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      Volume 125, Issue 7

      October 2016,   pages  1313-1507

    • Long-term changes in the within-season temporal profile of southwest monsoon over western India

      Satyendra Bhandari Rohit Srivastava Vikram Mehta

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      This paper presents results of a study of long term trends in the characteristics of the within-season temporal profile of southwest monsoon rainfall over western India during the last five decades in relation to global warming induced regional climate change. In contrast to recent climate change analyses and projections, no significant long-term trends have been observed in this study. Slow decadal scale variations observed are analysed in relation to Pacific Decadal Oscillations (PDO). Daily variations in rainfall anomaly show opposite characteristics during negative and positive phases of PDO. The above-normal rainfall (>25%) is found during the starting phase of monsoon in negative PDO. Over the last decade, i.e., during 2000–2007, the seasonal rainfall amount, as well as seasonal span of southwest monsoon over western India is indicative of a gradual increase.

    • Reaction enhanced channelised fluid-flux along midcrustal shear zone: An example from Mesoproterozoic Phulad Shear Zone, Rajasthan, India

      Sadhana M Chatterjee Manideepa Roy Choudhury Subhrajyoti Das

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      Fluid infiltration at great depth during regional metamorphism plays a major role in mass transport and is responsible for significant rheological changes in the rock. Calc-silicate rocks of the Kajalbas area of Delhi Fold Belt, Rajasthan, are characterised by foliation parallel alternate bands of amphibolerich and clinopyroxene–plagioclase feldspar-rich layers of varying thicknesses (mm to decimetre thick). Textural relation suggests that the amphibole grains formed from clinopyroxene and plagioclase in the late phase of regional deformation. Algebraic analysis of the reaction textures and mineral compositions was performed with the computer program C-Space to obtain the balanced chemical reactions that led tothe formation of amphibole-rich bands. The computed balanced reaction is 70.74 Clinopyroxene + 27.23 Plagioclase + 22.018 H$_2$O+5.51K$^+$+1.00Mg2$^+$+ 27.15 Fe$^{2+}$ = 22.02 Amphibole + 67.86 SiO$_2$ aqueous +36.42 Ca$^{2+}$+ 8.98 Na$^+$. The constructed reaction suggests that aqueous fluid permeated the calc-silicate rock along mm to decimetre thick channels, metasomatized the clinopyroxene–plagioclase bearing rocks to form the amphibole-rich layers. The regional deformation presumably created the fluid channels thereby allowing the metasomatic fluid to enter the rock system. The above reaction has large negative volume change for solid phases indicating reaction-induced permeability. Thermodynamic calculations suggest that the fluid–rock interaction occurred at 665±05◦C and 6.6±0.25 kbar (corresponding to ∼20 km depth). Textural modeling integrating the textural features and balanced chemical reaction of the calc-silicate rocks of Mesoproterozoic Phulad Shear Zone thus indicate that extremely channelled fluid flow was reaction enhanced and caused major change in the rock rheology.

    • Mineralogy and geochemistry of granitoids from Kinnaur region, Himachal Higher Himalaya, India: Implication on the nature of felsic magmatism in the collision tectonics

      Brajesh Singh Santosh Kumar Masao Ban Kazuo Nakashima

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      Felsic magmatism in the southern part of Himachal Higher Himalaya is constituted by Neoproterozoic granite gneiss (GGn), Early Palaeozoic granitoids (EPG) and Tertiary tourmaline-bearing leucogranite (TLg). Magnetic susceptibility values ($\lt$3 ×10$^{−3}$ SI), molar Al$_2$O$^3$/(CaO+Na$_2$O+K$_2$O) ($\geq$1.1), mineral assemblage (bt–ms–pl–kf–qtz ± tur ± ap), and the presence of normative corundum relate these granitoids to peraluminous S-type, ilmenite series (reduced type) granites formed in a syncollisional tectonic setting. Plagioclase from GGn (An$_{10}$–An$_{31}$) and EPG (An$_{15}$–An$_{33}$) represents oligoclase to andesine and TLg (An$_2$–An$_{15}$) represents albite to oligoclase, whereas compositional ranges of K-feldspar are more or less similar (Or$_{88}$ to Or$_{95}$ in GGn, Or$_{86}$ to Or$_{97}$ in EPG and Or$_{87}$ to Or$_{94}$ in TLg). Biotites in GGn (Mg/Mg+Fe$^t$ = 0.34–0.45), EPG (Mg/Mg+Fe$^t$ = 0.27–0.47), and TLg (Mg/Mg+Fe$^t$ = 0.25–0.30) are ferribiotites enriched in siderophyllite, which stabilised between FMQ and HM buffers and are characterised by dominant 3Fe$\rightleftarrows$2Al, 3Mg$\rightleftarrows$2Al substitutions typical of peraluminous (S-type), reducing felsic melts. Muscovite in GGn (Mg/Mg+Fe$^t$ = 0.58–0.66), EPG (Mg/Mg+Fe$^t$ = 0.31−0.59), and TLg (Mg/Mg+Fet = 0.29–0.42) represent celadonite and paragonite solid solutions, and the tourmaline fromEPG and TLg belongs to the schorl-elbaite series, which are characteristics of peraluminous, Li-poor, biotite-tourmaline granites. Geochemical features reveal that the GGn and EPG precursor melts were most likely derived from melting of biotite-rich metapelite and metagraywacke sources, whereas TLg melt appears to have formed from biotite-muscovite rich metapelite and metagraywacke sources. Major and trace elements modelling suggest that the GGn, EPG and TLg parental melts have experienced low degrees (∼13, ∼17 and ∼13%, respectively) of kf–pl–bt fractionation, respectively, subsequent to partial melting. The GGn and EPG melts are the results of a pre-Himalayan, syn-collisional Pan-African felsicmagmatic event, whereas the TLg is a magmatic product of Himalayan collision tectonics.

    • Validation of a satellite-based cyclogenesis technique over the North Indian Ocean

      Suman Goyal M Mohapatra Ashish Kumar S K Dube Kushagra Rajendra P Goswami

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      Indian region is severely affected by the tropical cyclones (TCs) due to the long coast line of about 7500 km. Hence, whenever any low level circulation (LLC) forms over the Indian Seas, the prediction of its intensification into a TC is very essential for the management of TC disaster. Satellite Application Centre (SAC) of Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO), Ahmedabad, has developed a techniqueto predict TCs based on scatterometer-derived winds from the polar orbiting satellite, QuikSCAT and Oceansat-II. The India Meteorological Department (IMD) has acquired the technique and verified it for the years 2010–2013 for operational use. The model is based on the concept of analogs of the sea surfacewind distribution at the stage of LLC or vortex (T1.0) as per Dvorak’s classifications, which eventually leads to cyclogenesis (T2.5). The results indicate that the developed model could predict cyclogenesis with a probability of detection of 61% and critical success index of 0.29. However, it shows high overpredictionof the model is better over the Bay of Bengal than over Arabian Sea and during post-monsoon season (September–December) than in pre-monsoon season (March–June).

    • Thermogravimetric and model-free kinetic studies on CO2 gasification of low-quality, high-sulphur Indian coals

      Tonkeswar Das Ananya Saikia Banashree Mahanta Rahul Choudhury Binoy K Saikia

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      Coal gasification with CO$_2$ has emerged as a cleaner and more efficient way for the production of energy, and it offers the advantages of CO$_2$ mitigation policies through simultaneous CO$_2$ sequestration. In the present investigation, a feasibility study on the gasification of three low-quality, high-sulphur coals fromthe north-eastern region (NER) of India in a CO$_2$ atmosphere using thermogravimetric analysis (TGADTA) has been made in order to have a better understanding of the physical and chemical characteristics in the process of gasification of coal. Model-free kinetics was applied to determine the activation energies (E) and pre-exponential factors (A) of the CO$_2$ gasification process of the coals. Multivariate nonlinear regression analyses were performed to find out the formal mechanisms, kinetic model, and the corresponding kinetic triplets. The results revealed that coal gasification with CO$_2$ mainly occurs in the temperature range of 800◦–1400◦C and a maximum of at around 1100◦C. The reaction mechanisms responsible for CO$_2$ gasification of the coals were observed to be of the ‘nth order with autocatalysis (CnB)’ and ‘nth order (Fn) mechanism’. The activation energy of the CO$_2$ gasification was found to be in the range 129.07–146.81 kJ mol$^{−1}$.

    • Approximate relationship between frequency-dependent skin depth resolved from geoelectromagnetic pedotransfer function and depth of investigation resolved from geoelectrical measurements: A case study of coastal formation, southern Nigeria

      N J George D N Obiora A M Ekanem A E Akpan

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      The task involved in the interpretation of Vertical Electrical Sounding (VES) data is how to get unique results in the absence/limited number of borehole information, which is usually limited to information on the spot. Geological and geochemical mapping of electrical properties are usually limited to direct observations on the surface and therefore, conclusions and extrapolations that can be drawn about thesystem electrical characteristics and possible underlying structures may be masked as geology changes with positions. The electrical resistivity study pedotransfer functions (PTFs) have been linked with the electromagnetic (EM) resolved PTFs at chosen frequencies of skin/penetration depth corresponding to the VES resolved investigation depth in order to determine the local geological attributes of hydrogeological repository in the coastal formation dominated with fine sand. The illustrative application of effective skin depth depicts that effective skin depth has direct relation with the EM response of the local source over the layered earth and thus, can be linked to the direct current earth response functions as an aidfor estimating the optimum depth and electrical parameters through comparative analysis. Though the VES and EM resolved depths of investigation at appropriate effective and theoretical frequencies have wide gaps, diagnostic relations characterising the subsurface depth of interest have been established. Thedetermining factors of skin effect have been found to include frequency/period, resistivity/conductivity, absorption/attenuation coefficient and energy loss factor. The novel diagnostic relations and their corresponding constants between 1-D resistivity data and EM skin depth are robust PTFs necessary for checking the accuracy associated with the non-unique interpretations that characterise the 1-D resistivitydata, mostly when lithostratigraphic data are not available.

    • Activity of radon ($^{222}$Rn) in the lower atmospheric surface layer of a typical rural site in south India

      K Charan Kumar T Rajendra Prasad M Venkat Ratnam Nagaraja Kamsali

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      Analysis of one year measurements of in situ radon ($^{222}$Rn) and its progenies along with surface air temperature, relative humidity and pressure near to the Earth’s surface has been carried out for the first time at the National Atmospheric Research Laboratory (NARL, 13.5◦N and 79.2◦E) located in a rural site in Gadanki, south India. The dataset was analysed to understand the behaviour of radon inrelation to the surface air temperature and relative humidity at a rural site. It was observed that over a period of the 24 hours in a day, the activity of radon and its progenies reaches a peak in the morning hours followed by a remarkable decrease in the afternoon hours. Relatively, a higher concentration of radon was observed at NARL during fair weather days, and this can be attributed to the presence ofrocky hills and dense vegetation surrounding the site. The high negative correlation between surface air temperature and activity of radon (R = – 0.70, on an annual scale) suggests that dynamical removal of radon due to increased vertical mixing is one of the most important controlling processes of the radon accumulation in the atmospheric surface layer. The annual averaged activity of radon was found to be12.01±0.66 Bq m$^{−3}$ and 4.25±0.18 Bq m$^{−3}$ for its progenies, in the study period.

    • The influence of wind speed on surface layer stability and turbulent fluxes over southern Indian peninsula station

      M N Patil R T Waghmare T Dharmaraj G R Chinthalu Devendraa Siingh G S Meena

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      Surface to atmosphere exchange has received much attention in numerical weather prediction models. This exchange is defined by turbulent parameters such as frictional velocity, drag coefficient and heat fluxes, which have to be derived experimentally from high-frequency observations. High-frequency measurementsof wind speed, air temperature and water vapour mixing ratio (eddy covariance measurements), were made during the Integrated Ground Observation Campaign (IGOC) of Cloud Aerosol Interaction and Precipitation Enhancement Experiment (CAIPEEX) at Mahabubnagar, India (16◦44'N, 77◦59'E) in the south-west monsoon season. Using these observations, an attempt was made to investigatethe behaviour of the turbulent parameters, mentioned above, with respect to wind speed. We found that the surface layer stability derived from the Monin–Obukhov length scale, is well depicted by the magnitude of wind speed, i.e., the atmospheric boundary layer was under unstable regime for wind speeds greater than 4 m s−1; under stable regime for wind speeds less than 2 m s−1 and under neutral regime for wind speeds in the range of 2–3 m s$^{−1}$. All the three stability regimes were mixed for wind speeds 3–4 m s$^{−1}$. The drag coefficient shows scatter variation with wind speed in stable as well as unstable conditions.

    • Geochemical fingerprints and pebbles zircon geochronology: Implications for the provenance and tectonic setting of Lower Cretaceous sediments in the Zhucheng Basin (Jiaodong peninsula, North China)

      Jin-Long Ni Jun-Lai Liu Xiao-Ling Tang Xiao-Xiao Shi Hong Zhang Shuai Han

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      This paper conducts a petrogeochemical analysis of the Lower Cretaceous Laiyang Group’s sandstones, compares the results with the Neoproterozoic and Mesozoic intrusive rocks in the southern Sulu Orogen (also called the Jiaonan Orogen), and performs an LA-ICP-MS zircon geochronology analysis of the granitic gneisses in the conglomerates of the Laiyang Group and the intrusive rocks in the JiaonanOrogen. The results show that the major element proportions of the Longwangzhuang Formation (LWZ Fm) and Qugezhuang Formation (QGZ Fm) of the Laiyang Group in the Zhucheng Basin are similar. The values of various indices for the LWZ Fm are similar to the average sandstone content of activecontinental margins, whereas, the values for the QGZ Fm are similar to those of continental island arcs. The comparison shows that the REE characteristics of the LWZ Fm and QGZ Fm of Laiyang Group are similar to those of the Neoproterozoic granitic gneisses in the Jiaonan Orogen but obviously different from those of the Early Cretaceous intrusive rocks. A tectonic setting discrimination diagram revealsthat the provenance of the Laiyang Group includes features of active continental margins and continental island arcs. A number of indicators, e.g., the sandstone type, the Chemical Index of Alteration, the Chemical Index of Weathering, the Plagioclase Index of Alteration and the Index of Chemical Constituent Variation, indicated that the sandstones did not undergo intense weathering and were deposited near the source area. The zircon ages of the granitic gneiss material in the conglomerates at the base of the Laiyang Group are 790±8.4 Ma, close to the ages of the Neoproterozoic granitic gneiss in the Jiaonan Orogen (739–819 Ma), and very different from the ages of the Early Cretaceous intrusive rocks. Combiningwith paleocurrent directions, geochemical character, the Neoproterozoic granitic gneisses in the Jiaonan Orogen may represent the primary provenance of the Laiyang Group in the Zhucheng Basin. During the depositional period of the Laiyang Group, the source rocks did not experience intense weathering, whichindicated the Jiaonan Orogen experienced rapid uplift during this time, and coincided with the high exhumed rate of 2.0 km Ma$^{−1}$ from before ca. 128 to 123 Ma in Jiaonan Orogen. The rapid subsidence during the formation of the Laiyang Group in the Zhucheng Basin and the rapid uplift of the JiaonanOrogen are the result of a single regional extensional event associated with the lithospheric thinning and destruction of North China and peripheral cratons.

    • Assessment and mapping of slope stability based on slope units: A case study in Yan’an, China

      Jianqi Zhuang Jianbing Peng Yonglong Xu Qiang Xu Xinghua Zhu Wei Li

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      Precipitation frequently triggers shallow landslides in the Loess Plateau of Shaanxi, China, resulting in loss of life, damage to gas and oil routes, and destruction of transport infrastructure and farmland. To assess the possibility of shallow landslides at different precipitation levels, a method to draw slope units and steepest slope profiles based on ARCtools and a new method for calculating slope stability areproposed. The methods were implemented in a case study conducted in Yan’an, north-west China. High resolution DEM (Digital Elevation Model) images, soil parameters from in-situ laboratory measurements and maximum depths of precipitation infiltration were used as input parameters in the method. Next,DEM and reverse DEM were employed to map 2146 slope units in the study area, based on which the steepest profiles of the slope units were constructed. Combining analysis of the water content of loess, strength of the sliding surface, its response to precipitation and the infinite slope stability equation, a newequation to calculate infinite slope stability is proposed to assess shallow landslide stability. The slope unit stability was calculated using the equation at 10-, 20-, 50- and 100-year return periods of antecedent effective precipitation. The number of slope units experiencing failure increased in response to increasing effective antecedent rainfall. These results were validated based on the occurrence of landslides in recent decades. Finally, the applicability and limitations of the model are discussed.

    • Consistent seasonal snow cover depth and duration variability over the Western Himalayas (WH)

      Dan Singh Vikas Juyal Vikas Sharma

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      Precipitation in solid form, i.e., snow, during winter season over theWestern Himalayas (WH) leads to the build-up of seasonal snow cover. Seasonal snow cover build-up (snow cover depth and duration) largely depends on atmospheric variables such as temperature, precipitation, radiation, wind, etc. Integrated(combined) influence of atmospheric variables on seasonal snow cover gets reflected in terms of spatial and temporal variability in seasonal snow cover build-up pattern. Hence spatial and temporal variability of seasonal snow cover build-up can serve as a good indicator of climate change in high altitude mountainousregions like the WH. Consistent seasonal snow cover depth and duration, delay days and early melt days of consistent seasonal snow cover at 11 stations spread across different mountain ranges over the WH were analyzed. Mean, maximum and percentiles (25th, 50th, 75th, 90th and 95th) of consistent seasonal snow cover depth and duration show decline over the WH in the recent past 2–3 decades. Consistent seasonal snow cover is found to melt early and snow cover build-up pattern is found to show changes over the WH. Decline in consistent seasonal snow cover depth, duration and changing snow cover buildup pattern over the WH in recent decades indicate that WH has undergone considerable climate changeand winter weather patterns are changing in the WH.

    • Geospatial approach in mapping soil erodibility using CartoDEM – A case study in hilly watershed of Lower Himalayan Range

      Suresh Kumar Surya Gupta

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      Soil erodibility is one of the most important factors used in spatial soil erosion risk assessment. Soil information derived from soil map is used to generate soil erodibility factor map. Soil maps are not available at appropriate scale. In general, soil maps at small scale are used in deriving soil erodibility map that largely generalized spatial variability and it largely ignores the spatial variability since soilmap units are discrete polygons. The present study was attempted to generate soil erodibilty map using terrain indices derived from DTM and surface soil sample data. Soil variability in the hilly landscape is largely controlled by topography represented by DTM. The CartoDEM (30 m) was used to derive terrainindices such as terrain wetness index (TWI), stream power index (SPI), sediment transport index (STI) and slope parameters. A total of 95 surface soil samples were collected to compute soil erodibility factor (K) values. The K values ranged from 0.23 to 0.81 t ha$^{−1}$R$^{−1}$ in the watershed. Correlation analysis among K-factor and terrain parameters showed highest correlation of soil erodibilty with TWI (r$^2 $=0.561) followed by slope (r$^2$ = 0.33). A multiple linear regression model was developed to derive soil erodibilty using terrain parameters. A set of 20 soil sample points were used to assess the accuracy of the model. The coefficient of determination (r2) and RMSE were computed to be 0.76 and 0.07 t ha$^{−1}$R$^{−1}$ respectively. The proposed methodology is quite useful in generating soil erodibilty factor map using digital elevation model (DEM) for any hilly terrain areas. The equation/model need to be established for the particular hilly terrain under the study. The developed model was used to generate spatial soilerodibility factor (K) map of the watershed in the lower Himalayan range.

    • Relationship between summer monsoon rainfall and cyclogenesis over Bay of Bengal during post-monsoon (October–December) season

      Y Sadhuram K Maneesha

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      In this study, an attempt has been made to examine the relationship between summer monsoon rainfall (June–September) and the total number of depressions, cyclones and severe cyclones (TNDC) over Bay of Bengal during the post-monsoon (October–December) season. The seasonal rainfall of the subdivisions (located in south India) (referred as rainfall index – RI), is positively and significantly correlated(r = 0.59; significant at >99% level) with the TNDC during the period, 1984–2013. By using the first differences (current season minus previous season), the correlations are enhanced and a remarkably high correlation of 0.87 is observed between TNDC and RI for the recent period, 1993–2013. The average seasonalgenesis potential parameter (GPP) showed a very high correlation of 0.84 with the TNDC. A very high correlation of 0.83 is observed between GPP and RI for the period, 1993–2013. The relative vorticity and mid-tropospheric relative humidity are found to be the dominant terms in GPP. The GPP was 3.5 times higher in above (below) normal RI in which TNDC was 4 (2). It is inferred that RI is playing a keyrole in TNDC by modulating the environmental conditions (low level vorticity and relative humidity) over Bay of Bengal during post-monsoon season which could be seen from the very high correlation of 0.87 (which explains 76% variability in TNDC). For the first time, we show that RI is a precursor for the TNDC over Bay of Bengal during post-monsoon season. Strong westerlies after the SW monsoon seasontransport moisture over the subdivisions towards Bay of Bengal due to cyclonic circulation. This circulation favours upward motion and hence transport moisture vertically to mid-troposphere which causes convective instability and this in turn favour more number of TNDC, under above-normal RI year.

    • Stable isotope characteristics of precipitation of Pamba River basin, Kerala, India

      T R Resmi K V Sudharma A Shahul Hameed

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      Stable isotope composition of precipitation from Pamba River basin, Kerala, India, is evaluated to understand the role of spatial and temporal variations on rainwater isotope characteristics. Physiographically different locations in the basin showed strong spatial and temporal variations. δ18O varied from −7.63 to −1.75‰ in the lowlands; from −9.32 to −1.94‰ in the midlands and from −11.6 to −4.00‰ in thehighlands. Local meteoric water lines (LMWL) for the three regions were determined separately and an overall LMWL for the whole of the basin was found to be $\delta^2$H = 6.6 (±0.4) $\delta^{18}$O+10.4 (±2.0). Altitude effect was evident for the basin (0.1‰ for $\delta^{18}$O and 0.8‰ for $\delta^2$δ2H per 100 m elevation), while the amount effect was weak. The precipitation formed from the marine moisture supplied at a steady rate, without much isotopic evolution in this period may have masked the possible depletion of heavier isotopes with increasing rainfall. Consistently high d-excess values showed the influence of recycled vapour, despite the prevailing high relative humidity. The oceanic and continental vapour source origins for the south-west and north-east monsoons were clearly noted in the precipitation in the basin. Rayleigh distillation model showed about 30% rainout of the monsoon vapour mass in the basin.

    • The interaction between surface water and groundwater and its effect on water quality in the Second Songhua River basin, northeast China

      Bing Zhang Xianfang Song Yinghua Zhang Ying Ma Changyuan Tang Lihu Yang Zhong-Liang Wang

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      The relationship between surface water and groundwater not only influences the water quantity, but also affects the water quality. The stable isotopes ($\delta$D, $\delta^{18}$O) and hydrochemical compositions in water samples were analysed in the Second Songhua River basin. The deep groundwater is mainly recharged from shallow groundwater in the middle and upper reaches. The shallow groundwater is discharged to rivers in the downstream. The runoff from upper reaches mainly contributed the river flow in the downstream. The CCME WQI indicated that the quality of surface water and groundwater was ‘Fair’. The mixing process between surface water and groundwater was simulated by the PHREEQC code with the results from the stable isotopes. The interaction between surface water and groundwater influences the composition of ions in the mixing water, and further affects the water quality with other factors.

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