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      Volume 127, Issue 2

      March 2018

    • Probabilistic seismic hazard at the archaeological site of Gol Gumbaz in Vijayapura, south India

      Shivakumar G Patil Arun Menon G R Dodagoudar

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      Probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA) is carried out for the archaeological site of Vijayapura in south India in order to obtain hazard consistent seismic input ground-motions for seismic risk assessment and design of seismic protection measures for monuments, where warranted. For this purpose the standardCornell-McGuire approach, based on seismogenic zones with uniformly distributed seismicity is employed. The main features of this study are the usage of an updated and unified seismic catalogue based on moment magnitude, new seismogenic source models and recent ground motion prediction equations(GMPEs) in logic tree framework. Seismic hazard at the site is evaluated for level and rock site condition with 10% and 2% probabilities of exceedance in 50 years, and the corresponding peak ground accelerations (PGAs) are 0.074 and 0.142 g, respectively. In addition, the uniform hazard spectra (UHS) of the site arecompared to the Indian code-defined spectrum. Comparisons are also made with results from National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA 2010), in terms of PGA and pseudo spectral accelerations (PSAs) at T = 0.2, 0.5, 1.0 and 1.25 s for 475- and 2475-yr return periods. Results of the present study are in good agreement with the PGA calculated from isoseismal map of the Killari earthquake, Mw = 6.4 (1993). Disaggregation of PSHA results for the PGA and spectral acceleration (Sa) at 0.5 s, displays the controlling scenario earthquake for the study region as low to moderate magnitude with the source being at a short distance from the study site. Deterministic seismic hazard (DSHA) is also carried out by taking into account three scenario earthquakes. The UHS corresponding to 475-yr return period (RP) is used to define the target spectrum and accordingly, the spectrum-compatible natural accelerograms are selected from the suite of recorded accelerograms.

    • Lithologic boundaries from gravity and magnetic anomalies over Proterozoic Dalma volcanics

      Pramod Kumar Yadav P K Adhikari Shalivahan Srivastava Ved P Maurya Anurag Tripathi Shailendra Singh Roshan K Singh Ashish K Bage

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      Dalma volcanics (DVs) has intruded the older Singhbhum Group of Metapelites. Despite DVs being rich in mineralisation, its boundaries are not clearly demarcated. Gravity and magnetic surveys have been attempted for mapping the boundaries in DVs. These surveys were made in the northern fringeof the DVs over an area of ∼0.70 km2 along 13 parallel lines at 50 m spacing. The data was acquired at ∼25 m spacing. The surveys were taken for determination of lithological boundaries, depths and nature of causative source using Euler depth solutions and radially averaged power spectrum (RAPS).Residual anomaly maps of gravity and magnetic intensity show the same trend as that of Bouguer gravity anomaly and total magnetic intensity anomaly map indicating towards shallow sources. The magnetic map in general follows the same pattern as that of gravity anomaly maps. The map shows coincident highgravity and magnetic anomalies. These anomalies together with resistivity signatures confirm that the northern fringe of DVs hosts volcanogenic massive sulphide settings. The Euler depth solution delineated the lateral boundaries and nature of the source. It seems that the source is of spherical nature lying withina depth range of 25–40 m. The obtained lithological (vertical) units from RAPS are between Lower DVs, Upper DVs and Singhbhum Group Metapelites at depths of ∼15, ∼25 and ∼40 m, respectively. The metallogeny is associated with the Upper DVs and the corresponding delineated lithological (vertical) unit is indicative of the top of the ore body. Good agreement is observed with the geological successionfrom the drilling data and resistivity data. The findings suggest that the northern fringe of DVs could be a preferred target for drilling.

    • Semi-empirical model for retrieval of soil moisture using RISAT-1 C-Band SAR data over a sub-tropical semi-arid area of Rewari district, Haryana (India)

      Kishan Singh Rawat Vinay Kumar Sehgal Sanatan Pradhan Shibendu S Ray

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      We have estimated soil moisture (SM) by using circular horizontal polarization backscattering coefficient (σoRH), differences of circular vertical and horizontal σooRV− σo RH) from FRS-1 data of Radar Imaging Satellite (RISAT-1) and surface roughness in terms of RMS height (RMSheight). We examined the performance of FRS-1 in retrieving SM under wheat crop at tillering stage. Results revealed that it is possible to develop a good semi-empirical model (SEM) to estimate SM of the upper soil layer using RISAT-1 SAR data rather than using existing empirical model based on only single parameter, i.e., σo. Near surface SM measurements were related to σoRH, σoRV−σoRH derived using 5.35 GHz (C-band) image of RISAT-1 and RMSheight. The roughness component derived in terms of RMSheight showed a good positive correlation with σoRH−σoRH (R2 = 0.65). By considering all the major influencing factors (σoRH, σoRV− σoRH, and RMSheight), an SEM was developed where SM (volumetric) predicted values depend on σoRH, σoRV− σoRH, and RMSheight. This SEM showed R2 of 0.87 and adjusted R2 of 0.85, multiple R=0.94 and with standard error of 0.05 at 95% confidence level. Validation of the SM derived from semi-empirical model with observed measurement (SMObserved) showed root mean square error (RMSE) = 0.06, relative- RMSE (R-RMSE) = 0.18, mean absolute error (MAE) = 0.04, normalized RMSE (NRMSE) = 0.17, Nash–Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE) = 0.91 (≈1), index of agreement (d) = 1, coefficient of determination (R2) = 0.87, mean bias error (MBE) = 0.04, standard error of estimate (SEE) = 0.10, volume error (VE) = 0.15, variance of the distribution of differences (S2d) = 0.004. The developed SEM showed better performance in estimating SM than Topp empirical model which is based only on σo. By using the developed SEM, top soil SM can be estimated with low mean absolute percent error (MAPE) = 1.39 and can be used for operational applications.

    • Impact of LULC change on the runoff, base flow and evapotranspiration dynamics in eastern Indian river basins during 1985–2005 using variable infiltration capacity approach

      Pulakesh Das Mukunda Dev Behera Nitesh Patidar Bhabagrahi Sahoo Poonam Tripathi Priti Ranjan Behera S K Srivastava Partha Sarathi Roy Praveen Thakur S P Agrawal Y V N Krishnamurthy

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      As a catchment phenomenon, land use and land cover change (LULCC) has a great role in influencing the hydrological cycle. In this study, decadal LULC maps of 1985, 1995, 2005 and predicted-2025 of the Subarnarekha, Brahmani, Baitarani, Mahanadi and Nagavali River basins of eastern India were analyzed in the framework of the variable infiltration capacity (VIC) macro scale hydrologic model to estimate their relative consequences. The model simulation showed a decrease in ET with 0.0276% during 1985–1995, but a slight increase with 0.0097% during 1995–2005. Conversely, runoff and base flowshowed an overall increasing trend with 0.0319 and 0.0041% respectively during 1985–1995. In response to the predicted LULC in 2025, the VIC model simulation estimated reduction of ET with 0.0851% with an increase of runoff by 0.051%. Among the vegetation parameters, leaf area index (LAI) emergedas the most sensitive one to alter the simulated water balance. LULC alterations via deforestation, urbanization, cropland expansions led to reduced canopy cover for interception and transpiration that in turn contributed to overall decrease in ET and increase in runoff and base flow. This study reiterates changes in the hydrology due to LULCC, thereby providing useful inputs for integrated water resources management in the principle of sustained ecology.

    • An approach of understanding acid volcanics and tuffaceous volcaniclastics from field studies: A case from Tadpatri Formation, Proterozoic Cuddapah basin, Andhra Pradesh, India

      Sukanta Goswami P K Upadhyay Sangeeta Bhagat Syed Zakaulla A K Bhatt V Natarajan Sukanta Dey

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      The lower stratigraphic part of the Cuddapah basin is marked by mafic and felsic volcanism. Tadpatri Formation consists of a greater variety of rock types due to bimodal volcanism in the upper part. Presence of bimodal volcanism is an indication of continental rift setting. Various genetic processes involved in the formation of such volcanic sequence result in original textures which are classified into volcaniclastic and coherent categories. Detailed and systematic field worksin Tadpatri–Tonduru transect of SW Cuddapah basin have provided information on the physical processes producing this diversity of rock types. Felsic volcanism is manifested here with features as finger print of past rhyolite-dacite eruptions. Acid volcanics, tuffs and associated shale of Tadpatri Formation are studied and mapped in the field. With supporting subordinate studies on geochemistry,mineralogy and petrogenesis of the volcanics to validate field features accurately, it is understood that volcanism was associated with rifting and shallow marine environmental condition. Four facies (i.e., surge, flow, fall and resedimented volcaniclastic) are demarcated to describe stratigraphic units and volcanic history of the mapped area. The present contribution focuses on the fundamentalcharacterization and categorization of field-based features diagnostic of silica-rich volcanic activities in the Tadpatri Formation.

    • Late Glacial–Holocene record of benthic foraminiferal morphogroups from the eastern Arabian Sea OMZ: Paleoenvironmental implications

      K Verma S K Bharti A D Singh

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      The Arabian Sea is characterized today by a well-developed and perennial oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) at mid-water depths. The Indian margin where the OMZ impinges provides sediment records ideal to study past changes in the OMZ intensity and its vertical extent in response to the changes of monsoondrivenprimary productivity and intermediate water ventilation. Benthic foraminifera, depending upon their adaptation capabilities to variation in sea floor environment and microhabitat preferences, develop various functional morphologies that can be potentially used in paleoenvironmental reconstruction. In this study, we analysed benthic foraminiferal morphogroups in assemblage records of the last 30 ka in asediment core collected from the lower OMZ of the Indian margin (off Goa). In total, nine morphogroups within two broadly classified epifaunal and infaunal microhabitat categories are identified. The abundance of morphogroups varies significantly during the late Glacial, Deglacial and Holocene. It appears thatmonsoon wind driven organic matter flux, and water column ventilation governing the OMZ intensity and sea-bottom oxygen condition, have profound influence on structuring the benthic foraminiferal morphogroups. We found a few morphogroups showing major changes in their abundances during the periods corresponding to the northern hemisphere climatic events. Benthic foraminifera with planoconvextests are abundant during the cold Heinrich events, when the sea bottom was oxygenated due to a better ventilated, weak OMZ; whereas, those having tapered/cylindrical tests dominate during the last glacial maximum and the Holocene between 5 and 8 ka BP, when the OMZ was intensified and poorly ventilated, leading to oxygen-depleted benthic environment. Characteristically, increased abundance of taxa with milioline tests during the Heinrich 1 further suggests enhanced ventilation attributed probably to the influence of oxygen-rich Antarctic Intermediate Water (AAIW).

    • Geochemical characteristics of Proterozoic granite magmatism from Southern Granulite Terrain, India: Implications for Gondwana

      T Yellappa J Mallikharjuna Rao

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      Granitoid intrusions occur widely in the Southern Granulite Terrain (SGT) of India, particularly within the Cauvery Suture Zone (CSZ), which is considered as the trace of the Neoproterozoic Mozambique ocean closure. Here we present the petrological and geochemical features of 19 granite plutons across thethree major tectonic blocks of the terrain. Our data show a wide variation in the compositions of these intrusions from alkali feldspathic syenite to granite. The whole rock geochemistry of these intrusions displays higher concentrations of SiO2, FeO*, K2O, Ba, Zr, Th, LREE and low MgO, Na2O, Ti, P, Nb, Y and HREE’s. The granitoids are metaluminous to slightly peraluminous in nature revealing both I-type and A-type origin. In tectonic discrimination plots, the plutons dominantly show volcanic arc and syn-collisional as well as post-collisional affinity. Based on the available age data together withgeochemical constrains, we demonstrate that the granitic magmatism in the centre and south of the terrain is mostly associated with the Neoproterozoic subduction–collision–accretion–orogeny, followed by extensional mechanism of Gondwana tectonics events. Similar widespread granitic activity has also beendocumented in the Arabian Nubian shield, Madagascar, Sri Lanka and Antarctica, providing similarities for the reconstruction of the crustal fragments of Gondwana supercontinent followed by Pan-African orogeny.

    • Synoptic patterns leading to hailstorm in Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari province, Iran

      Bromand Salahi Ahmad Nohegar Mahmoud Behrouzi Mehdi Aalijahan

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      The purpose of this study was to extract the synoptic patterns of 500 mb geopotential height and the sea level pressure leading to form hail in Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari province, Iran. To this end, at first, we explored hail occurrence in different areas of the province under investigation. Then, using sea levelpressure and 500 mb geopotential height data, the patterns of hail occurrence were investigated through hierarchical clustering andWard’s method. The level of 500 mb patterns resulting in hail formation in the area include: (1) settlement of a cut-off low pressure blocking in Turkey and Iran’s position in downstreamof trough and injection of humidity coming from the Red Sea; (2) settlement of low ridge in northern Europe and Iran lying in downstream of the trough and injection of humidity of the Mediterranean Sea; (3) settlement of a cut-off low pressure in east of Europe and Iran lying in downstream of the trough; and (4) settlement of a deep trough in the Mediterranean Sea, formation of an omega-shaped blockingin Northern Europe and Iran lying in downstream of the trough. At sea level, the following patterns have caused hail formation in Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari province: (1) settlement of low pressure in Iran and Russia accompanying high pressure in Taklimakan Desert and east of Europe; (2) settlementof low pressure in Iran and high pressure in Egypt, northern Europe, and Taklimakan Desert; and (3) settlement of low pressure in Iran, Saudi Arabia and south of Italy and high pressure in Egypt and Siberia.

    • Estimation of improved resolution soil moisture in vegetated areas using passive AMSR-E data

      Mina Moradizadeh Mohammad R Saradjian

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      Microwave remote sensing provides a unique capability for soil parameter retrievals. Therefore, various soil parameters estimation models have been developed using brightness temperature (BT) measured by passive microwave sensors. Due to the low resolution of satellite microwave radiometer data, themain goal of this study is to develop a downscaling approach to improve the spatial resolution of soil moisture estimates with the use of higher resolution visible/infrared sensor data. Accordingly, after the soil parameters have been obtained using Simultaneous Land Parameters Retrieval Model algorithm, thedownscaling method has been applied to the soil moisture estimations that have been validated against in situ soil moisture data. Advance Microwave Scanning Radiometer-EOS BT data in Soil Moisture Experiment 2003 region in the south and north of Oklahoma have been used to this end. Results illustrated that the soil moisture variability is effectively captured at 5 km spatial scales without a significant degradation of the accuracy.

    • Analysis of rainfall and temperature time series to detect long-term climatic trends and variability over semi-arid Botswana

      Jimmy Byakatonda B P Parida Piet K Kenabatho D B Moalafhi

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      Arid and semi-arid environments have been identified with locations prone to impacts of climate variability and change. Investigating long-term trends is one way of tracing climate change impacts. This study investigates variability through annual and seasonal meteorological time series. Possible in homogeneities and years of intervention are analysed using four absolute homogeneity tests. Trendsin the climatic variables were determined using Mann–Kendall and Sen’s Slope estimator statistics. Association of El Ni˜no Southern Oscillation (ENSO) with local climate is also investigated through multivariate analysis. Results from the study show that rainfall time series are fully homogeneous with 78.6 and 50% of the stations for maximum and minimum temperature, respectively, showinghomogeneity. Trends also indicate a general decrease of 5.8, 7.4 and 18.1% in annual, summer and winter rainfall, respectively. Warming trends are observed in annual and winter temperature at 0.3 and 1.5% for maximum temperature and 1.7 and 6.5% for minimum temperature, respectively. Rainfall reporteda positive correlation with Southern Oscillation Index (SOI) and at the same time negative association with Sea Surface Temperatures (SSTs). Strong relationships between SSTs and maximum temperature are observed during the El Ni˜no and La Ni˜na years. These study findings could facilitate planning and management of agricultural and water resources in Botswana.

    • Prediction of fog/visibility over India using NWP Model

      Aditi Singh John P George Gopal Raman Iyengar

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      Frequent occurrence of fog in different parts of northern India is common during the winter months of December and January. Low visibility conditions due to fog disrupt normal public life. Visibility conditions heavily affect both surface and air transport. A number of flights are either diverted or cancelled every year during the winter season due to low visibility conditions, experienced at differentairports of north India. Thus, fog and visibility forecasts over plains of north India become very important during winter months. This study aims to understand the ability of a NWP model (NCMRWF, Unified Model, NCUM) with a diagnostic visibility scheme to forecast visibility over plains of north India. Thepresent study verifies visibility forecasts obtained from NCUM against the INSAT-3D fog images and visibility observations from the METAR reports of different stations in the plains of north India. The study shows that the visibility forecast obtained from NCUM can provide reasonably good indication ofthe spatial extent of fog in advance of one day. The fog intensity is also predicted fairly well. The study also verifies the simple diagnostic model for fog which is driven by NWP model forecast of surface relative humidity and wind speed. The performance of NWP model forecast of visibility is found comparable tothat from simple fog model driven by NWP forecast of relative humidity and wind speed.

    • Accessing the capability of TRMM 3B42 V7 to simulate streamflow during extreme rain events: Case study for a Himalayan River Basin

      Brijesh Kumar Venkat Lakshmi

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      The paper examines the quality of Tropical Rainfall Monitoring Mission (TRMM) 3B42 V7 precipitation product to simulate the streamflow using Soil Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model for various rainfall intensities over the Himalayan region. The SWAT model has been set up for Gandak River Basinwith 41 sub-basins and 420 HRUs. Five stream gauge locations are used to simulate the streamflow for a time span of 10 years (2000–2010). Daily streamflow for the simulation period is collected from Central Water Commission (CWC), India and Department of Hydrology and Meteorology (DHM), Nepal. The simulation results are found good in terms of Nash–Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE) >0.65, coefficient of determination (R2)>0.67 and Percentage Bias (PBIAS) <15%, at each stream gauge sites. Thereafter, we have calculated the PBIAS and RMSE-observations standard deviation ratio (RSR) statistics between TRMM simulated and observed streamflow for various rainfall intensity classes, viz., light (<7.5mm/d), moderate (7.5 to 35.4 mm/d), heavy (35.5 to 124.4 mm/d) and extremely heavy (>124.4mm/d). The PBIAS and RSR show that TRMM simulated streamflow is suitable for moderate to heavy rainfall intensities. However, it does not perform well for light- and extremely-heavy rainfall intensities. The finding of the present work is useful for the problems related to water resources management, irrigation planning and hazard analysis over the Himalayan regions.

    • Incorporation of ice sheet models into an Earth system model: Focus on methodology of coupling

      Oleg Rybak Evgeny Volodin Polina Morozova Artiom Nevecherja

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      Elaboration of a modern Earth system model (ESM) requires incorporation of ice sheet dynamics. Coupling of an ice sheet model (ICM) to an AOGCM is complicated by essential differences in spatial and temporal scales of cryospheric, atmospheric and oceanic components. To overcome this difficulty, we applytwo different approaches for the incorporation of ice sheets into an ESM. Coupling of the Antarctic ice sheet model (AISM) to the AOGCM is accomplished via using procedures of resampling, interpolation and assigning to the AISM grid points annually averaged meanings of air surface temperature and precipitation fields generated by the AOGCM. Surface melting, which takes place mainly on the margins of the Antarctic peninsula and on ice shelves fringing the continent, is currently ignored. AISM returns anomalies of surface topography back to the AOGCM. To couple the Greenland ice sheet model (GrISM) to the AOGCM, we use a simple buffer energy- and water-balance model (EWBM-G) to account fororographically-driven precipitation and other sub-grid AOGCM-generated quantities. The output of the EWBM-G consists of surface mass balance and air surface temperature to force the GrISM, and freshwater run-off to force thermohaline circulation in the oceanic block of the AOGCM. Because of arather complex coupling procedure of GrIS compared to AIS, the paper mostly focuses on Greenland.

    • Early Permian transgressive–regressive cycles: Sequence stratigraphic reappraisal of the coal-bearing Barakar Formation, Raniganj Basin, India

      Biplab Bhattacharya Joyeeta Bhattacharjee Sandip Bandyopadhyay Sudipto Banerjee Kalyan Adhikari

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      The present research is an attempt to assess the Barakar Formation of the Raniganj Gondwana Basin, India, in the frame of fluvio-marine (estuarine) depositional systems using sequence stratigraphic elements. Analysis of predominant facies associations signify deposition in three sub-environments: (i) ariver-dominated bay-head delta zone in the inner estuary, with transition from braided fluvial channels (FA-B1) to tide-affected meandering fluvial channels and flood plains (FA-B2) in the basal part of the succession; (ii) a mixed energy central basin zone, which consists of transitional fluvio-tidal channels (FA-B2), tidal flats, associated with tidal channels and bars (FA-B3) in the middle-upper part ofthe succession; and (iii) a wave-dominated outer estuary (coastal) zone (FA-B4 with FA-B3) in the upper part of the succession. Stacked progradational (P1, P2)–retrogradational (R1, R2) successions attest to one major base level fluctuation, leading to distinct transgressive–regressive (T–R) cycles with development of initial falling stage systems tract (FSST), followed by lowstand systems tract (LST)and successive transgressive systems tracts (TST-1 and TST-2). Shift in the depositional regime from regressive to transgressive estuarine system in the early Permian Barakar Formation is attributed to change in accommodation space caused by mutual interactions of (i) base level fluctuations in responseto climatic amelioration and (ii) basinal tectonisms (exhumation/sagging) related to post-glacial isostatic adjustments in the riftogenic Gondwana basins.

    • On the dynamics of an extreme rainfall event in northern India in 2013

      Anu Xavier M G Manoj K Mohankumar

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      India experienced a heavy rainfall event in the year 2013 over Uttarakhand and its adjoining areas, which was exceptional as it witnessed the fastest monsoon progression. This study aims to explore the causative factors of this heavy rainfall event leading to flood and landslides which claimed huge loss of lives andproperty. The catastrophic event occurred from 14th to 17th June, 2013 during which the state received 375% more rainfall than the highest rainfall recorded during a normal monsoon season. Using the high resolution precipitation data and complementary parameters, we found that the mid-latitude westerliesshifted southward from its normal position during the intense flooding event. The southward extension of subtropical jet (STJ) over the northern part of India was observed only during the event days and its intensity was found to be increasing from 14th to 16th June. The classical theory of westward tilt of mid-latitude trough with height, which acts to intensify the system through the transfer of potentialenergy of the mean flow, is evident from analysis of relative vorticity at multiple pressure levels. On analysing the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), negative values were observed during the event days. Thus, the decrease in pressure gradient resulted in decrease of the intensity of westerlies which caused the cold air to move southward. During the event, as the cold air moved south, it pushed the mid-latitude westerlies south of its normal position during summer monsoon and created a conducive atmosphere for the intensification of the system.

    • Correction to: Geomorphic investigation of the Late- Quaternary landforms in the southern Zanskar Valley, NW Himalaya

      Shubhra Sharma Aadil Hussain Amit K Mishra Aasif Lone Tarun Solanki Mohammad Khatib Khan

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