• Volume 123, Issue 1

      February 2014,   pages  1-246

    • Deformation and metamorphism of gold-sulphide lodes in the Bhukia–Jagpura gold prospect, Rajasthan: Implications for ore genesis

      S Deol A Chattopadhyay M Deb

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      The role of polyphase deformation in controlling the emplacement of gold-quartz lodes in dilational regimes is demonstrated from the Proterozoic Bhukia–Jagpura gold prospect in south Rajasthan. Earlier researchers deciphered the gold-sulphide mineralisation event as synchronous to the second phase of deformation (D2) without convincing microstructural or metamorphic evidences. In this contribution, we correlate the deformation and metamorphic imprints in the host rocks with those in the gold-sulphide mineralised zone, and present a new interpretation for the relative timing of gold emplacement vis-á-vis deformation. The ore-forming process first involved layer-parallel influx of ore-bearing hydrothermal fluids along $S_1$ schistosity in the host rocks, synkinematic with respect to the first phase of deformation (D1). This initial ore concentration experienced metamorphism isofacially (∼500° C at 5.3 kb) along with its host rocks during D1, and subsequently underwent extensive remobilisation, giving rise to gold-bearing silicified lodes along the hinges and axial surfaces of F2 folds during D2.

    • Ianthinite: A rare hydrous uranium oxide mineral from Akkavaram, Andhra Pradesh, India

      Yamuna Singh R Viswanathan K K Parashar S K Srivastava P V Ramesh Babu P S Parihar

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      Ianthinite is the only known uranyl oxide hydrate mineral that contains both $U^{6+}$ and $U^{4+}$. For the first time, we report ianthinite from India (at Akkavaram, Andhra Pradesh), which is hosted in basement granitoids. The mineral occurs in the form of tiny grains, encrustations and coatings in intimate association with uraninite and uranophane. X-ray diffraction (XRD) data reveals that d-spacings of the investigated ianthinite are in close agreement with the corresponding values given for ianthinite standard in International Centre for Diffraction Data (ICDD) card no. 12-272. The crystallographic parameters of the studied ianthinite are: $a_{o} = 11.3$ (1) $Å, b_{o} = 7.19$ (3) Å and $c_{o} = 30.46$ (8) Å, with a unit cell volume of 2474 (27) Å3. The association of investigated ianthinite with uraninite suggests that the former has formed due to oxidation of the latter. Since a major part of the uraninite was exposed to oxidizing meteoric water, much of it has been transformed into hydrous uranium oxide (ianthinite) and very little part remained unaltered as uranium oxide (uraninite). Absence of schoepite in the investigated ianthinite suggests that after its formation it (ianthinite) was not exposed to oxygen/oxidizing meteoric water. As the oxidation was partial and short lived, some amount of primary uraninite is also preserved.

    • Progress in the Gondwanan Carboniferous–Permian palynology and correlation of the Nilawahan Group of the Salt Range, Pakistan: A brief review

      Irfan U Jan

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      This paper comprises of two sections. The first section describes challenges in the Carboniferous–Permian Gondwanan stratigraphic palynology, and progress in techniques such as presence of the ‘rare-marine intervals’, and ‘radiometric dating’ in some Gondwanan successions, e.g., South Africa, Australia and South America, as tools to confidently calibrate these palynozones. The second section describes developments in the palynological work on the Carboniferous–Permian Nilawahan Group of the Salt Range, Pakistan, and summarises their correlation with the coeval succession of the Gondwana continents and with the Russian/International stages.

    • Growth of the Afanasy Nikitin seamount and its relationship with the 85°E Ridge, northeastern Indian Ocean

      K S Krishna J M Bull O Ishizuka R A Scrutton S Jaishankar V K Banakar

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      The Afanasy Nikitin seamount (ANS) is a major structural feature (400 km-long and 150 km-wide) in the Central Indian Basin, situated at the southern end of the so-called 85°E Ridge. Combined analyses of new multibeam bathymetric, seismic reflection and geochronological data together with previously described magnetic data provide new insights into the growth of the ANS through time, and its relationship with the 85°E Ridge. The ANS comprises a main plateau, rising 1200 m above the surrounding ocean floor (4800 m), and secondary elevated seamount highs, two of which (lie at 1600 and 2050 m water depths) have the morphology of a guyot, suggesting that they were formed above or close to sea-level. An unbroken sequence of spreading anomalies 34 through 32n.1 identified over the ANS reveal that the main plateau of the ANS was formed at 80–73 Ma, at around the same time as that of the underlying oceanic crust. The 40Ar/39Ar dates for two basalt samples dredged from the seamount highs are consistent, within error, at 67 Ma. These results, together with published results of late Cretaceous to early Cenozoic Indian Ocean plate reconstructions, indicate that the Conrad Rise hotspot emplaced both the main plateau of the ANS and Conrad Rise (including the Marion Dufresne, Ob and Lena seamounts) at 80–73 Ma, close to the India–Antarctica Ridge system. Subsequently, the seamount highs were formed by late-stage volcanism c. 6–13 Myr after the main constructional phase of the seamount plateau. Flexural analysis indicates that the main plateau and seamount highs of the ANS are consistent with Airy-type isostatic compensation, which suggest emplacement of the entire seamount in a near spreading-center setting. This is contrary to the flexural compensation of the 85°E Ridge further north, which is interpreted as being emplaced in an intraplate setting, i.e., 25–35 Myr later than the underlying oceanic crust. Therefore, we suggest that the ANS and the 85°E Ridge appear to be unrelated as they were formed by different mantle sources, and that the proximity of the southern end of the 85°E Ridge to the ANS is coincidental.

    • Probabilistic seismic hazard assessment of Himachal Pradesh and adjoining regions

      Nilesh Shaligram Patil Josodhir Das Ashwani Kumar Madan Mohan Rout Ranjit Das

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      Seismically active Himachal Pradesh and adjoining regions comprising Himalayan orogenic belt with the experience of the great Kangra earthquake of 1905, has high potential for river valley projects. There are already operating hydropower projects, some under construction and a few more coming up. In view of this it is important to know the ground motion nature for various locales. The present study is about estimation of Peak Ground Acceleration (PGA) for the state of Himachal Pradesh and adjoining regions using probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA) approach. Standard procedure for PSHA has been adopted for this study and peak ground motion has been estimated for 10% and 2% probability of exceedance in 50 years at the bed rock level considering two cases: (i) varying 𝑏-value for each source zone, (ii) constant 𝑏-value for each source zone. For 10% probability of exceedance in 50 years, the PGA values vary from 0.096 to 0.15 g and 0.09 to 0.26 g considering varying 𝑏-value, and constant 𝑏-value, respectively. In case of 2% probability of exceedance in 50 years, the PGA varies between 0.07 to 0.24 g considering varying 𝑏-values and 0.14 to 0.37 g considering constant 𝑏-values. Higher PGA values are observed in the southeast part considering varying 𝑏-values whereas the region situated around Kaurik Fault System (KFS) has shown higher PGA values in case of constant 𝑏-value.

    • Associating an ionospheric parameter with major earthquake occurrence throughout the world

      D Ghosh S K Midya

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      With time, ionospheric variation analysis is gaining over lithospheric monitoring in serving precursors for earthquake forecast. The current paper highlights the association of major (Ms ≥ 6.0) and medium (4.0 ≤ Ms > 6.0) earthquake occurrences throughout the world in different ranges of the Ionospheric Earthquake Parameter (IEP) where ‘Ms’ is earthquake magnitude on the Richter scale. From statistical and graphical analyses, it is concluded that the probability of earthquake occurrence is maximum when the defined parameter lies within the range of 0–75 (lower range). In the higher ranges, earthquake occurrence probability gradually decreases. A probable explanation is also suggested.

    • Liquefaction-induced settlement, site effects and damage in the vicinity of Yalova City during the 1999 Izmit earthquake, Turkey

      Ferhat Ozcep Savas Karabulut Oguz Özel Tazegul Ozcep Nazire İmre Halil Zarif

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      Yalova City (Turkey) is in a tectonically active location that is particularly affected by the northern branch of the North Anatolian Fault Zone. Magnitudes 7.4 and 7.2 earthquakes in 1999 caused great destruction in Yalova. The heavy damage to buildings and other civil engineering structures was mainly due to liquefaction-induced settlement and site effects such as resonance and amplification. In the first phase of this study, the soil liquefaction potential index (PL) and the induced soil settlement were estimated. In the second phase, the effects on sites in Yalova soil were investigated using microtremor and earthquake data. The fundamental periods and amplification in soft soil were compared with microtremor data and strong ground motion records obtained by a local array of eight accelerograph stations deployed in Yalova. Thirty-seven ‘single site’ ambient noise measurements were taken in a dense grid of points covering the centre of the city. A comparison between fundamental periods obtained from strong ground motion records and from microtremor measurements showed similarities, in the 0.1–5 Hz range. Finally, soil liquefaction and amplification (or resonance) were divided into regions according to the extent of damage and the geotechnical/geophysical results.

    • Water quality assessment and hydrochemical characteristics of groundwater on the aspect of metals in an old town, Foshan, south China

      Guanxing Huang Zongyu Chen Jichao Sun

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      The present study is aimed at assessing the water quality and discussing the hydrochemical characteristics and seasonal variation of shallow groundwater on the aspect of metals in the eastern Chancheng district of Foshan city, south China. Multivariate analytical methods such as principal components analysis (PCA) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) were used in this study. The results show that 45% of groundwater in the east-central of study area is not suitable for drinking purpose due to high concentrations of Fe, Pb and Mn. The mean concentrations of Fe, Hg, Cu, Pb, and Mn in dry season are higher than that in wet season. On the contrary, the mean concentrations of Cd, Co, Zn, Ba, Cr, Mo, Ni and Al in wet season are higher than that in dry season. PCA results show that four PCs are responsible for the 78.6% of the total hydrochemical variables in groundwater. Three groups were generated from HCA method. Group 1 reflects the characteristic of wet season and the low ion exchange capacity; group 2 is mainly influenced by the dry season. Reducing environment and high ion exchange capacity are responsible for group 3. The results are useful in addressing future measures in groundwater resource management for local government.

    • A generalized advection dispersion equation

      Abdon Atangana

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      This paper examines a possible effect of uncertainties, variability or heterogeneity of any dynamic system when being included in its evolution rule; the notion is illustrated with the advection dispersion equation, which describes the groundwater pollution model. An uncertain derivative is defined; some properties of the operator are presented. The operator is used to generalize the advection dispersion equation. The generalized equation differs from the standard equation in four properties. The generalized equation is solved via the variational iteration technique. Some illustrative figures are presented.

    • Climatic control on extreme sediment transfer from Dokriani Glacier during monsoon, Garhwal Himalaya (India)

      Amit Kumar Akshaya Verma Dwarika Prasad Dobhal Manish Mehta Kapil Kesarwani

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      In the Himalayas, most of the glaciers are covered by thick debris, especially in the ablation zone. Supraglacial debris cover might play an important role for sediment budget of the glaciated area or for the ablation of ice masses mantled in debris. During summer season, proglacial meltwater carries considerable amount of suspended sediment. The deglaciated area provides a ready source of sediment during Indian Summer Monsoon (ISM). The heavy sediment load from the glaciers affects the hydropower generation, irrigation and drinking water supply. Therefore, to understand the sediment delivery from glaciated basins, characteristics and variation of the suspended sediment concentrations in the proglacial meltwater stream, Dokriani Glacier, have been monitored during the ablation season (May– September). Suspended sediment samples were collected near the snout of Dokriani Glacier, Garhwal Himalaya, in 2010 and 2011. Results show that mean monthly suspended sediment concentrations (SSC) were 1499, 2303, 3845 and 1649 mg/l for the months June, July, August, and September, respectively, indicating highest concentration in August followed by July. Over the period of recording, daily mean suspended concentration in the melt stream varied from 13–9798.2 mg/l, which is very high, caused due to a flash flood event during the monitoring period. The mean daily suspended sediment concentration was computed to be 2196 mg/l. The suspended sediment concentration begins to increase with discharge from May and reduces in September. Present study provides TRMM (Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission) derived and field based hydro-meteorological insight about severe rainstorms during the years 2010 and 2011 in the study area, which transported large amounts of sediment.

    • Understanding the sediment routing system along the Gulf of Kachchh coast, western India: Significance of small ephemeral rivers

      S P Prizomwala Nilesh Bhatt N Basavaiah

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      The present study is an attempt towards understanding the sediment routing system in the semi-arid margin of the Gulf of Kachchh, which is one of the largest macrotidal regimes in the northern Arabian Sea. Investigations based on heavy minerals, clay minerals, mineral magnetic properties and sediment geochemistry indicated that there are three major sources of sediments contributing to the Gulf of Kachchh basin: (1) Indus River, (2) Kachchh mainland coastal rivers and (3) the Saurashtra peninsular coastal rivers. The flanks of northern and southern coast of western Gulf of Kachchh show dominant signatures of Kachchh mainland/Saurashtra peninsular provenance. In contrast, the eastern Gulf of Kachchh coast bearing fine grained sediments shows dominant Indus River Provenance. Although ephemeral in nature, the small coastal rivers of Saurashtra and Kachchh contribute significant amount of sediments to the Gulf of Kachchh coastline because of their ‘dryland’ nature and thus they control the coarse grained sedimentation processes.

    • Seasonal impact on beach morphology and the status of heavy mineral deposition – central Tamil Nadu coast, India

      V Joevivek N Chandrasekar

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      The aim of the present research was to investigate the seasonal impact on nearshore beach dynamics and the status of heavy mineral distribution along central Tamil Nadu coast, India. Beach profile measurements were made in 10 profiling sites between Thirukadaiyur and Velankanni on monthly and seasonal basis from January 2011 to July 2012. Using beach profile data, variation in beach width, slope and volumetric changes have been calculated. Beach slope and nearshore wave parameters were used to quantify the longshore sediment transport rate. Beaches between Thirukadaiyur and Karaikkal attained predominant transport rate in northern direction whereas, the rest of the beaches are in southern direction. The seasonal action of wind and wave currents create nearshore bar during northeast (NE) monsoon and frequent berms at tidal zone during southwest (SW) monsoon. Surface sediment samples were collected in each location for quantifying the heavy mineral weight percentage during the period of pre- and post-Thane cyclone. Sediments were also studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD) to evaluate the changes and occurrence of heavy minerals in beach sands. The XRD results show that sediments in the study area have enriched heavy mineral distribution even after strong cyclonic event. It confirms the redistribution of heavy mineral deposits present in the coast. The results suggested that monsoonal action has influenced the seasonal changes in beach morphology and it does not affect the heavy mineral distribution.

    • Impact of modified soil thermal characteristic on the simulated monsoon climate over south Asia

      Pankaj Kumar Ralf Podzun Stefan Hagemann Daniela Jacob

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      In the present study, the influence of soil thermal characteristics (STC) on the simulated monsoon climate over south Asia is analyzed. The study was motivated by a common warm temperature bias over the plains of northern India that has been noticed in several global and regional climate models. To address this warm bias and its relation to STC, two sensitivity experiments have been performed with the regional climate model REMO of the Max Planck Institute for Meteorology. The control experiment uses the standard soil thermal characteristic of the model that corresponds to a moist soil. The second experiment uses modified STC that characterize a dry soil, which is more representative of the considered region, as a large part of the region has arid, semi-arid or subtropical summer wet conditions. Both experiments were conducted over 20 years using re-analysis data as lateral boundary conditions. Results show that using the modified STC the predominant regional warm bias has reduced substantially, leading to a better and more realistic surface temperature compared to observations over south Asia. Although, the magnitude of bias has reduced, the warm bias still exists over the region suggesting that other atmospheric and land surface processes also play a role, such as aerosols and irrigation. These need to be addressed adequately in future modeling studies over the region.

    • Wind and thermodynamic profiler observations of a late-mature gust front

      Haldun Karan

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      High temporal and vertical resolutions of kinematic and thermodynamic characteristics of a late-mature gust front are presented using the Mobile Integrated Profiling System andWeather Surveillance Radar 88 Doppler data. As the gust front passed over the Mobile Integrated Profiling System vertical velocities and the horizontal wind field with 1 and 1.5 min temporal resolutions, respectively, were sampled within the gust front updrafts, gust frontal head and body structures. A 12-channel microwave profiling radiometer was used to delineate the thermodynamic properties with 5–6 min temporal and 100 m vertical resolution. Lidar backscatter from the 0.906 𝜇m ceilometer was also used to demonstrate the cloud field and the gust front depth. The gust front structurally and dynamically resembled laboratory simulated density current, and was composed of an elevated forward protrusion of a nose, and a turbulent mixing region at the top behind the head. The updrafts associated with the gust front that was moving into a stable layer were not surface rooted. Rather, the updrafts less than 3.5 $ms^{−1}$ were observed 500 m above ground level during the gust front passage. These updrafts were present from above the nose level to top of the head. The observations indicated that kinematic and thermodynamic characteristics of the atmospheric boundary layer significantly influenced the propagation speed, updraft characteristics, and overall structural organization of the gust front. The observations validated that observed propagation speed of the gust front was in close agreement with the calculated propagation speed by integrating the buoyancy term within the gust front depth.

    • Measurements of carbon dioxide and heat fluxes during monsoon-2011 season over rural site of India by eddy covariance technique

      M N Patil T Dharmaraj R T Waghmare T V Prabha J R Kulkarni

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      An increase in carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations in the atmosphere due to anthropogenic activities is responsible for global warming and hence in recent years, CO2 measurement network has expanded globally. In the monsoon season (July–September) of year 2011, we carried out measurements of CO2 and water vapour (H2O) concentrations along with wind and air temperature over a tropical site in southeast India having rural topography. To collect these observations, the instrumentations used were the sonic anemometer for wind and temperature, and the open path H2O/CO2 infrared gas analyzer for CO2 and H2O concentrations. Using these observations, we explored the diurnal variability of CO2 flux along with sensible and latent heat. The CO2 flux was positive during night-time and negative during daytime and in phase with convective instability. The CO2 flux relationships with the meteorological parameters such as wind speed, temperature and heat fluxes have been analysed. The seasonal (monsoon) half hour mean of CO2 flux which was −3.55 𝜇 mol m−2 s−1 indicated the experimental site as a CO2 sink region (net seasonal uptake). An increase in CO2 concentrations during weekends was not observed due to unavailability of heavy vehicular traffic.

    • Variations of aerosol optical depth and Angstrom parameters at a suburban location in Iran During 2009–2010

      M Khoshsima A A Bidokhti F Ahmadi-Giv

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      Solar irradiance is attenuated spectrally when passing through the earth’s atmosphere and it is strongly dependent on sky conditions, cleanliness of the atmosphere, composition of aerosols and gaseous constituents. In this paper, aerosol optical properties including aerosol optical depth (AOD), Angstrom exponent (𝛼) and Angstrom turbidity coefficient (𝛽) have been investigated during December 2009 to October 2010, in a suburban area of Zanjan (36°N, 43°E, 1700 m), in the north–west of Iran, using meteorological and sun photometric data. Results show that turbidity varies on all time scales, from the seasonal to hourly, because of changes in the atmospheric meteorological parameters. The values of 𝛼 range from near zero to 1.67. The diurnal variation of AOD in Zanjan is about 15%. The diurnal variability of AOD, showed a similar variation pattern in spring (including March, April, May) and winter (December, January, February) and had a different variation pattern in summer (June, July, August) and autumn (September and October). During February, spring and early summer winds transport continental aerosols mostly from the Iraq (dust events) and cause the increase of beta and turbidity of atmosphere of Zanjan.

    • Physical properties of the arctic summer aerosol particles in relation to sources at Ny-Alesund, Svalbard

      C G Deshpande A K Kamra

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      Measurements of the number concentration and size distribution of aerosol particles in the size range of 0.5–20 𝜇m diameter were made with an aerodynamic particle sizer at an Arctic site at Ny-Alesund, Svalbard in August–September 2007 during the International Polar Year 2007–2008. Data are analyzed to study the aerosol number concentration–wind speed relationships. The sea-salt particles of marine origin generated within the Arctic circle are identified as the main source of the Arctic summer aerosols. Total number concentration of aerosol particles increases with increase in wind speed, the increase being more when winds from open leads over the oceanic sector are reaching the station as compared to when winds from pack ice in other directions are reaching the station. The larger increase with winds from the oceanic sector is attributed to the enhanced bubble-breaking activity and increased entrainment of dimethyl sulphide particles at the sea surface. Although, the increase in total aerosol number concentration associated with the winds from the oceanic sector is spread over the whole range of particle sizes, the increase in coarse mode particles is more prominent than that in the accumulation mode particles. The age of airmass over pack ice is also an important factor to determine the aerosol concentration over the Arctic region. The process of rainout/washout of the aerosol particles due to drizzle/snowfall is an effective sink mechanism in the Arctic environment. The aerosol particle concentration starts decreasing within a few minutes from the start of these events but requires a few hours to restore to the normal background aerosol level after the end of event.

    • Indoor radon levels in workplaces of Adapazarı, north-western Turkey

      Enis Kapdan Nesrin Altinsoy

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      The main objective of this study is to assess the health hazards due to radon gas accumulation and to compare the concentrations in different kinds of workplaces, in the city of Adapazarı, one of the most important industrial cities of Turkey. For this purpose, radon activity concentration measurements were carried out in schools, factories, offices and outdoors using CR-39 solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTD). Results show that the mean radon activity concentrations (RAC) in schools, offices and factories were found to be 66, 76 and 27 Bq/m3, respectively, with an outdoor concentration of 14 Bq/m3. The average concentrations were found to decrease as follows for different types of industries: automotive < electronic < metal < textile. Because the maximum measured radon concentrations are 151 Bq/m3 in the schools, 173 Bq/m3 in the offices and 52 Bq/m3 in the factories, the limits of ICRP are not exceeded in any of the buildings in the region. In addition, the estimated mean annual effective doses to the people in the workplace, students, office workers and factory workers have been calculated as 0.27, 0.63 and 0.20 mSv/y, respectively for the region.

    • Palynology and clay mineralogy of the Deccan volcanic associated sediments of Saurashtra, Gujarat: Age and paleoenvironments

      Bandana Samant D M Mohabey P Srivastava Deepali Thakre

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      The intertrappean sediments associated with Deccan Continental Flood Basalt (DCFB) sequence at Ninama in Saurashtra, Gujarat yielded palynoassemblage comprising at least 12 genera and 14 species including Paleocene taxa such as Intrareticulites brevis, Neocouperipollis spp., Striacolporites striatus, Retitricolpites crassimarginatus and Rhombipollis sp. The lava flows of Saurashtra represent the northwestern most DCFB sequence in India. It is considered that the Saurashtra lava flows represent the earliest volcanic activity in the Late Cretaceous of the Reunion Mantle Plume on the northward migrating Indian Plate. The present finding of the Paleocene palynoflora from Ninama sediments indicate Paleocene age for the associated lava flows occurring above the intertrappean bed which suggests that the Saurashtra plateau witnessed eruption of Deccan lava flows even during Paleocene. The clay mineral investigation of the Ninama sediments which are carbonate dominated shows dominance of low charge smectite (LCS) along with the presence of mica and vermiculite. Based on the clay mineral assemblage it is interpreted that arid climatic conditions prevailed during the sedimentation. The smectite dominance recorded within these sediments is in agreement with global record of smectite peak close to the Maastrichtian-Paleocene transition and climatic aridity.

    • Compositional diversity of near-, far-side transitory zone around Naonobu, Webb and Sinus Successus craters: Inferences from Chandrayaan-1 Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) data

      Rishikesh Bharti D Ramakrishnan K D Singh

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      This study investigated the potential of Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) data for studying compositional variation in the near-, far-side transition zone of the lunar surface. For this purpose, the radiance values of the M3 data were corrected for illumination and emission related effects and converted to apparent reflectance. Dimensionality of the calibrated reflectance image cube was reduced using Independent Component Analysis (ICA) and endmembers were extracted by using Pixel Purity Index (PPI) algorithm. The selected endmembers were linearly unmixed and resolved for mineralogy using United States Geological Survey (USGS) library spectra of minerals. These mineralogically resolved endmembers were used to map the compositional variability within, and outside craters using Spectral Angle Mapper (SAM) algorithm. Cross validation for certain litho types was attempted using band ratios like Optical Maturity (OMAT), Color Ratio Composite and Integrated Band Depth ratio (IBD). The identified lithologies for highland and basin areas match well with published works and strongly support depth related magmatic differentiation. Prevalence of pigeonite-basalt, pigeonite-norite and pyroxenite in crater peaks and floors are unique to the investigated area and are attributed to local, lateral compositional variability in magma composition due to pressure, temperature, and rate of cooling.

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