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      Volume 127, Issue 3

      April 2018

    • Implications of new ⁴⁰Ar / ³⁸Ar age of Mallapur Intrusives on the chronology and evolution of the Kaladgi Basin, Dharwar Craton, India

      Shilpa Patil Pillai Kanchan Pande Vivek S Kale

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      The Kaladgi Basin on the northern edge of the Dharwar craton has characters diverse from the other epicratonic Purana basins of Peninsular India. Sedimentological studies in the basin have established the presence of three cycles of flooding separated by an event of intra-basinal deformation accompaniedby low grade incipient metamorphism. The overall structural configuration of the basin indicates its development by supracrustal extension accompanied by shearing in a trans-tensional regime during the Mesoproterozoic. This was followed by sagging that yielded Neoproterozoic sedimentation in a successornested basin. ⁴⁰Ar / ³⁸Ar dating

      of an intrusive mafic dyke along the axial plane of a fold has yielded a plateau age of 1154±4Ma. This helps constraint the age of the various events during the evolution of this basin.

    • Effects of straw mulching on soil evaporation during the soil thawing period in a cold region in northeastern China

      Qiang Fu Peiru Yan Tianxiao Li Song Cui Li Peng

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      To study the effect of straw mulching on soil water evaporation, it is necessary to measure soil water evaporation under different conditions of straw mulching during the soil thawing period. A field experiment was conducted in winter, and soil evaporation was measured using a microlysimeter on bare land (LD) and 4500 (GF4500), 9000 (GF9000) and 13500 kg/hm2 (GF13500) straw mulch. The influence of different quantities of straw mulch on soil water evaporation during the thawing period was analyzed using the Mallat algorithm, statistical analysis and information cost function. The results showed that straw mulching could delay the thawing of the surface soil by 3–6 d, decrease the speed at which thesurface soil thaws by 0.40–0.80 cm/d, delay the peak soil liquid water content, increase the soil liquid water content, reduce the cumulative evaporation by 2.70–7.40 mm in the thawing period, increase the range of soil evaporation by 0.04–0.10 mm in the early stage of the thawing period, and reduce therange of soil evaporation by 0.25–0.90 mm in the late stage of the thawing period. Straw mulching could reduce the range of and variation in soil evaporation and can reduce the effect of random factors on soil evaporation. When the amount of straw mulch exceeded 9000 kg/hm2, the effect of increasing the amount of straw mulch on daily soil water evaporation was small.

    • Audio-magnetotelluric investigation of sulfide mineralization in Proterozoic–Archean greenstone belts of Eastern Indian Craton

      Shailendra Singh Ved P Maurya Roshan K Singh Shalivahan Srivastava Anurag Tripathi P K Adhikari

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      Greenstone belts are well known for gold occurrences at different regions of the world. The Dhanjori basin in the eastern Singhbhum region shows major characteristics of a rifted greenstone belt. Initially, we conducted 14 audio-magnetotelluric (AMT) measurements for a profile of ~20 km in the frequencyrange of 1 kHz to 10 Hz over this rather complex geologic environment covering Dhanjori Volcanics (DhV) and Kolhan Group (KG). Subsequently, gravity and magnetic surveys were also conducted over this AMT profile. The purpose of the survey was to identify and map conductive features and to relate them to metallogeny of the area along with the mapping of the basement of Dhanjori basin. The strike analysis showed N30◦W strike for DhV for all the frequencies and for sites over KG domain in the frequency range of 100–10 Hz, but for KG domain, the obtained strike in 1 kHz to 100 Hz is N45◦E. As the combination of transverse electric (TE), transverse magnetic (TM) and tipper (Tzy) can recoverthe electrical signature in complex geological environment, we discuss the conductivity model obtained from TE+TM+Tzy only. The inversion was carried for the regional profile with 14 sites and for 7 sites over KG domain. Conductivity model shows two well resolved conductors, one each in KG and Quartz Pebble Conglomerate Dhanjori (QPCD) domains respectively showing common linked concordant features between these regional and KG profiles. The conductors are interpreted as sulfide mineralization linked with QPCD group of rocks which may host gold. These conductors are also horizontally disposed due to the intrusive younger Mayurbhanj Granite. These intrusives correlate well with the gravitymodeling as well. The thickness of the Dhanjori basin at the central is about 3.0 km, similar to that from gravity modeling. The conductivity model also indicates the presence of shallow conductors, but could not be resolved due to lack of high frequency data. However, the results from the close-by drill site indicate the presence of shallow sulfide mineralization hosting gold. The deep level conductors delineated from AMT studies are associated with gravity high and low magnetic. ICP-AES results of Dhanjori samples show significant concentration of gold ~5.0 g/t, which is of economic consideration. Thus, it can be inferred that the conductors have evidences of sulfide mineralization which host gold.

    • Pedotransfer functions to estimate soil water content at field capacity and permanent wilting point in hot Arid Western India

      Priyabrata Santra Mahesh Kumar R N Kumawat D K Painuli K M Hati G B M Heuvelink N H Batjes

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      Characterization of soil water retention, e.g., water content at field capacity (FC) and permanent wilting point (PWP) over a landscape plays a key role in efficient utilization of available scarce water resources in dry land agriculture; however, direct measurement thereof for multiple locations in the field is not always feasible. Therefore, pedotransfer functions (PTFs) were developed to estimate soil water retention at FC and PWP for dryland soils of India. A soil database available for Arid Western India (N=370) was used to develop PTFs. The developed PTFs were tested in two independent datasets from arid regions of India (N=36) and an arid region of USA (N=1789). While testing these PTFs using independent datafrom India, root mean square error (RMSE) was found to be 2.65 and 1.08 for FC and PWP, respectively, whereas for most of the tested ‘established’ PTFs, the RMSE was > 3.41 and > 1.15, respectively. Performance of the developed PTFs from the independent dataset from USA was comparable with estimates derived from ‘established’ PTFs. For wide applicability of the developed PTFs, a user-friendly soil moisture calculator was developed. The PTFs developed in this study may be quite useful to farmers for scheduling irrigation water as per soil type.

    • Application of the region–time–length algorithm to study of earthquake precursors in the Thailand–Laos–Myanmar borders

      P Puangjaktha S Pailoplee

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      In order to examine the precursory seismic quiescence of upcoming hazardous earthquakes, the seismicity data available in the vicinity of the Thailand–Laos–Myanmar borders was analyzed using the Region–Time–Length (RTL) algorithm based statistical technique. The utilized earthquake data were obtainedfrom the International Seismological Centre. Thereafter, the homogeneity and completeness of the catalogue were improved. After performing iterative tests with different values of the r₀ and t₀ parameters, those of r₀ = 120 km and t₀ = 2 yr yielded reasonable estimates of the anomalous RTL scores, in both temporal variation and spatial distribution, of a few years prior to five out of eight strong-to-major recognized earthquakes. Statistical evaluation of both the correlation coefficient and stochastic process for the RTL were checked and revealed that the RTL score obtained here excluded artificial or randomphenomena. Therefore, the prospective earthquake sources mentioned here should be recognized and effective mitigation plans should be provided.

    • Assessing the response of runoff to climate change and human activities for a typical basin in the Northern Taihang Mountain, China

      Jinfeng Wang Yanchuan Gao Sheng Wang

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      Climate change and human activities are the two main factors on runoff change. Quantifying the contribution of climate change and human activities on runoff change is important for water resources planning and management. In this study, the variation trend and abrupt change point of hydrometeorological factors during 1960–2012 were detected by using the Mann–Kendall test and Pettitt change-point statistics. Then the runoff was simulated by SWAT model. The contribution of climate change and human activities on runoff change was calculated based on the SWAT model and the elasticity coefficient method. The results showed that in contrast to the increasing trend for annual temperature, the significant decreasing trends were detected for annual runoff and precipitation, with an abrupt change point in 1982. The simulated results of SWAT had good consistency with observed ones, and the values of R2 and ENS all exceeded 0.75. The two methods used for assessing the contribution of climate change and human activities on runoff reduction yielded consistent results. The contribution of climate change (precipitation reduction and temperature rise) was ~37.5%, while the contribution of human activities (the increase of economic forest and built-up land, hydrologic projects) was ~62.5%.

    • Assessment of co-seismic landslide susceptibility using LR and ANCOVA in Barpak region, Nepal

      Suchita Shrestha Tae-Seob Kang Jung Chang Choi

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      Nepal was affected by a catastrophic earthquake with Mw 7.8 on 25th April, 2015 with its epicenter in the central part of Barpak village. A number of co-seismic landslides were triggered by the main shock of the event and associated aftershocks. Due to the rugged topography and vicinity of the main shock, the village was extremely affected by co-seismic landslides. In total, 59 landslides were identified using Google Earth and were verified during the field survey in Barpak village. Furthermore, 11 conditioning factors, including Peak ground acceleration (PGA), epicenter proximity, fault proximity, geology, slope, elevation, plan curvature, profile curvature, topographic wetness index, drainage proximity and the sediment transport index were selected as independent variables for analysis. In this study, logistic regression (LR) and analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) models were used and their performance was assessed. Finally, thelandslide susceptibility classes were produced and an evaluation of models was done by using receiver operating characteristic curves. The area under the curve for LR and ANCOVA showed 85.38 and 78.4% accuracy, respectively. Based on the overall assessments, the LR model was more accurate than the ANCOVA model for co-seismic landslide prediction in the study area. The result of this study can be used to mitigate landslide-induced hazards and for land-use planning.

    • Contamination of sediments in the floodplain wetlands of the lower uMngeni River, Kwa-Zulu Natal, South Africa

      Samantha Naidoo Srinivasan Pillay Ajay Bissessur Hari Ballabh Delon Naicker

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      This study describes the geochemical and physico-chemical characterization of contaminant status of six wetlands of the lower uMngeni River floodplain, KwaZulu-Natal Province, South Africa. At all sites, organic matter content, calcium carbonate and metal concentrations were highest within the finesedimentdominated surface laminae, decreasing with depth. Exceptions were displayed by arsenic (As), nickel (Ni) and vanadium (V), presumed to be derived from normal geochemical processes. Geochemical indicies indicated high contamination factors for lead (Pb) and V, pointing to moderate anthropogenic metal pollution contribution. Most conspicuous are the contamination high factors for Pb across most sites. Fe and Pb contamination is ubiquitous in all surface laminae, with contamination factors being either border-line, moderate or of high contamination. Enrichment factors for As, Mn and P at site S6 indicate possible anthropogenic sources. The data also shows a possibility of anthropogenic input of P and Zn at site S3. Apart from the enrichment factors established for Ni across all sites, all other metals indicate some degree of enrichment. A range of variable results for the mid to deeper laminae are indicative of natural processes with some human influence. Results of ANOVA confirm the above. Principal component analysis reveals a 46.4% variance from component 1 elements (Al, Ca, Cr, Cu, Fe,Mg, Mn and Zn) and a 17.8% variance from component 2 (Al, Cu and Fe). Given the rapid rate of development in this region, the protection of these floodplain wetlands must receive high conservation priority from the local municipality.

    • Finite-difference modelling of anisotropic wave scattering in discrete fracture model

      A M Ekanem Y Xu

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      The presence of fractures in reservoir rocks causes scattering of seismic wave energy. In this paper, we utilize the finite-difference modelling technique to study these scattering effects to gain more insights into the effects and assess the validity of using anisotropic wave scattering energy as a diagnostic tool to characterize fractured hydrocarbon reservoirs. We use a simplified fractured reservoir model with four horizontal layers with a fractured-layer as the third layer. The fractures are represented by grid cells containing equivalent anisotropic medium by the use of the linear slip equivalent model. Our results showthat the scattered energy, quantified through estimates of the seismic quality factor (Q) is anisotropic, exhibiting a characteristic elliptical (cos 2θ) variations relative to the survey azimuth angle θ. The fracture normal is inferred from the minor axis of the Q ellipse. This direction correlates with the direction of maximum wave scattering. Minimum wave scattering occurs in the fracture strike direction inferredfrom the major axis of the Q ellipse. These results provide more complete insights into anisotropic wave scattering characteristics in fractured media and thus, validate the practical utility of using anisotropic attenuation attribute as an additional diagnostic tool for delineation of fracture properties from seismic

    • Sensitivity of simulated cyclone Gonu intensity and track to variety of parameterizations: Advanced hurricane WRF model application

      M Alimohammadi H Malakooti

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      Domain configuration and several physical parameterization settings such as planetary boundary layer, cumulus convection, and ocean–atmosphere surface flux parameterizations can play significant roles in numerical prediction of tropical cyclones. The present study focuses to improve the prediction of the TCGonu by investigating the sensitivity of simulations to mentioned configurations with the Advanced Hurricane WRF model. The experiments for domain design sensitivity with 27 km resolution has been shown moving the domains towards the east improve the results, due to better account for the large-scale process. The fixed and movable nests on a 9-km grid were considered separately within thecoarse domain and their results showed that despite salient improvement in simulated intensity, an accuracy reduction in simulated track was observed. Increasing horizontal resolution to 3 km incredibly reduced the simulated intensity accuracy when compared to 27 km resolution. Thereafter, different initial conditions were experimented and the results have shown that the cyclone of 1000 hPa sea level pressure is the best simulation initial condition in predicting the track and intensity for cyclone Gonu. The sensitivity of simulations to ocean–atmosphere surface-flux parameterizations on a 9-km grid showed the combination of ‘Donelan scheme’ for momentum exchanges along with ‘Large and Pond scheme’ for heat and moisture exchanges provide the best prediction for cyclone Gonu intensity.The combination of YSU and MYJ PBL scheme with KF convection for prediction of track and the combination of YSU PBL scheme with KF convection for prediction of intensity are found to have better performance than the other combinations. These 22 sensitivity experiments also implicitly lead us to the conclusion that each particular forecast aspect of TC (e.g., track, intensity, etc.) will require its ownspecial design.

    • Characteristics of surface ozone in Agra, a sub-urban site in Indo-Gangetic Plain

      Nidhi Verma Aparna Satsangi Anita Lakhani K Maharaj Kumari

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      In the present study, measurements of surface ozone (O₃) and its precursors (NO and NO₂) were carried out at a sub-urban site of Agra (27°10'N, 78°05'E), India during May 2012–May 2013. During the study period, average concentrations of O₃, NO, and NO₂ were 39.6 ± 25.3, 0.8 ± 0.8 and 9.1 ± 6.6 ppb, respectively. O₃ showed distinct seasonal variation in peak value of diurnal variation: summer > postmonsoon > winter > monsoon. However, NO₂ showed highest levels in winter and lowest in monsoon. The average positive rate of change of O₃ (08:00–11:00 hr) was highest in April (16.3 ppb/hr) and lowest in August (1.1 ppb/hr), while average negative rate of change of O₃ (17:00–19:00 hr) was highest in December (–13.2 ppb/hr) and lowest in July (–1.1 ppb/hr). An attempt was made to identify the VOC–NOx sensitivity of the site using O₃/HNO₃ ratio as photochemical indicator. Most of the days this ratio was above the threshold value (12–16), which suggests NOx sensitivity of the site. The episodic event of ozone was characterized through meteorological parameters and precursors concentration. Fine particles (PM2.5) cause loss of ozone through heterogeneous reactions on their surface and reduction in solar radiation. In the study, statistical analyses were used to estimate the amount of ozone loss.

    • Early Neoarchaean A-type granitic magmatism by crustal reworking in Singhbhum craton: Evidence from Pala Lahara area, Orissa

      Abhishek Topno Sukanta Dey Yongsheng Liu Keqing Zong

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      Several volumetrically minor ~2.8 Ga anorogenic granites and rhyolites occur along the marginal part of the Singhbhum craton whose origin and role in crustal evolution are poorly constrained. This contribution presents petrographic, geochemical, zircon U–Pb and trace element, and mineral chemical data on such granites exposed in the Pala Lahara area to understand their petrogenesis and tectonic setting. The Pala Lahara granites are calc-alkaline, high-silica rocks and define a zircon U–Pb age of 2.79 Ga. These granites are ferroan, weakly metaluminous, depleted in Al, Ca and Mg and rich in LILE and HFSE. They are classified as A2-type granites with high Y/Nb ratios. Geochemical characteristics (high SiO₂ and K₂O, very low MgO, Mg#, Cr, Ni and V, negative Eu anomaly, flat HREE and low Sr/Y) and comparison with melts reported by published experimental studies suggest an origin through high-temperature, shallow crustal melting of tonalitic/granodioritic source similar to the ~3.3 Ga Singhbhum Granite. Intrusion of the Pala Lahara granites was coeval with prominent mafic magmatism in the Singhbhum craton (e.g., the Dhanjori mafic volcanic rocks and NNE–SSW trending mafic dyke swarm). It is suggested that the ~2.8 Ga A-type granites in the Singhbhum craton mark a significant crustal reworking event attendant to mantle-derived mafic magmatism in an extensional tectonic setting.

    • Episodic crustal growth in the Bundelkhand craton of central India shield: Constraints from petrogenesis of the tonalite–trondhjemite–granodiorite gneisses and K-rich granites of Bundelkhand tectonic zone

      Hiredya Chauhan Ashima Saikia Talat Ahmad

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      Tonalite–trondhjemite–granodiorite gneisses (TTG) and K-rich granites are extensively exposed in the Mesoarchean to Paleoproterozoic Bundelkhand craton of central India. The TTGs rocks are coarsegrained with biotite, plagioclase feldspar, K-feldspar and amphibole as major constituent phases. The major minerals constituting the K-rich granites are K-feldspar, plagioclase feldspar and biotite. They are also medium to coarse grained. Mineral chemical studies show that the amphiboles of TTG are calcic amphibole hastingsite, plagioclase feldspars are mostly of oligoclase composition, K-feldspars are near pure end members and biotites are solid solutions between annite and siderophyllite components. The K-rich granites have biotites of siderophyllite–annite composition similar to those of TTGs, plagioclase feldspars are oligoclase in composition, potassic feldspars have XK ranging from 0.97 to 0.99 and are devoid of any amphibole. The tonalite–trondhjemite–granodiorite gneiss samples have high SiO₂ (64.17– 74.52 wt%), Na₂O (3.11–5.90 wt%), low Mg# (30–47) and HREE contents, with moderate (La/Yb)CN values (14.7–33.50) and Sr/Y ratios (4.85–98.7). These geochemical characteristics suggest formation of the TTG by partial melting of the hydrous basaltic crust at pressures and depths where garnet and amphibole were stable phases in the Paleo-Mesoarchean. The K-rich granite samples show high SiO₂ (64.72–76.73 wt%), K₂O (4.31–5.42), low Na₂O (2.75–3.31 wt%), Mg# (24–40) and HREE contents, with moderate to high (La/Yb)CN values (9.26–29.75) and Sr/Y ratios (1.52–24). They differ from their TTG in having elevated concentrations of incompatible elements like K, Zr, Th, and REE. These geochemical features indicate formation of the K-granites by anhydrous partial melting of the Paleo-Mesoarchean TTG or mafic crustal materials in an extensional regime. Combined with previous studies it is interpreted that two stages of continental accretion (at 3.59–3.33 and 3.2–3.0 Ga) and reworking (at 2.5–1.9 Ga) occurred in the Bundel khand craton from Archaean to Paleoproterozoic.

    • The effect of inertia, viscous damping, temperature and normal stress on chaotic behaviour of the rate and state friction model

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      A fundamental understanding of frictional sliding at rock surfaces is of practical importance for nucleation and propagation of earthquakes and rock slope stability. We investigate numerically the effect of different physical parameters such as inertia, viscous damping, temperature and normal stress on the chaoticbehaviour of the two state variables rate and state friction (2sRSF) model. In general, a slight variation in any of inertia, viscous damping, temperature and effective normal stress reduces the chaotic behaviour of the sliding system. However, the present study has shown the appearance of chaos for the specificvalues of normal stress before it disappears again as the normal stress varies further. It is also observed that magnitude of system stiffness at which chaotic motion occurs, is less than the corresponding value of critical stiffness determined by using the linear stability analysis. These results explain the practical observation why chaotic nucleation of an earthquake is a rare phenomenon as reported in literature.

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