• Volume 119, Issue 3

      June 2010,   pages  229-396

    • Active and break spells of the Indian summer monsoon

      M Rajeevan Sulochana Gadgil Jyoti Bhate

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      In this paper, we suggest criteria for the identification of active and break events of the Indian summer monsoon on the basis of recently derived high resolution daily gridded rainfall dataset over India (1951–2007). Active and break events are defined as periods during the peak monsoon months of July and August, in which the normalized anomaly of the rainfall over a critical area, called the monsoon core zone exceeds 1 or is less than −1.0 respectively, provided the criterion is satisfied for at least three consecutive days. We elucidate the major features of these events. We consider very briefly the relationship of the intraseasonal fluctuations between these events and the interannual variation of the summer monsoon rainfall.

      We find that breaks tend to have a longer life-span than active spells. While, almost 80% of the active spells lasted 3–4 days, only 40% of the break spells were of such short duration. A small fraction (9%) of active spells and 32% of break spells lasted for a week or longer. While active events occurred almost every year, not a single break occurred in 26% of the years considered. On an average, there are 7 days of active and break events from July through August. There are no significant trends in either the days of active or break events. We have shown that there is a major difference between weak spells and long intense breaks. While weak spells are characterized by weak moist convective regimes, long intense break events have a heat trough type circulation which is similar to the circulation over the Indian subcontinent before the onset of the monsoon.

      The space-time evolution of the rainfall composite patterns suggests that the revival from breaks occurs primarily from northward propagations of the convective cloud zone. There are important differences between the spatial patterns of the active/break spells and those characteristic of interannual variation, particularly those associated with the link to ENSO. Hence, the interannual variation of the Indian monsoon cannot be considered as primarily arising from the interannual variation of intraseasonal variation. However, the signature over the eastern equatorial Indian Ocean on intraseasonal time scales is similar to that on the interannual time scales.

    • Total column density variations of ozone (O3) in presence of different types of clouds

      G S Meena

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      The zenith sky scattered light spectra were carried out using zenith sky UV-visible spectrometer in clear and cloudy sky conditions during May–November 2000 over the tropical station Pune (18°32′N, 73°51′E). These scattered spectra are obtained in the spectral range 462–498 nm between 75° and 92° solar zenith angles (SZAs). The slant column densities (SCDs) as well as total column densities (TCDs) of NO2, O3, H2O and O4 are derived with different SZAs in clear and cloudy sky conditions. The large enhancements and reductions in TCDs of the above gases are observed in thick cumulonimbus (Cb) clouds and thin high cirrus (Ci) clouds, respectively, compared to clear sky conditions. The enhancements in TCDs of O3 appear to be due to photon diffusion, multiple Mie-scattering and multiple reflections between layered clouds or isolated patches of optically thick clouds. The reductions in TCDs due to optically thin clouds are noticed during the above period. The variations in TCDs of O3 measured under cloudy sky are discussed with total cloud cover (octas) of different types of clouds such as low clouds (CL), medium clouds (CM) and high clouds (CH) during May–November 2000. The variations in TCDs of O3 measured in cloudy sky conditions are found to be well matched with cloud sensitive parameter colour index (CI) and found to be in good correlation. The TCDcloudy are derived using airmass factors (AMFs) computed without considering cloud cover and CI in radiative transfer (RT) model, whereas TCDmodel are derived using AMFs computed with considering cloud cover, cloud height and CI in RT model. The TCDmodel is the column density of illuminated cloudy effect. A good agreement is observed between TCDmodel, TCDDob and TCDGOME.

    • Dominant winter-time mesospheric wave signatures over a low latitude station, Hawaii (20.8°N): An investigation

      A Taori M Taylor

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      We utilize mesospheric O2 airglow emission intensity and temperature data collected during January–February 2003 on 17 consecutive nights from Maui, Hawaii (20.8°N, 156.2°W) to study the dominant and long period wave features at mesospheric altitudes. Apart from large day-to-day variability, it is found that nocturnal data for the period under consideration was dominated by a terdiurnal tide-like wave. Together, a quasi 5-day wave is also noticed with significant amplitude.

    • Assessing climate change impacts on water balance in the Mount Makiling forest, Philippines

      E A Combalicer R V O Cruz S Lee S Im

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      A statistical downscaling known for producing station-scale climate information from GCM output was preferred to evaluate the impacts of climate change within the Mount Makiling forest watershed, Philippines. The lumped hydrologic BROOK90 model was utilized for the water balance assessment of climate change impacts based on two scenarios (A1B and A2) from CGCM3 experiment. The annual precipitation change was estimated to be 0.1–9.3% increase for A1B scenario, and −3.3 to 3.3% decrease/increase for the A2 scenario. Difference in the mean temperature between the present and the 2080s were predicted to be 0.6$–$2.2°C and 0.6$–$3.0°C under A1B and A2 scenarios, respectively. The water balance showed that 42% of precipitation is converted into evaporation, 48% into streamflow, and 10% into deep seepage loss. The impacts of climate change on water balance reflected dramatic fluctuations in hydrologic events leading to high evaporation losses, and decrease in streamflow, while groundwater flow appeared unaffected. A study on the changes in monthly water balance provided insights into the hydrologic changes within the forest watershed system which can be used in mitigating the effects of climate change.

    • Shift in detrital sedimentation in the eastern Bay of Bengal during the late Quaternary

      C Prakash Babu J N Pattan K Dutta N Basavaiah G V Ravi Prasad D K Ray P Govil

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      Down-core variations of granulometric, geochemical and mineral magnetism of a 70-cm long sediment core retrieved from the eastern Bay of Bengal abyssal region were studied to understand sedimentation pattern and sediment provenance during the last ∼12 kyr BP. Based on down-core physical and elemental variations, three units were identified: unit 3 (70–43 cm) is a ∼30 cm thick clayey silt organic carbon-rich (0.5–0.92%) turbidite probably delivered by the Brahmaputra River during the late Quaternary period. Units 2 (43–24 cm) and 1 (24–0 cm) represent enhanced and reduced supply of coarse-grained detrital sediments from the Ganges River during early and late Holocene period, respectively. Increased terrigenous supply dilutes calcium carbonate (CaCO3) and biogenic elements (P, Ba and Cu) in units 3 and 2. On the contrary, a reduction in detrital input enhances CaCO3 and biogenic elements in unit 1. Lithogenic elements (Ti, Al, K and Rb) and shale-normalized REE patterns in all three units suggest terrigenous source. The shift in provenance from the Brahmaputra to the Ganges derived sediments is evident by a sharp increase in sediment grain size, increased concentration and grain size assemblages of magnetic minerals, lithogenic elements concentration and $La_{n}/Yb_{n}$ ratio. This study highlights terrigenous dilution on biogenic sedimentation in the eastern Bay of Bengal sediments.

    • Granularity and textural analysis as a proxy for extreme wave events in southeast coast of India

      C S Vijaya Lakshmi P Srinivasan S G N Murthy Deshraj Trivedi Rajesh R Nair

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      Extreme wave events of 1000 and 1500 years (radiocarbon ages) have been recently reported in Mahabalipuram region, southeast coast of India. Subsequently, we carried out extensive sedimentological analysis in regions covering a total lateral coverage of 12 km with a new archeological site as the central portion of the study area. Twelve trenches in shore normal profiles exhibit landward thinning sequences as well as upward fining sequences confirming with the global signatures of extreme wave events. The sediment size ranges from fine-to-medium and moderately well sorted-to-well sorted, and exhibit positive skewness with platykurtic-to-leptokurtic nature. We now propose the abrupt winnowing or back and forth motion including unidirectional transport of these deposited sediments, which results in positive skewness. Textural analyses derived from scanning electron microscope studies (SEM) demonstrate the alteration produced, in the ilmenite mineral with vivid presence of pits and crescents with deformation observed on the surface due to extreme wave activities. This is further confirmed with the predominance of high-density mineral such as magnetite (5.2) and other heavy minerals in these deposits inferred the high-intensity of the reworking process of the beach shelf sediments.

    • Molluscan fauna from the Miocene sediments of Kachchh, Gujarat, India – Part 3. Gastropods

      Kantimati G Kulkarni Satarupa Bhattacharjee Kapoor Vidyadhar D Borkar

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      Systematic description of 25 gastropod species from the Khari Nadi Formation (Aquitanian) and Chhasra Formation (Burdigalian) from the Kachchh District, Gujarat, India is given. A checklist of 116 forms including those reported by earlier researchers, emending taxonomic identifications wherever necessary, is also provided. Vredenburg had referred these two formations together as ‘the Gaj Beds of Kachchh’. He noticed the affinity of molluscs among the Miocene deposits of Kachchh and Kathiawar regions of Gujarat, and Sind province of Pakistan. He also observed that molluscs from his ‘Lower Gaj’ and ‘Upper Gaj’ Formations showed relationship respectively with the Rembang (Aquitanian) and Njalindung (Burdigalian) series of the East Indies. Aquitanian and Burdigalian ages assigned by him were later substantiated by Raju on the basis of foraminifera. Present studies corroborated that the molluscan assemblage from the Miocene rocks of Kachchh is closely related to that from the Gaj Beds of Sind and the Ashapura Clay Member of Kathiawar; besides revealing that the fauna from these three formations taken together is essentially endemic. Discovery of certain species from the Quilon Beds in the Miocene of Kachchh evinces a close affinity between these two formations. The present fauna includes five extant forms, while 29 forms have related species in the Recent fauna.

    • Compositional variations of chromiferous spinel in Mg-rich rocks of the Deccan Traps, India

      Leone Melluso Roberto De’ Gennaro Ivana Rocco

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      Composition of chromiferous spinel included in olivines of Mg-rich basalts and gabbros of the Deccan Traps (Gujarat and Western Ghats) are reported here. They vary from Al-rich compositions [Al2O3 = 53wt.%; Cr#, 100Cr/(Cr + Al) = 12] to Cr-rich compositions [Cr2O3 = 51wt.%; Cr#= 84], and from Cr-Al rich compositions towards Cr-rich Ti-magnetite (TiO2 up to 23 wt.%, ulvöspinel up to 67mol.%). The Mg#[100Mg/(Mg + Fe2+)] of spinel decreases from 81 to nearly zero. The highest Cr#has been found in the Bushe Fm., Thakurvadi Fm., and some high-Ti basalts of the Pavagadh section, whereas some of the low-Ti basalts of Saurashtra have Al-rich compositions typical of spinels found in mid-ocean ridge basalts. The chemical composition of the Deccan Trap spinels is completely different compared to that observed in mantle spinel suites, with very few exceptions. The decreasing Al and increasing Fe and Ti of spinel seems to be mainly the result of decrease of Mg in the locally coexisting melts and favourable cationic substitutions in the lattice. There is barely any evidence of general relationships between the composition of the Deccan spinels and inferred mantle sources of the host magmas. Pyroxene inclusions in spinels may witness a high-pressure stage of crystallization, but the possibility of non-equilibrium crystallization, or even magma mixing, cannot be ruled out. Overall, the compositional ranges of chromiferous spinel in the Deccan Traps closely match those observed in the other Large Igneous Provinces having mafic/ultramafic intrusions and mafic magma compositions (e.g., Siberian Traps, Karoo, Emeishan).

    • Complete preservation of ophiolite suite from south Andaman, India: A mineralchemical perspective

      Abhishek Saha Avik Dhang Jyotisankar Ray Suvankar Chakraborty David Moecher

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      Field studies supplemented by petrographic analyses clearly reveal complete preservation of ophiolite suite from Port Blair (11° 39′ N: 92° 45′E) to Chiriyatapu (11° 30′ 24′′N: 92° 42′ 30′′E) stretch of South Andaman. The ophiolite suite reveals serpentinite at the base which is overlain unconformably by cumulate ultramafic–mafic members with discernible cumulus texture and igneous layering. Basaltic dykes are found to cut across the cumulate ultramafic–mafic members. The succession is capped by well exposed pillow basalts interlayered with arkosic sediments. Olivine from the basal serpentinite unit are highly magnesian (Fo80.1–86.2). All clinopyroxene analyses from cumulate pyroxenite, cumulate gabbro and basaltic dyke are discriminated to be ‘Quad’ and are uniformly restricted to the diopside field. Composition of plagioclase in different lithomembers is systematically varying from calcic to sodic endmembers progressively from cumulate pyroxenite to pillow basalt through cumulate gabbro and basaltic dyke. Plagioclase phenocrysts from basaltic dyke are found to be distinctly zoned (An60.7$–$An35.5) whereas groundmass plagioclase are relatively sodic (An33$–$An23.5). Deduced thermobarometric data from different lithomembers clearly correspond to the observed preservation of complete ophiolite suite.

    • Source parameters estimation of 2003 Bam earthquake Mw 6.5 using empirical Green’s function method, based on an evolutionary approach

      Ahmad Nicknam Reza Abbasnia Yasser Eslamian Mohsen Bozorgnasab Ehsan Adeli Mosabbeb

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      We determine the source parameters for 2003 (Mw 6.5) Bam, Iran, earthquake using an empirical Green’s function summation approach to model ground motions recorded by two strong motion stations at approximately 45 km epicentral distance. We introduce a genetic algorithm technique to optimize the fit to observed elastic response spectra. The proposed genetic algorithm technique allows us to explore the sensitivity of the results to multiple source parameters, including hypocenter location, focal mechanism (Strike and Dip), P-wave velocity in depth, fault dimension and rupture and healing velocities.

      We simulated the three components of seismogram at a far station, Mohammad-Abad station, by means of an inversion solution technique and predicted seismograms at another far station, Abaragh, incorporating the estimated model parameters. More agreement of our synthesized seismograms with those of the observed data in comparison with the results of other investigators confirms the reliability of estimated seismological parameters and the applicability of our technique.

      A series of sensitivity analysis are performed for demonstrating the influence of individual model parameter variation on defined error value. Using the empirical Green’s function summation method, our inferred source parameters provide the basis for predicting main shock shaking and guiding retrofitting efforts at sites, for example, the historical buildings in Arge- Bam site which were damaged during the 2003 Bam earthquake and strong motion data is unavailable.

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