schlumberger and dipole–dipole. The parameters investigated are apparent resistivity $(ρ_a)$ and true resistivity $(ρ_t)$ as independent and dependent variables, respectively. For the fact that subsurface resistivity is nonlinear, the datasets were first transformed into logarithmicscale to satisfy the basic regression assumptions. Three models, one each for the three array types, are thus developed based on simple linear relationships between the dependent and independent variables. The generated SLR coefficients were used to estimate ρt for different ρa datasets for validation. Accuracy of the models was assessed using coefficient of determination $(R^2)$, F-test, standard error (SE) andweighted mean absolute percentage error (wMAPE). The model calibration $(R^2)$ and F-value are obtained as 0.75 and 2286, 0.63 and 1097, and 0.47 and 446 for the Wenner, Wenner–Schlumberger and dipole–dipole array models, respectively. The SE for calibration and validation are obtained as 0.12 and 0.13,0.16 and 0.25, and 0.21 and 0.24 for the Wenner, Wenner–Schlumberger and dipole–dipole array models, respectively. Similarly, the wMAPE for calibration and validation are estimated as 3.27 and 3.49%, 3.88 and 5.72%, and 5.35 and 6.07% for the three array models, respectively. When compared with standardconstraint least-squares (SCLS) inversion and Incomplete Gauss–Newton (IGN) algorithms, the SLR models were found to reduce about 80–96.5% of the processing time and memory space required to carry out the inversion with the SCLS algorithm. It is concluded that the SLR models can rapidly estimate ρtfor the various arrays accurately.

    • Characterization of middle Eocene tide-influenced delta: A study from core samples of Hazad Member, Ankleshwar Formation, South Cambay Basin, India

      Sapana Jaiswal Biplab Bhattacharya

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      The Hazad Member (Middle Eocene) of the Ankleswar Formation in Cambay Basin, India, is traditionally reported as deltaic system. Present work documents three major facies associations, namely, (i) sandstone-rich upper delta plain (FA-1) deposits, (ii) sandstone-mudstone heterolithic lower delta plain–delta front (FA-2) deposits, and (iii) shale-dominated prodelta (FA-3) deposits, in an overallcoarsening-up to fining-up succession. Tidalites are well preserved in FA-2 and are represented by laterally accreted tidal bundles, tidal beddings and vertically accreted tidal rhythmites, described from drill core samples in this communication. Laterally accreted tidal bundles with reactivation surfaces in sanddominatedheterolithic units indicate time-velocity asymmetry in subtidal condition. Tidal beddings and tidal rhythmites in mud-dominated heterolithic units, associated with asymmetric/symmetric ripple forms and desiccation cracks, indicate periodic subaerial emergence in intertidal flat depositional setting. Systematic analysis of the architecture of the tidalites in different parts of the basin signifies rapid shiftin sedimentation from subtidal to intertidal flat within the lower delta plain. Transitions from prodeltaic to tidally (subtidal-intertidal) affected delta front to lower delta plain and fluvial-dominated upper delta plain depositional systems attest to high frequency transgressive-regressive cycles in response to changingaccommodation, as a result of sea level fluctuations and basinal tectonisms in the Cambay Basin.

    • Active tectonics in the Assam seismic gap between the meizoseismal zone of AD 1934 and 1950 earthquakes along eastern Himalayan front, India

      Arjun Pandey Ishwar Singh Rajeeb Lochan Mishra Priyanka Singh Rao Hari B Srivastava R Jayangondaperumal

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      The Assam Seismic Gap has witnessed a long seismic quiescence since the Mw∼8.4 great Assam earthquake of AD 1950. Owing to its improper connectivity over the last decades, this segment of the Himalaya has long remained inadequately explored by geoscientists. Recent geodetic measurements inthe eastern Himalaya using GPS document a discrepancy between the geologic and geodetic convergence rates. West to east increase in convergence rate added with shorter time span earthquakes like the 1697 Sadiya, 1714 (Mw∼8) Bhutan and 1950 (Mw∼8.4) Tibet–Assam, makes this discrepancy more compositeand crucial in terms of seismic hazard assessment. To understand the scenario of palaeoearthquake surface rupturing and deformation of youngest landforms between the meizoseismal areas of Mw∼8.1 1934 and 1950 earthquakes, the area between the Manas and Dhanshiri Rivers along the Himalayan Frontal Thrust(HFT) was traversed. The general deformation pattern reflects north-dipping thrust faults. However, back facing scarps were also observed in conjugation to the discontinuous scarps along the frontal thrust. Preliminary mapping along with the published literature suggests that, in the eastern Himalayan front the deformation is taking place largely by the thrust sheet translation without producing a prominent fault-related folds, unlike that of the central and western Himalayas.

    • Rootless calc-silicate folds in granite: An implication towards syn- to post-plutonic emplacement

      Aditya U Joshi Manoj A Limaye

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      Deformation of the Champaner Group of rocks that form a part of Southern Aravalli Mountain Belt, western India, occurred during the Grenville orogeny (ca. 1400–935 Ma). Two phases of deformation are recorded: D1, persistent throughout the group and characterised by westerly plunging tight isoclinal foldsand D2, a localized phase of deformation associated with shortening of the earlier folds from the eastern margin. Both the phases of deformation are in association with the syn-tectonically emplaced Godhra granite. The present work records rootless calc-silicate folds in granite belonging to the older formation,located at the eastern fringe of the Champaner Group. Field evidences suggest superimposition of Type 2 interference pattern trending NE–SW over rootless Type 0 of varying trends from NW–SE to N–S. The superposed pattern obtained from the field study differs in terms of structural trends with the neighbouring Precambrian stratigraphic units. These stratigraphic units include the Champaner Group to which the study area belongs, the Kadana Formation of the Lunavada Group and Pre-Chamapaner Gneissic Complex. Rootless character of folds found within the study area imply syn-post plutonic emplacement of Godhra granite.

    • Enhanced residual mean circulation during the evolution of split type sudden stratospheric warming in observations and model simulations

      Sourabh Bal Semjon Schimanke Thomas Spangehl Ulrich Cubasch

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      Residual mean circulation changes during the evolution of sudden stratospheric warming (SSW) are investigated by composite analyses of 76 major warming events identified in a present day simulation performed with a coupled ocean–troposphere–stratosphere model from 299 winters. Their dynamical signatures are compared with the 17 SSW events identified from 35 years of Era-Interim data. The main difference is that, relative frequency of simulated SSW events is smaller than that obtained from reanalysis. SSW events are classified as displacement or split events based on the geopotential field values at 10 hPa. The geopotential field values identify 10 and 3 split events in simulation and observationrespectively. The model quite accurately simulates some of the dynamical features associated with the major SSW. Residual mean circulation induced by EP-flux divergence, sum of advection and residual forcing are stronger in split events than in displacement type SSW has been confirmed by both simulation and observation. Moreover, the contribution of EP-flux divergence or planetary wave forcing is larger than the contribution of other types of forcing.

    • An ichnofossil assemblage from the fluvial deposits of the Upper Pliocene–Pleistocene Pinjor Formation (Siwalik Group), northwestern Himalayas, India: Palaeoenvironmental implications

      Ashu Khosla Spencer G Lucas

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      Continental (fluvial) strata of the Pinjor Formation (Siwalik Group), northwestern Himalayas, India, contain an invertebrate trace fossil assemblage containing Planolites beverleyensis, Palaeophycus isp., Scoyenia gracilis, Taenidium barretti and other undifferentiated traces. The traces are found in an ∼26 m thick interval of alternating pinkish red siltstone, which is intercalated with mudstone, andthickly-bedded buff and greenish coloured sandstone. These sediments are interpreted as the deposits of floodplains and channel-bars of fluvial environments and low-energy overbank floodplain deposits. The trace fossils studied here are the first well documented ichnofossil assemblage from the vast, late CenozoicSiwalik depositional system. They are not only of palaeoenvironmental significance, but they add to the growing ichnofossil database in facies of fluvial origin and should be an impetus to further ichnological studies of the Siwalik Group.

    • Morphometric and rheological study of lunar domes of Marius Hills volcanic complex region using Chandrayaan-1 and recent datasets

      A S Arya R P Rajasekhar Koyel Sur B Gopala Krishna K Suresh T P Srinivasan K V Iyer P Chauhan Ajai A S Kiran Kumar A D Pandey A Khare P K Verma

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      Marius Hills volcanic complex is one of the most important regions on the lunar surface having an abundant number of volcanic features like domes and cones. Systematic mapping of 106 domes/cones in theMarius Hills region was carried out in this study using high-resolution orthoimage and digital elevation models of Chandrayaan-1 and Kaguya missions. Various morphometric parameters like diameter, height, volume, flank slope, circularity index and form factor are derived for all the mapped domes. The rheological parameters, such as viscosity and eruption rate are estimated for isolated domes and cones superimposed over low domes. The morphometric and rheological properties of these domes arecomparable to those located in the area near to Hortensius crater and other mare regions. Surface ages derived for a selected region in NW portion of the Marius Hills volcanic complex using crater size frequency distribution technique yields ages of 2.98 and 1.91 Ga. It suggests that the domes in this region formed at about 2.98 Ga ago, and then, the younger mare basalts likely embayed this regionabout 1.98 Ga ago. Stratigraphic sequence of rilles, wrinkle ridge and domes shows that wrinkle ridges are the oldest, while the rilles are younger than the domes.

    • Distribution, stock, and influencing factors of soil organic carbon in an alpine meadow in the hinterland of the Qinghai–Tibetan Plateau

      Xuchao Zhu Ming’an Shao

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      Understanding the spatial distribution, stocks, and influencing factors of soil organic carbon (SOC) is important for understanding the current situation of SOC in alpine meadow ecosystems on the Qinghai–Tibetan Plateau (QTP). We sampled 23 soil profiles to a depth of 50 cm in a 33.5 hm2 plot in a typicalmeadow on the central QTP. The distribution, stock and influencing factors of SOC was then analyzed. The mean density of soil carbon content (SOCD) was 2.28 kgm−2 with a range of 5.99 kg m^{−2}. SOCD in the 0–10 cm layer was 3.94 kgm^{−2} and decreased quadratically with depth. The total stock of SOC toa depth of 50 cm was ca. 2950 t, the 0–10 and 0–30 cm layers accounting for 38 and 80%, respectively. SOCD varied moderately spatially and was distributed more homogeneously in the 0–10 and 40–50 cm layers but was more variable in the middle three layers. SOCD was significantly correlated positively with soil-water content, total porosity, and silt content and negatively with soil pH, bulk density, stone content and sand content. This study provides an important contribution to understanding the role of alpine meadows in the global carbon cycle. It also provides field data for model simulation and the management of alpine meadow ecosystems.

    • Geochemistry and petrogenesis of Biabanak-Bafq mafic magmatism: Implication for the evolution of central Iranian terrane

      Monireh Poshtkoohi Talat Ahmad Ashwini Kumar Choudhary

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      Precambrian magmatism in the Biabanak-Bafq district represents an extensive sequence of mafic magmatic rocks. Major, trace and rare earth elements reveal that the low-Ti basement mafic rocks are magnesium tholeiite and low-Ti cover a mafic rock belongs to Fe-tholeiite, whereas, the high-Ti alkaline mafic rocks, as well as dolerites, show much more Fe–Ti enrichment. Primitive mantle normalized trace element patterns show a relative enrichment of LREE and LILE and depletion of HFSE, but have an equally distinct continental signature reflected by marked negative Nb, Sr, P, and Ti anomalies. The composition of the intrusive rocks is consistent with fractional crystallization of olivine +/- clinopyroxene +/- plagioclase, whereas variations in the Sr and Nd isotope compositions suggest heterogeneous sources and crustal contamination. Low-Ti group samples contain a crustal signature in the form of high La/Yb, Zr/Nb, and negative εNd values. In contrast, high-Ti mafic magmatic rocks display an increase in La/Yb with a decrease in Proterozoic alkaline rocks recognized across the central Iran. The presence of diverse mafic magmatic rocks probably reflects heterogeneous nature of sub-continental lithospheric mantle (SCLM) source. The mafic magmatism largely represents magmatic arc or rift tectonic setting. It is suggested that the SCLM sources were enriched by subduction processes and asthenospheric upwelling.

    • Energetics of Indian winter monsoon

      P Kumar A P Dimri

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      The Indian subcontinent is characterized by complex topography and heterogeneous land use-land cover. The Himalayas and the Tibetan Plateau are spread across the northern part of the continent. Due to its highly variable topography, understanding of the prevailing synoptic weather systems is complex over the region. The present study analyzes the energetics of Indian winter monsoon (IWM) over the Indian subcontinent using outputs of mesoscale model (MM5) forced with National Center for Environmental Prediction/National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCEP/NCAR), US, initial and boundary conditions. MM5 modeling framework, designed to simulate or predict mesoscale atmospheric circulations, is having a limited-area, non-hydrostatic and terrain following 12 sigma levels. The IWMenergetics is studied using MM5 model outputs. Prior to this model’s validity and deviation from the corresponding observations (NCEP/NCAR) is assessed. The model’s overestimation/underestimation of wind, temperature and specific humidity at upper troposphere proves that the model has difficulty in picking up corresponding fields at all the model grid points because of terrain complexity over the Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau. Hence, the model fields deviate from the corresponding observations. However, model results match well with the winter global energy budget calculated using reanalysis dataset by Peixoto and Oort (1992). It suggests MM5 model’s fitness in simulating large scale synopticweather systems. And, thus the model outputs are used for calculation of energetics associated with IWM. It is observed that beyond 15◦N lower as well as upper level convergence of diabatic heating, which represents continental cooling and sinking of heat from atmosphere to land mass (i.e., surface is cooler than surrounding atmosphere) dominates. The diabatic heating divergence (cooling of continents)is found over ocean/sea and whole of the China region, Tibetan and central Himalayas (because of excess condensation than evaporation). The adiabatic generation of kinetic energy depends on the cross isobaric flow (north to south in winter, i.e., the present study shows strong circulation during IWM). It is foundthat wind divergence of model concludes lower level convergence over study region (i.e., strong winter circulation in the model fields).

    • Singular spectrum analysis, harmonic regression and El-Nino effect on total ozone (1979–1993) over India and surrounding regions

      Chandramadhab Pal

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      The Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) is a satellite instrument that records Total Column Ozone (TCO) concentration (in DB) of the atmosphere in the form of different overpass files. We have selected 23 sites over India (15), Pakistan (4), Bangladesh (1) and adjoining China (3) to investigate theTCO scenario over this region. About 114,000 historical records (1979M1–1992M12) from 23 overpass files were processed to generate 23 monthly mean time series (TS) of TCO. Statistical analysis followedby singular spectrum analysis (SSA), harmonic regression (HR) and spatial interpolation have been used to accomplish the investigation. Four dominant signals; quasi-biennial signal (QBI, T = 30.12 months), quasi-annual signal (QAN, T = 19.69 months), annual signal (ANN, T = 12 months) and semi-annual signal (SAN, T = 6 months) were discerned to explain the variability. Direct latitudinal effect on theTCO distribution was observed. The variance was limited between 80.53 and 90.13%; ANN contributes 65.93–93.22% followed by SAN 0.58–5.69%, QAN 0.33–5.48%, and QBI 0.06–5.94%. Peak values of the oscillations are estimated from phasor diagrams: QBI, March to May in the mid-latitude; QAN, April,and May; ANN, February to April; SAN, March to May. Incisive pictures of the average distribution and variability of four sinusoids were investigated from contour plots. Two ozone valley were discerned from Spatial interpolation; one over Deccan Plateau in low and other over Tibetan Plateau in high latitude.179 outliers from 23 × 168 observations have been identified after harmonic regression. The appearance of the outliers is highly consistent with extreme phases of multivariate ENSO Index and Dipole Mode Index.

    • Observations on the ichnospecies Monomorphichnus multilineatus from the Nagaur Sandstone (Cambrian Series 2-Stage 4), Marwar Supergroup, India

      Mukund Sharma S K Pandey S Ahmad K Kumar A H Ansari

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      sigmoidal scratches assigned to ichnospecies Monomorphichnus multilineatus from the Nagaur Sandstone belonging to the Cambrian (Series 2-Stage 4). Nagaur M. multilineatus are recorded from the intertidal regime. It is an addition to already known depositional environments for this ichnospecies, which are known from shallow marine, wave-dominated, to non-marine or brackish water and storm-dominated sequences. Classical systematics of M. multilineatus is enriched with additional information in the paper. Its significance has be statistical analyses help reveal its behaviour and feeding pattern of the causative organism of M.multilineatus. Hierarchical Cluster Analysis (HCA), average linkage and Pearson Correlation were performed to establish the natural grouping and behaviour of the specimens. HCA indicates that the studied Nagaur specimens belong to ichnogenera Monomorphicnus and ichnospecies, i.e., multilineatus.Pearson correlation, involving thickness and length of individual specimen, was positive. It indicates that the amount of food required by individual adult specimen was more and thereby requiring more grazing to provide enough food for survival. All the known occurrences of M. multilineatus are reviewed in the present study for their mode of preservation, depositional environment, palaeoecology and taphonomy.

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