Article ID 0092 October 2017
Field and petrographic studies are carried out to characterize the interactions of mafic and felsic magmas from Pithora region of the northeastern part of the Bastar Craton. The MMEs, syn-plutonic mafic dykes, cuspate contacts, magmatic flow textures, mingling and hybridization suggest the coeval emplacement of end member magmas. Petrographic evidences such as disequilibrium assemblages, resorption textures, quartz ocelli, rapakivi and poikilitic textures suggest magma mingling and mixing phenomena. Such features of mingling and mixing of the felsic and mafic magma manifest the magma chamber processes. Introduction of mafic magmas into the felsic magmas before initiation of crystallization of the latter, results in hybrid magmas under the influence of thermal and chemical exchange. The mechanical exchange occurs between the coexisting magmas due to viscosity contrast, if the mafic magma enters slightly later into the magma chamber, then the felsic magma starts to crystallize. Blobs of mafic magma form as MMEs in the felsic magma and they scatter throughout the pluton due to convection. At a later stage, if mafic magma enters the system after partial crystallization of felsic phase, mechanical interaction between the magmas leads to the formation of fragmented dyke or syn-plutonic mafic dyke. All these features are well-documented in the study area. Field and petrographic evidences suggest that the textural variations from Pithora region of Bastar Craton are the outcome of magma mingling, mixing and hybridization processes.
Article ID 0093 October 2017
The effects of climate change and overexploitation are being strongly perceived in the studied area and the springs discharge is obviously affected. In this paper, Ras El Ain spring discharge and precipitation were analyzed by normalized methods on an yearly timescale. The deficit of Ras El Ain spring discharge due to overexploitation factors and drought effects was estimated. Cumulative drought analyses were carried out using SPI10 and SQI10. Finally, the decreasing trends of the spring discharge due to the deficiency in rainfall were analyzed. The main results reveal that the annual mean deficit of Ras El Ain spring discharge due to overpumping was between 32 and 45%, whereas, annual mean deficit related to drought was between 22 and 35% on average, during the last 30 years (post-1984). The moving averages of SPI and SQI delineate very well the drought periods during last three decades. The cumulative droughts using SPI10 and SQI10 reveal that wet period (pre-1984) with positive values was characterized by high precipitation and spring discharge. Overexploitation period (1984–1989) is distinguished by decreasing SQI10 values whereas, SPI10 is almost stable. The response of the karst system to the precipitation signal has been changed, during the drought period (1990–2000), and the spring behaviour has been modified due to the first overexploitation period. Finally, overexploitation period (2001–2008) is related to the second phase of groundwater intensive pumping for irrigation purposes. Consequently, this period is completely catastrophic causing the drying up of the spring. The decreasing trends analyzed using DPI and DQI showed annual decreasing rates relative to the mean values of −0.268% and −0.105%, respectively. Thus, the results of theoretical model reveal that precipitation will decrease by about DPI=−20.7% and the discharge will decline by about −9.2% by 2050. Consequently, the declining discharge due to climatic variation under natural conditions as pre-1984 was about 10%. Whereas, the catastrophic drying up of the spring was probably the consequence of the anthropogenic effects. Accordingly, it requires the development of sustainable water resources management program to reduce long-term drought risks, restore the groundwater reservoir and minimize the overexploitation effects on spring discharge.
Article ID 0094 October 2017
The present study examines the dynamics of mid-tropospheric vortex during cyclogenesis and quantifies the importance of such vortex developments in the intensification of tropical cyclone. The genesis of tropical cyclones are investigated based on two most widely accepted theories that explain the mechanism of cyclone formation namely ‘top-down’ and ‘bottom-up’ dynamics. The Weather Research and Forecast model is employed to generate high resolution dataset required for analysis. The development of the mid-level vortex was analyzed with regard to the evolution of potential vorticity (PV), relative vorticity (RV) and vertical wind shear. Two tropical cyclones which include the developing cyclone, Hudhud and the non-developing cyclone, Helen are considered. Further, Hudhud and Helen, is compared to a deep depression formed over Bay of Bengal to highlight the significance of the mid-level vortex in the genesis of a tropical cyclone. Major results obtained are as follows: stronger positive PV anomalies are noticed over upper and lower levels of troposphere near the storm center for Hudhud as compared to Helen and the depression; Constructive interference in upper and lower level positive PV anomaly maxima resulted in the intensification of Hudhud. For Hudhud, the evolution of RV follows ‘top-down’ dynamics, in which the growth starts from the middle troposphere and then progresses downwards. As for Helen, RV growth seems to follow ‘bottom-up’ mechanism initiating growth from the lower troposphere. Though, the growth of RV for the depression initiates from mid-troposphere, rapid dissipation of mid-level vortex destabilizes the system. It is found that the formation mid-level vortex in the genesis phase is significantly important for the intensification of the storm.
Article ID 0095 October 2017
The soil organic carbon (SOC) was determined in 40 sites at two depths (0–10 and 10–20 cm) for different uses of soil during one year (February 2014–February 2015). The total SOC stored in the analysed soil from the Ramsar site was 9.67×105 t, from which 40% was stored in induced pasture, followed by the red oak forest with shrubbery secondary vegetation, rain-fed agriculture and human settlements (24%, 23%, and 13%, respectively); the last was evaluated to determine how the proximity of the city impacts the SOC. The SOC concentrations present significant differences with respect to soil depth (p=0.0) and land use (p=0.0). The temporal distribution maps showed that SOC did not present significant variations in the short-term. A relation between SOC and bulk density was found (r=−0.654, p=0.00), with respect to other physicochemical properties. Moreover, a significant relation between SOC and stored total nitrogen (r=0.585; p=0.00) was found. This work represents the first study that analyses the current condition of the soils in the Ramsar site ‘Presa Manuel Ávila Camacho’.
Article ID 0096 October 2017
By analyzing the multi-year runoff and rainfall data at 15 hydrological stations from 1980 to 2007, as well as monthly runoff data from 1964 to 1984 at the Zipingpu hydrologic station, the relationship between precipitation and runoff has been established and the trend was explored. Based on the catastrophic floods of August 13 and August 18, 2010, characteristics and control factors on the post-seismic floods are summarized. Firstly, the Wenchuan earthquake and rupture zone provides the background for post-seismic floods to develop in the upper Minjiang River, which follows a post-seismic disaster-chain pattern: earthquake collapse to landslide debris flows to floods. Secondly, heavy rainfall controlled by the orographically-enhanced precipitation after the Wenchuan earthquake is the trigger factor for the development of devastating post-seismic floods. Thirdly, the post-seismic floods contain high sediment discharge, cause abrupt and severe damages, and have a large of volume and higher frequency.
Article ID 0097 October 2017
The solution of static elastic deformation of a homogeneous, orthotropic elastic uniform half-space with rigid boundary due to a non-uniform slip along a vertical strike-slip fault of infinite length and finite width has been studied. The results obtained here are the generalisation of the results for an isotropic medium having rigid boundary in the sense that medium of the present work is orthotropic with rigid boundary which is more realistic than isotropic and the results for an isotropic case can be derived from our results. The variations of displacement with distance from the fault due to various slip profiles have been studied to examine the effect of anisotropy on the deformation. Numerically it has been found that for parabolic slip profile, the displacement in magnitude for isotropic elastic medium is greater than that for an orthotropic elastic half-space, but, in case of linear slip, the displacements in magnitude for an orthotropic medium is greater than that for the isotropic medium.
Article ID 0098 October 2017
Analyses of Non-Uniform Rational B-spline (NURB) curve by varying weights at its nodal points and projection ratio produce several kinetically plausible symmetric and asymmetric fold morphologies in 2D promptly and efficiently with varied overall geometries, curvature of limbs, sharpness/bluntness of hinges, extent of hinge zone, tightness/interlimb angles, etc. Some of these folds are new geometries what other approaches, such as those with Bézier curve, did not produce so far. Natural fold profiles can be matched with NURB curves from photographs.
Article ID 0099 October 2017
Tropical forests act as a major sink of atmospheric carbon dioxide, and store large amounts of carbon in biomass. India is a tropical country with regions of dense vegetation and high biodiversity. However due to the paucity of observations, the carbon sequestration potential of these forests could not be assessed in detail so far. To address this gap, several flux towers were erected over different ecosystems in India by Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology as part of the MetFlux India project funded by MoES (Ministry of Earth Sciences, Government of India). A 50 m tall tower was set up over a semi-evergreen moist deciduous forest named Kaziranga National Park in north-eastern part of India which houses a significant stretch of local forest cover. Climatically this region is identified to be humid sub-tropical. Here we report first generation of the in situ meteorological observations and leaf area index (LAI) measurements from this site. LAI obtained from NASA’s Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) is compared with the in situ measured LAI. We use these in situ measurements to calculate the total gross photosynthesis (or gross primary productivity, GPP) of the forest using a calibrated model. LAI and GPP show prominent seasonal variation. LAI ranges between 0.75 in winter to 3.25 in summer. Annual GPP is estimated to be 2.11kg C m−2year−1.
Article ID 0100 October 2017
Earthquakes occurred on the surface of the Earth contain comprehensive and abundant geodynamic connotations, and can serve as important sources for describing the present-day stress field and regime. An important advantage of the earthquake focal mechanism solution is the ability to obtain the stress pattern information at depth in the lithosphere. During the past several decades, an increasing number of focal mechanisms were available for estimating the present-day stress field and regime. In the present study, altogether 553 focal mechanism data ranging from the year 1976 to 2017 with $Mw \ge7.0$ were compiled in the Global/Harvard centroid moment tensor (CMT) catalogue, the characteristics of global strong earthquakes and the present-day stress pattern were analyzed based on these data. The majority of global strong earthquakes are located around the plate boundaries, shallow-focus, and thrust faulting (TF) regime. We grouped 518 of them into 12 regions (Boxes) based on their geographical proximity and tectonic setting. For each box, the present-day stress field and regime were obtained by formal stress inversion. The results indicated that the maximum horizontal principal stress direction was ∼N–S-trending in western North America continent and southwestern Indonesia, ∼NNE–SSW-trending in western Middle America and central Asia, ∼NE–SW in southeastern South America continent and northeastern Australia, ∼NEE–SWW-trending in western South America continent and southeastern Asia, ∼E–W-trending in southeastern Australia, and ∼NW–SE-trending in eastern Asia. The results can provide additional constraints to the driving forces and geodynamic models, allowing them to explain the current plate interactions and crustal tectonic complexities better.
Article ID 0101 October 2017
Magnetovariational studies were carried out along four different EW profiles in Saurashtra region in different phases, during January 2007–March 2012. Transient geomagnetic field variations (X, Y horizontal field and Z vertical field components) recorded along these profiles are analyzed to infer the electrical conductivity distribution of the region. The vertical field transfer functions which depict the characteristics of electrical conductivity distribution are presented in the form of induction arrows. From the spatial distribution of these arrows, it is inferred that the sediments filling the offshore basins have more conductivity than those basins in Saurashtra region. Z/H pseudo sections along the four profiles in conjunction with tectonics and other geophysical methods permit to infer that the conductivity anomaly in the eastern part of the profiles is associated with the crustal/lithosphere thinning. The possible cause for these anomalies may be explained in terms of partial melts associated with mafic intrusions, related to Deccan and pre-Deccan volcanism. High resistive block related to underplating mantle material has been reflected in 1D models of long period magnetotelluric data and its thickness reduces from west to east. Lithosphere–asthenosphere boundary varies from 80 to 100 km.
Article ID 0102 October 2017
Assessing sustainability of coastal groundwater is significant for groundwater management as coastal groundwater is vulnerable to over-exploitation and contamination. To address the issues of serious groundwater level drawdown and potential seawater intrusion risk of a multi-layered coastal aquifer system in Zhanjiang, China, this paper presents a numerical modelling study to research groundwater sustainability of this aquifer system. The transient modelling results show that the groundwater budget was negative (−3826×104 to −4502×104m3/a) during the years 2008–2011, revealing that this aquifer system was over-exploited. Meanwhile, the groundwater sustainability was assessed by evaluating the negative hydraulic pressure area (NHPA) of the unconfined aquifer and the groundwater level dynamic and flow velocity of the offshore boundaries of the confined aquifers. The results demonstrate that the Nansan Island is most influenced by NHPA and that the local groundwater should not be exploited. The results also suggest that, with the current groundwater exploitation scheme, the sustainable yield should be 1.784×108m3 /a (i.e., decreased by 20% from the current exploitation amount). To satisfy public water demands, the 20% decrease of the exploitation amount can be offset by the groundwater sourced from the Taiping groundwater resource field. These results provide valuable guidance for groundwater management of Zhanjiang.
Article ID 0103 October 2017
Petrography and bulk rock geochemistry of the Middle Miocene sandstones of the lower and upper members of Gebel El Rusas Formation along the Egyptian Red Sea Coastal plain, have been investigated to determine the provenance, tectonic setting, and weathering condition of this formation. The Lower Member is formed mainly of sandstones and conglomerates with clay interbeds. The Upper Member is more calcareous and formed mainly of sandstones and limestones with marls and clays intercalations. Petrographically, the Lower Member sandstones are mostly immature and classified as arkoses with an average framework composition of Q66F29R5, and the Upper Member sandstones are partly submature (more quartzose, less feldspathic) and classified as subarkoses with an average framework composition of Q80F17R3. The Gebel El Rusas sandstones are enriched in Sr, Ba, Zr and Rb and depleted in Co and U, as compared to UCC. The chemical index of alteration (CIA) values suggest moderate weathering conditions. The geochemistry results revealed that the Gebel El Rusas sandstones were derived from felsic-granitic source rocks and deposited in a passive margin of a synrift basin. The inferred tectonic setting for Middle Miocene Gebel El Rusas sandstones in the study area is consistent with the regional geology of the Eastern Desert of Egypt during Middle Miocene.
Article ID 0104 October 2017
The Gafsa and Chotts intracratonic basins in south-central Tunisia are transitional zones between the Atlasic domain to the north and the Saharan platform to the south. The principal aim of this paper is to unravel the geodynamic evolution of these basins following an integrated approach including seismic, well log and gravity data. These data are used to highlight the tectonic control on the deposition of Jurassic and Lower Cretaceous series and to discuss the role of the main faults that controlled the basin architecture and Cretaceous–Tertiary inversion. The horizontal gravity gradient map of the study area highlights the pattern of discontinuities within the two basins and reveals the presence of deep E–W basement faults. Primary attention is given to the role played by the E–W faults system and that of the NW–SE Gafsa fault which was previously considered active since the Jurassic. Facies and thickness analyses based on new seismic interpretation and well data suggest that the E–W-oriented faults controlled the subsidence distribution especially during the Jurassic. The NW–SE faults seem to be key structures that controlled the basins paleogeography during Late Cretaceous–Cenozoic time. The upper Triassic evaporite bodies, which locally outline the main NW–SE Gafsa fault, are regarded as intrusive salt bodies rather than early diapiric extrusions as previously interpreted since they are rare and occurred only along main strike-slip faults. In addition, seismic lines show that Triassic rocks are deep and do not exhibit true diapiric features.
Article ID 0105 October 2017
Dislocation modelling of an earthquake fault is of great importance due to the fact that ground surface response may be predicted by the model. However, geological features of a fault cannot be measured exactly, and therefore these features and data involve uncertainties. This paper presents a Monte Carlo based random model of faults with finite element method incorporating split node technique to impose the effects of discontinuities. Length and orientation of the fault are selected as random parameters in the domain model, and hence geometrical uncertainties are encountered. Mean and standard deviation values, as well as probability density function of ground surface responses due to the dislocation are computed. Based on analytical and numerical calculation of dislocation, two approaches of Monte Carlo simulations are proposed. Various comparisons are examined to illustrate the capability of both methods for random simulation of faults.
Article ID 0106 October 2017
Cratonic areas experience complex process-response changes due to their operative endogenic and exogenic forces varying in intensity and spatiality over long timescales. Unlike zones of active deformation, the surface expression of the transient signals in relatively tectonically stable areas are usually scant. The Subarnarekha River Basin, in eastern India, is a prime example of a Precambrian cratonic landscape, overlain in places by Tertiary and Quaternary deposits. A coupled quantitative-qualitative approach is employed towards deciphering tectonic and geological influences across linear and areal aspects, at the basin and sub-basin scale. Within this landscape, the transient erosional signatures are explored, as recorded in the disequilibrium conditions of the longitudinal profiles of the major streams, which are marked by a number of waterfalls at structural and lithological boundaries. Mathematical expressions derived from the normalized longitudinal profiles of these streams are used to ascertain their stage of development. Cluster analysis and chi plots provide significant interpretations of the role of vertical displacements or litho-structural variations within the basin. These analyses suggest that a heterogeneous, piece-meal response to the ongoing deformation exists in the area, albeit, determining the actual rate of this deformation or its temporal variation is difficult without correlated chronological datasets.