• Volume 115, Issue 3

      June 2006,   pages  267-386

    • Fast computation of Hankel Transform using orthonormal exponential approximation of complex kernel function

      Pravin K Gupta Sri Niwas Neeta Chaudhary

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      The computation of electromagnetic (EM) fields, for 1-D layered earth model, requires evaluation of Hankel Transform (HT) of the EM kernel function. The digital filtering is the most widely used technique to evaluate HT integrals. However, it has some obvious shortcomings. We present an alternative scheme, based on an orthonormal exponential approximation of the kernel function, for evaluating HT integrals. This approximation of the kernel function was chosen because the analytical solution of HT of an exponential function is readily available in literature. This expansion reduces the integral to a simple algebraic sum. The implementation of such a scheme requires that the weights and the exponents of the exponential function be estimated. The exponents were estimated through a guided search algorithm while the weights were obtained using Marquardt matrix inversion method. The algorithm was tested on analytical HT pairs available in literature. The results are compared with those obtained using the digital filtering technique with Anderson filters. The field curves for four types (A-, K-, H-and Q-type) of 3-layer earth models are generated using the present scheme and compared with the corresponding curves obtained using the Anderson sc heme. It is concluded that the present scheme is more accurate than the Anderson scheme

    • 2-D deformation of two welded half-spaces due to a blind dip-slip fault

      Sunita Rani Neeru Bala

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      The solution of two-dimensional problem of an interface breaking long inclined dip-slip fault in two welded half-spaces is well known. The purpose of this note is to obtain the corresponding solution for a blind fault. The solution is valid for arbitrary values of the fault-depth and the dip angle. Graphs showing the variation of the displacement field with the distance from the fault, for different values of fault depth and dip angle are presented. Contour maps showing the stress field around a long dip-slip fault are also obtained

    • Modeling of groundwater flow for Mujib aquifer, Jordan

      Fayez Abdulla Tamer Al-Assa’D

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      Jordan is an arid country with very limited water resources. Groundwater is the main source for its water supply. Mujib aquifer is located in the central part of Jordan and is a major source of drinking water for Amman, Madaba and Karak cities. High abstraction rates from Mujib aquifer during the previous years lead to a major decline in water levels and deterioration in groundwater quality. Therefore, proper groundwater management of Mujib aquifer is necessary; and groundwater flow modeling is essential for proper management. For this purpose, Modflow was used to build a groundwater flow model to simulate the behavior of the flow system under different stresses. The model was calibrated for steady state condition by matching observed and simulated initial head counter lines. Drawdown data for the period 1985–1995 were used to calibrate the transient model by matching simulated drawdown with the observed one. Then, the transient model was validated by using drawdown data for the period 1996–2002. The results of the calibrated model showed that the horizontal hydraulic conductivity of the B2/A7 aquifer ranges between 0.001 and 40m/d. Calibrated specific yield ranges from 0.0001 to 0.15. The water balance for the steady state condition of Mujib aquifer indicated that the total annual direct recharge is 20.4 × 106m3, the total annual inflow is 13.0 × 106 m3, springs discharge is 15.3 × 106 m3, and total annual outflow is 18.7 × 106 m3. Different scenarios were considered to predict aquifer system response under different conditions. The results of the sensitivity analysis show that the model is highly sensitive to horizontal hydraulic conductivity and anisotropy and with lower level to the recharge rates. Also the model is sensitive to specific yield

    • Simulation of a Himalayan cloudburst event

      Someshwar Das Raghavendra Ashrit M W Moncrieff

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      Intense rainfall often leads to floods and landslides in the Himalayan region even with rainfall amounts that are considered comparatively moderate over the plains; for example, ‘cloudbursts’, which are devastating convective phenomena producing sudden high-intensity rainfall (∼10 cm per hour) over a small area. Early prediction and warning of such severe local weather systems is crucial to mitigate societal impact arising from the accompanying flash floods. We examine a cloudburst event in the Himalayan region at Shillagarh village in the early hours of 16 July 2003. The storm lasted for less than half an hour, followed by flash floods that affected hundreds of people. We examine the fidelity of MM5 configured with multiple-nested domains (81, 27, 9 and 3 km grid-resolution) for predicting a cloudburst event with attention to horizontal resolution and the cloud microphysics parameterization. The MM5 model predicts the rainfall amount 24 hours in advance. However, the location of the cloudburst is displaced by tens of kilometers

    • Operational mesoscale atmospheric dispersion prediction using a parallel computing cluster

      C V Srinivas R Venkatesan N V Muralidharan Someshwar Das Hari Dass P Eswara Kumar

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      An operational atmospheric dispersion prediction system is implemented on a cluster supercomputer for Online Emergency Response at the Kalpakkam nuclear site. This numerical system constitutes a parallel version of a nested grid meso-scale meteorological model MM5 coupled to a random walk particle dispersion model FLEXPART. The system provides 48-hour forecast of the local weather and radioactive plume dispersion due to hypothetical airborne releases in a range of 100 km around the site. The parallel code was implemented on different cluster configurations like distributed and shared memory systems. A 16-node dual Xeon distributed memory gigabit ethernet cluster has been found sufficient for operational applications. The runtime of a triple nested domain MM5 is about 4 h for a 24 h forecast. The system had been operated continuously for a few months and results were ported on the IMSc home page.

      Initial and periodic boundary condition data for MM5 are provided by NCMRWF, New Delhi. An alternative source is found to be NCEP, USA. These two sources provide the input data to the operational models at different spatial and temporal resolutions using different assimilation methods. A comparative study on the results of forecast is presented using these two data sources for present operational use. Improvement is noticed in rainfall forecasts that used NCEP data, probably because of its high spatial and temporal resolution

    • Retrieval of stratospheric O3 and NO2 vertical profiles using zenith scattered light observations

      G S Meena C S Bhosale D B Jadhav

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      Daily zenith scattered light intensity observations were carried out in the morning twilight hours using home-made UV-visible spectrometer over the tropical station Pune (18‡31′, 73‡51′) for the years 2000–2003. These observations are obtained in the spectral range 462–498 nm for the solar zenith angles (SZAs) varying from 87‡ to 91.5‡. An algorithm has been developed to retrieve vertical profiles of ozone (O3) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) from ground-based measurements using the Chahine iteration method. This retrieval method has been checked using measured and recalculated slant column densities (SCDs) and they are found to be well matching. O3 and NO2 vertical profiles have been retrieved using a set of their air mass factors (AMFs) and SCDs measured over a range of 87–91.5‡ SZA during the morning. The vertical profiles obtained by this method are compared with Umkehr profiles and ozonesondes and they are found to be in good agreement. The bulk of the column density is found near layer 20–25 km. Daily total column densities (TCDs) of O3 and NO2 along with their stratospheric and tropospheric counterparts are derived using their vertical profiles for the period 2000–2003. The total column, stratospheric column and tropospheric column amounts of both trace gases are found to be maximum in summer and minimum in the winter season. Increasing trend is found in column density of NO2 in stratospheric, tropospheric and surface layers, but no trend is observed in O3 columns for above layers during the period 2000–2003

    • Global surface temperature in relation to northeast monsoon rainfall over Tamil Nadu

      S Balachandran R Asokan S Sridharan

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      The local and teleconnective association between Northeast Monsoon Rainfall (NEMR) over Tamil Nadu and global Surface Temperature Anomalies (STA) is examined using the monthly gridded STA data for the period 1901–2004. Various geographical regions which have significant teleconnective signals associated with NEMR are identified. During excess (deficient) NEMR years, it is observed that the meridional gradient in surface air temperature anomalies between Europe and north Africa, in the month of September is directed from the subtropics (higher latitudes) to higher latitudes (subtropics). It is also observed that North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) during September influences the surface air temperature distribution over north Africa and Europe. Also, the NAO index in January shows significant inverse relationship with NEMR since recent times. The central and eastern equatorial Pacific oceanic regions have significant and consistent positive correlation with NEMR while the western equatorial region has significant negative correlation with NEMR. A zonal temperature anomaly gradient index (ZTAGI) defined between eastern equatorial Pacific and western equatorial Pacific shows stable significant inverse relationship with NEMR

    • Amino sugars in suspended particulate matter from the Bay of Bengal during the summer monsoon of 2001

      Loreta Fernandes Fraddry D’Souza S G P Matondkar Narayan B Bhosle

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      Amino sugars (AS) are important constituents of organic matter. However, very little is known about their cycling in marine waters. In this research, we assessed the distribution and cycling of these compounds in waters of the Bay of Bengal. For this purpose, samples of suspended particu late matter (SPM) were collected from 8 depths (surface to 1000 m) at 6 locations during the 166th cruise of the ORV Sagar Kanya in the Bay of Bengal in July/August 2001. The SPM samples were analysed for particulate organic carbon (POC), particulate nitrogen (PN) and AS concentrations and composition. The AS varied between 0.4 and 17.5 nmol/l. Concentrations were high in the surface waters and generally decreased with increasing depth. AS concentration decreased from the south to north. AS accounted for 0.01 to 0.71% and 0.05 to 2.37% of POC and PN, respectively. Rapid decrease in AS-C% and AS-N% with depth indicates that these compounds were preferentially degraded relative to bulk POC and PN. The composition of AS suggests that glucosamine (GLU-N) and galactosamine (GAL-N) were present in the surface SPM samples, and their abundance decreased from surface downwards. Relatively, low values of GLU-N/GAL-N ratio indicate that the organic matter was mostly derived from the detritus of micro-organisms. Our data suggest that chitin, a polymer of the glucosamine produced by many marine organisms was not the major source of AS in the Bay. Rapid cycling of these compounds indicates their importance in the cycling of nitrogen in marine waters

    • Seaweed floristic studies along tsunami affected Indian coasts: A litmus test scenario after 26th December 2004

      Vaibhav A Mantri

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      On 26th December 2004, the world witnessed the devastating power of tsunami, affecting many countries, bordering the Indian Ocean region. This has caused significant changes in the shallow and intertidal regions of the Indian coast, especially the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Tamil Nadu, Kerala and Pondicherry. The baseline data on biomass availability and distribution of benthic intertidal seaweed species were collected immediately after this catastrophic event by spot surveying 11 selected localities of the above-mentioned regions. In all, 45 species belonging to 31 genera were recorded during the present survey, the maximum number of seaweed species were recorded at Thirumullavarum, Kerala with the minimum at Car Nicobar, Andaman and Nicobar Islands. A very different trend was observed in the case of biomass availability at some locations which was due to the influence of habitat suitability over the tsunami damage. The details of this study have been provided in the present communication

    • Climate induced changes in the circulation and dispersal patterns of the fluvial sources during late Quaternary in the middle Bengal Fan

      Onkar S Chauhan E Vogelsang

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      From a transact along 15‡N latitude in the middle Bengal Fan, temporal and spatial variations in the granulometric parameters and clay minerals in14C dated box cores from the eastern, the central and the western regions were studied to determine climate induced changes in the hydrography. Clay assemblages have spatial and temporal changes and are markedly different in the eastern and the western bay. From a high abundance of the clay smectite, which has its major source in the Deccan Basalt in peninsular India, it is inferred that the western bay is predominantly a depocenter of ‘peninsular sources”. The eastern and the central regions of the bay, however, mostly receive sediments of the ‘Himalayan source’. Related to unstable climate, the reported dominant illite-chlorite (I + C) assemblage in the eastern region of the bay (I + C > 60% smectite <15%), between 18 and 12.6 ka BP, points to a predominant supply from the Himalayan sources through equatorwards dispersal by the winter hydrography. Higher smectite, and reduced clays of the Himalayan sources (smectite > 25%; I + C > 45%) are reported also after 12.5 ka BP from the eastern bay. These are interpreted as evidences of an intensified SW monsoon and associated change in the dispersal pattern by stronger summer monsoon hydrography which supports across bay dispersal by anticyclonic gyre. The influence of climate on hydrographic changes is consistent during the short events of arid climate (weak NE monsoon) in Holocene in core 31/1 (western bay), in which the enhanced contents of the clays of the Himalayan sources are observed (smectite < 40% I + C > 50%). These findings have implications for climate regulated influence of fluvial processes over the areas, hitherto, considered unaffected by the Indian peninsular fluvial sources

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