Volume 123, Issue 3
April 2014, pages 445-639
pp 445-456 April 2014
In the paper, influence of extratropical circulation features on Indian Summer Monsoon Rainfall (ISMR) is examined. Energetics of extra tropics, north of Indian subcontinent for deficient and nondeficient ISMR years, during two periods 1951–1978 and 1979–2005, are calculated and critically analyzed. It is observed that for the period 1951–1978, only two out of the 10 energetic parameters, viz., the zonal available potential energy (high) and conversion of zonal available potential with kinetic energy to eddy kinetic energy (low) differed significantly in JJA months of the deficient years from that of the nondeficient years. However, during the 1979–2005 period, as many as six out of the 10 energetic parameters, viz., eddy available potential energy, zonal available potential energy, eddy kinetic energy, generation of zonal available potential energy, conversion of zonal available potential energy to zonal kinetic energy and conversion of zonal kinetic energy to eddy kinetic energy differed significantly in JJA months of the deficient years from that of the nondeficient years. These results confirm growing influence of the transient stationary waves in deficient years after the climate shift year, 1979. Analysis of energetic parameters of the pre-monsoon season of the two periods also reveals similar results. This suggests that forcings apparently responsible for energetics in JJA months of the deficient years of the later period were present even before the advent of Indian summer monsoon season.
pp 457-465 April 2014
In the present study, the precipitation data measured at 23 rain gauge stations over the Achaia County, Greece, were used to estimate the spatial distribution of the mean annual precipitation values over a specific catchment area. The objective of this work was achieved by programming an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) that uses the feed-forward back-propagation algorithm as an alternative interpolating technique. A Geographic Information System (GIS) was utilized to process the data derived by the ANN and to create a continuous surface that represented the spatial mean annual precipitation distribution.The ANN introduced an optimization procedure that was implemented during training, adjusting the hidden number of neurons and the convergence of the ANN in order to select the best network architecture. The performance of the ANN was evaluated using three standard statistical evaluation criteria applied to the study area and showed good performance. The outcomes were also compared with the results obtained from a previous study in the area of research which used a linear regression analysis for the estimation of the mean annual precipitation values giving more accurate results. The information and knowledge gained from the present study could improve the accuracy of analysis concerning hydrology and hydrogeological models, ground water studies, flood related applications and climate analysis studies.
pp 467-478 April 2014
There is an urgent need to identify the human influence on landscape as disturbance regimes was realized for prioritization of the protected areas. The present study has attempted to describe the landscape level assessment of fragmentation and disturbance index in protected areas of Rajasthan using remote sensing and GIS techniques. Geospatial analysis of disturbance regimes indicates 61.75% of the total Pas are under moderate disturbance index followed by 28.64% and 9.61% under low and high, respectively. Among the 28 protected areas – National Chambal WLS, Jaisamand WLS, Kumbhalgarh WLS, Sawai Man Singh WLS, Kailadevi WLS and Bandh BarathaWLS are representing high level of disturbance. The present study has emphasized the moderate to low disturbance regimes in protected areas, which infer low biotic pressure and conservation effectiveness of PA network in Rajasthan. The spatial information generated on PAs is of valuable use for forest management and developing conservation strategies.
pp 479-489 April 2014
The objective of the present study was to ascertain contamination levels, distribution behaviour and PAHs exposure during summer, winter and autumn during 2011–2012 in one of the developing cities of northern India. Average PAHs concentration was found to be 18.17, 4.04 and 16.38 𝜇 g g−1, whereas, concentration of 16 individual PAHs was found to vary between 0.02 and 200.23, 0.008 and 28.4 𝜇g g−1, and 0.01 and 252.55 𝜇g g−1 during summer, winter and autumn seasons, respectively. The average concentration of low and high carcinogenic PAHs during summer, winter and autumn was found to be 5.1 and 31.29, 2.1 and 6.4, 4.74 and 35.08 𝜇g g−1 at most intercepts. The average ratio of low to high carcinogenic PAHs was found to be 1:6, 1:3, 1:7.6 during summer, winter and autumn, respectively. Five ringed PAHs were found in higher concentration in all seasons. Dib(ah)A and B(a)P were the two individual PAHs found in highest concentration during summer, winter and autumn seasons. Two tailed T-test was applied for authenticity of the results. Toxic equivalency factor of B(a)P and Dib(ah)A was maximum as compared to other PAHs. The study could be of great significance for the planners while considering environmental remedial measures.
pp 491-502 April 2014
Bwari is one of the six municipal area councils of the Federal Capital Territory (FCT), Abuja with its attendant growing population and infrastructural developments. Groundwater is the main source of water supply in the area, and urbanization and industrialization are the predominant contributors of contaminants to the hydrological systems. In order to guarantee a continuous supply of potable water, there is a need to investigate the vulnerability of the aquifers to contaminants emanating from domestic and industrial wastes. A total of 20 vertical electrical soundings using Schlumberger electrode array with a maximum half current electrodes separation of 300 m was employed. The results show that the area is characterized by 3–6 geoelectric subsurface layers. The measured overburden thickness ranges from 1.0 to 24.3 m, with a mean value of 7.4 m. The resistivity and longitudinal conductance of the overburden units range from 18 to 11,908 𝛺 m and 0.047 to 0.875 mhos, respectively. Areas considered as high corrosivity are the central parts with 𝜌 > 180 𝛺 m. The characteristic longitudinal unit conductance was used to classify the area into zones of good (0.7–4.49 mhos), moderate (0.2–0.69 mhos), weak (0.1–0.19 mhos), and poor (> 0.1) aquifer protective capacity. Zones characterized by materials of moderate to good protective capacity serve as sealing potential for the underlying hydrogeological system in the area. This study is aimed at delineating zones that are very prone to groundwater contamination from surface contaminants and subsurface soils that are corrosive to utility pipes buried underground. Hence the findings of this work will constitute part of the tools for groundwater development and management and structural/infrastructural development planning of the area.
pp 503-516 April 2014
The temporal and spatial distributions of precipitation are extremely uneven; so, careful management of water resources in Taiwan is crucial. The long-term overexploitation of groundwater resources poses a challenge to water resource management in Taiwan. However, assessing groundwater resources in mountainous basins is challenging due to limited information. In this study, a geographic information system (GIS) and stable base-flow (SBF) techniques were used to assess the characteristics of groundwater recharge considering the Wu River watershed in central Taiwan as a study area. First, a GIS approach was used to integrate five contributing factors: lithology, land cover/land use, lineaments, drainage, and slope. The weights of factors contributing to the groundwater recharge were obtained from aerial photos, geological maps, a land use database, and field verification. Second, the SBF was used to estimate the groundwater recharge in a mountainous basin scale. The concept of the SBF technique was to separate the base-flow from the total streamflow discharge in order to obtain a measure of groundwater recharge. The SBF technique has the advantage of integrating groundwater recharge across an entire basin without complex hydro-geologic modelling and detailed knowledge of the soil characteristics. In this study, our approach for estimating recharge provides not only an estimate of how much water becomes groundwater, but also explains the characteristics of a potential groundwater recharge zone.
pp 517-529 April 2014
Estimation of geohydrologic properties of fractured aquifers in hard crystalline and/or metamorphosed country rocks is a challenge due to the complex nature of secondary porosity that is caused by differential fracturing. Hydrologic potentiality of such aquifers may be assessed if the geological controls governing the spatial distribution of these fracture systems are computed using a software-based model. As an exemplar, the Precambrian metamorphics exposed in and around the Balarampur town of Purulia district, West Bengal (India) were studied to find out the spatial pattern and consistency of such fracture systems. Surfer and Statistica softwares were used to characterize these rock masses in terms of hydrological, structural and lithological domains. The technique is based on the use of hydraulically significant fracture properties to generate representative modal and coefficient of variance ($C_ν$) of fracture datasets of each domain. The $C_ν$ is interpreted to obtain the spatial variability of hydraulically significant fracture properties that, in turn, define and identify the corresponding hydrolithostructural domains. The groundwater flow estimated from such a technique is verified with the routine hydrological studies to validate the procedure. It is suggested that the hydrolithostructural domain approach is a useful alternative for evaluation of fracture properties and aquifer potentiality, and development of a regional groundwater model thereof.
pp 531-543 April 2014
Electrical resistivity method is a versatile and economical technique for groundwater prospecting in different geological settings due to wide spectrum of resistivity compared to other geophysical parameters. Exploration and exploitation of groundwater, a vital and precious resource, is a challenging task in hard rock, which exhibits inherent heterogeneity. In the present study, two-dimensional Electrical Resistivity Tomography (2D-ERT) technique using two different arrays, viz., pole–dipole and pole–pole, were deployed to look into high signal strength data in a tectonically disturbed hard rock ridge region for groundwater. Four selected sites were investigated. 2D subsurface resistivity tomography data were collected using Syscal Pro Switch-10 channel system and covered a 2 km long profile in a tough terrain. The hydrogeological interpretation based on resistivity models reveal the water horizons trap within the clayey sand and weathered/fractured quartzite formations. Aquifer resistivity lies between ∼3–35 and 100–200 𝛺 m. The results of the resistivity models decipher potential aquifer lying between 40 and 88 m depth, nevertheless, it corroborates with the static water level measurements in the area of study. The advantage of using pole–pole in conjunction with the pole–dipole array is well appreciated and proved worth which gives clear insight of the aquifer extent, variability and their dimension from shallow to deeper strata from the hydrogeological perspective in the present geological context.
pp 545-564 April 2014
Loss of life and property that may occur as a result of a possible earthquake can be reduced by earthquake resistant building designs. In order to investigate possible ground motion amplification in earthquake resistant building design, relationship between the ground and engineering bedrock must be ensured. In order to provide this relation, structure, basic characteristics, and thickness of the ground are investigated. In this context, calculating ground transfer function, obtaining horizontal earthquake acceleration changes, calculating $V_s$ values and defining the engineering bedrock are necessary. In this study, Menemen plain, the nothern part of Izmir metropolitan located in active earthquake zone and its immediate vicinity have been examined to define the structure, ground, engineering and bedrock relation. In this context, Menemen plain has been investigated by geophysical methods, which are supported with borehole data (microtremor, MASW – multichannel analysis of surface waves, microgravity measurements, and vertical electrical sounding – VES). Microtremor method was conducted at 377 points in average in the investigation area to define fundamental period and empirical transfer function; after that in order to create basin model and to define the shallow subsurface geometry, microgravity measurements were carried out by using Scintrex CG-5. Also, MASW measurements were carried out in approximately 277 profiles and Schlumberger VES measurements were conducted at approximately 7 points in the investigation area. The existence of a linear relation between H/V peak period values obtained by microtremor measurements and ground thickness in the investigation area is also supported by geothermal drilling logs (depth of 600 m) with microgravity survey. Also, in some parts of the investigation area, it was observed that high 𝑆 velocity $(V_s)$ values affected H/V peak period values in sections of the ground close to the surface and there was an inversely correlated relation between this ground thickness and peak period values. This event occurring in shallow depths is supported by both VES sections and 2nd order vertical gravity derivative. As a result, depth of the engineering bedrock was obtained between 200 and 700 m and this unit was proposed as Bornova Melange for the investigation area in the scope of the works carried out. Also, it is observed that the area from ground to the engineering bedrock consists of four different layers which were defined by individual 𝑆 velocities and densities. According to all results, characterictics of the shallow subsurface show that there is a high heterogeneity. Therefore, according to Eurocode8 (EC8 2004) regulations, soil characteristic of the Menemen plain and its vicinity are in the S1–S2 soil class.
pp 565-579 April 2014
Using 4.0 and greater magnitude earthquakes which occurred between 1 January 1900 and 31 December 2008 in the Sinop province of Turkey this study presents a seismic hazard analysis based on the probabilistic and statistical methods. According to the earthquake zonation map, Sinop is divided into first, second, third and fourth-degree earthquake regions. Our study area covered the coordinates between 40.66°–42.82°N and 32.20°–36.55°E. The different magnitudes of the earthquakes during the last 108 years recorded on varied scales were converted to a common scale (Mw). The earthquake catalog was then recompiled to evaluate the potential seismic sources in the aforesaid province. Using the attenuation relationships given by Boore et al. (1997) and Kalkan and Gülkan (2004), the largest ground accelerations corresponding to a recurrence period of 475 years are found to be 0.14 g for bedrock at the central district. Comparing the seismic hazard curves, we show the spatial variations of seismic hazard potential in this province, enumerating the recurrence period in the order of 475 years.
pp 581-591 April 2014
The results of radar survey for three times are presented, aiming to determine ice thickness, volume and subglacial topography of Urumqi Glacier No. 1, Tianshan Mountains, central Asia. Results show that the distribution of ice is more in the center and lesser at both ends of the glacier. The bedrock is quite regular with altitudes decreasing towards the ice front, showing the U-shaped subglacial valley. By comparison, typical ice thinning along the centerline of the East Branch of the glacier was 10–18 m for the period 1981–2006, reaching a maximum of ∼30 m at the terminus. The corresponding ice volume was 10296.2 × 104 m3, 8797.9 × 104 m3 and 8115.0 × 104 m3 in 1981, 2001 and 2006, respectively. It has decreased by 21.2% during the past 25 years, which is the direct result of glacier thinning. In the same period, the ice thickness, area and terminus decreased by 12.2%, 10.3%, and 3.6%, respectively. These changes are responses to the regional climatic warming, which show a dramatic increase of 0.6°C (10 a)−1 during the period 1981–2006.
pp 593-602 April 2014
Cosmic noise absorption (CNA) measurred by imaging riometer, is an excellent tool to passively study the high latitude D-region ionospheric conditions and dynamics. An imaging riometer has been installed at Indian Antarctic station Maitri (geographic 70.75°S, 11.75°E; corrected geomagnetic 63.11°S, 53.59°E) in February 2010. This is the first paper using the imaging riometer data from Maitri. The present paper introduces the details of this facility, including its instrumentation, related CNA theory and its applications. Sidereal shift of around 2 hours in the diurnal pattern validates the data obtained from the newly installed instrument. Moreover, the strength of cosmic noise signal on quiet days also varies with months. This is apparently due to solar ionization of D-region ionosphere causing enhanced electron density where collision frequency is already high. The main objective of installing the imaging riometer at Maitri is to study magneotspheric–ionospheric coupling during substorm processes. In the current study, we present two typical examples of disturbed time CNA associated with storm-time and non-storm time substorm. Results reveal that CNA is more pronounced during storm-time substorm as compared to nonstorm-time substorm. The level of CNA strongly depends upon the strengthening of convectional electric field and the duration of southward turning of interplanetary magnetic field before the substorm onset.
pp 603-616 April 2014
A relict fluvio-lacustrine sediment of an 8 m thick section exposed at Kilang Sarai along Yunam river, near Baralacha La shows presence of cycloids or pseudonodules, ball and pillow structures, flame-like and pocket structures, sand dyke injections, bed dislocation/faulting and flow folds. Within this section four deformed levels of soft sediment structures have been identified which were dated ca. 25 ka BP at level 1 (∼0.4 m from the modern river level (mrl), 20.1 ka BP at level 2 (∼1.8 m mrl), 17.7 ka BP at level 3 (∼2.56 m mrl) and 12.2 ka BP at level 4 (∼4.25 m mrl)). Detailed study of these soft sediment structures allow us to demonstrate that deformation level 3 is not related to seismic trigger, but remaining three deformation levels (1, 2 and 4) are ascribed to seismic origin. From compilation of earlier palaeoseismological studies using soft sediment deformational structures (SSDS) in the palaeolake deposits in the adjoining area, suggest that the deformational events identified in the present study are regional in nature and thus tectonic process plays an important role in the evolution of landform in the Spiti region.
pp 617-632 April 2014
In the last 10 years, several teams of geologists from different institutions in India and abroad have vigorously investigated the Chhattisgarh basin (Bastar craton, India). Based on the new results and the lithologs of more than 350 water wells, resistivity and gamma-ray logs, and extensive geological traverses, we present a revised geological map, relevant cross sections, a new comprehensive stratigraphic column and a discussion of the new findings. Major outcomes of this revision are: (1) confirming the existence of two sub-basins (Hirri and Baradwar) and two depocentres; (2) establishing the age of the basin to be essentially Mesoproterozoic; (3) discarding the ‘unclassified Pandaria formation’ and classifying the package of Pandaria rock units into Chandi, Tarenga, Hirri and Maniari formations in the Hirri subbasin; (4) accepting the ‘group’ status of the Singhora Group and the newly proposed Kharsiya Groups in the Baradwar sub-basin; (5) establishing an intrabasinal correlation of formations; (6) reappraising the thicknesses of the different formations; and (7) finding that the geometry of the basin is ‘bowl-shaped’, which is compatible with a sag model for the origin and evolution of the basin.
pp 633-639 April 2014
Fifty two surface sediment samples collected from the region off Goa, central west coast of India from water depths of 15–3300 m were analyzed with special emphasis on foraminiferal content. Rectilinear benthic foraminiferal morphogroup shows a high relative abundance within Oxygen Minimum Zone (OMZ), both shallow marine (50–60 m water depth) and intermediate to deep water (150–1500 m water depth). We gave special emphasis on four rectilinear foraminiferal genera, namely Fursenkoina, Bolivina, Bulimina and Uvigerina to observe their individual distribution among OMZ. We found genus Fursenkoina predominates at the shallow water OMZ, within the water depth zone of 50–60 m. Within 150–1500 m water depth, which is considered as intermediate to deep water OMZ in this region, genus Uvigerina shows its highest abundance above 1000 m water depth, whereas genus Bulimina shows its affinity with deeper water environment (< 1000 m water depth). Genus Bolivina does not show any such depth preference, except its higher abundance in only intermediate to deep water OMZ. This depth differentiation among four rectilinear benthic foraminiferal genera presents the basic data for palaeoclimatic study based on the extent and intensity of OMZ along with the palaeobathymetry study.