• Volume 114, Issue 4

      August 2005,   pages  381-441

    • Glacial meltwater impounding: Evidence from the late Quaternary glaciogenic sediments in the Sangla valley, district Kinnaur, Himachal Pradesh, India

      R K Ganjoo M N Koul

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      Sangla valley is situated at an altitude of ~ 3500 m above mean sea level and lies in the Kinnaur district of Himachal Pradesh. It is fed by river Baspa, a tributary of river Sutlej, that entrenches through the Quaternary glaciogenic deposits before emerging out of the valley and joining the river Sutlej at Karcham. The unstratified to stratified glaciogenic deposits consist of large boulders to fine silt and are classified into four major depositional facies on the basis of sedimentary texture and depositional environment. The facies — basal conglomerates, debris flow, water/sheet flow and laminites — represents the change in the environment of deposition from glaciofluvial to lacustrine and also the extent of the glacier to the valley floor during late Quaternary.

    • Evidence of paleoearthquakes from trench investigations across Pinjore Garden fault in Pinjore Dun, NW Himalaya

      Javed N Malik George Mathew

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      The Pinjore Garden Fault (PGF) striking NNW-SSE is now considered one of the active faults displacing the younger Quaternary surfaces in the piggyback basin of Pinjore Dun. This has displaced the older Kalka and Pinjore surfaces, along with the other younger surfaces giving rise to WSW and SW-facing fault scarps with heights ranging from 2 to 16 m. The PGF represents a younger branch of the Main Boundary Thrust (MBT) system. An ~ 4m wide trench excavated across the PGF has revealed displacement of younger Quaternary deposits along a low angle thrust fault. Either side of the trench-walls reveals contrasting slip-related deformation of lithounits. The northern wall shows displacement of lithounits along a low-angle thrust fault, while the southern wall shows well-developed fault-related folding of thick sand unit. The sudden change in the deformational features on the southern wall is an evidence of the changing fault geometry within a short distance. Out of five prominent lithounits identified in the trench, the lower four units show displacement along a single fault. The basal unit ‘A’ shows maximum displacement of aboutTo = 2.85 m, unit B = 1.8 m and unit C = 1.45 m. The displacement measured between the sedimentary units and retro-deformation of trench log suggests that at least two earthquake events have occurred along the PGF. The units A and D mark the event horizons. Considering the average amount of displacement during one single event (2 m) and the minimum length of the fault trace (~ 45 km), the behaviour of PGF seems similar to that of the Himalayan Frontal Fault (HFF) and appears capable of producing large magnitude earthquakes.

    • Acceleration of near-field scattering from an inhomogeneous spherical shell

      M D Sharma

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      The three dimensional scattering of near-field, from a point source, is studied for acceleration in the time domain. The perturbation method is applied to define the acceleration for the first order scattering from a weak inhomogeneity in a homogeneous surrounding. A body force, arising from the interaction between the primary waves and the inhomogeneity, acts as the source generating the scattered motion. The acceleration of scattered waves is related to the velocity and density fluctuations of the inhomogeneity. No restrictions are placed on the inhomogeneity size or locations of the source and receiver. Decoupling of scattered motion enables the identification of different phases. Integral expressions are derived for the scattering acceleration due to the incidence of near-field wave (from an impulsive point force) at a radially inhomogeneous volume element. These integrals are solved further for scattering from an inhomogeneous spherical shell. The accelerations for back scattering are obtained as a special case. These accelerations are simple analytically solvable expressions in closed form.

      Only spherical asymmetry ofP wave velocity inhomogeneity can affect the scatteredS acceleration. ScatteredP acceleration is affected by the gradient ofS wave velocity inhomogeneity. The back scattering of near-field from a spherical shell, is independent of radial inhomogeneity ofP wave velocity. Inhomogeneity with smoothly perturbedS wave velocity does not back-scatter any acceleration. Accelerations are computed numerically for scattering from a part of inhomogeneous spherical shell. Hypothetical models are considered to study the effects of the distances of spherical shell from source, receiver, its thickness and its position relative to the direction of impulsive force.

    • Polarisations of quasi-waves in a general anisotropic porous solid saturated with viscous fluid

      M D Sharma

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      Wave propagation is studied in a general anisotropic poroelastic solid saturated with a viscous fluid flowing through its pores of anisotropic permeability. The extended version of Biot’s theory is used to derive a system of modified Christoffel equations for the propagation of plane harmonic waves in such media. The non-trivial solution of this system is ensured by a biquadratic equation whose roots represent the complex velocities of four attenuating quasi-waves in the medium. These complex velocities define phase velocity and attenuation of each quasi-wave propagating along a given phase direction in three-dimensional space. The solution itself defines the polarisations of the quasi-waves along with phase shift. The variations of polarisations of quasi-waves with their phase direction, are computed for a realistic numerical model.

    • Interrelationship between cloud cover and sensible heat flux over land during MONTBLEX-1990

      T Venugopal P Seetaramayya A R Dhakate

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      Micro-meteorological tower observations of MONTBLEX (Monsoon Trough Boundary Layer Experiment)-1990, combined with routine surface observations at Jodhpur in the dry convective sector of Indian summer monsoon trough are used to examine the interrelationship between total cloud cover (TCC) and surface sensible heat flux (SHF) during the summer monsoon of 1990. A significant inverse relationship between TCC and SHF is found during various Intensive Observation Periods of the experiment. This relationship holds for the various methods of estimation of SHF.

    • Impact of bogus vortex for track and intensity prediction of tropical cyclone

      Randhir Singh P K Pal C M Kishtawal P C Joshi

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      The initialization scheme designed to improve the representation of a tropical cyclone in the initial condition is tested during Orissa super cyclone (1999) over Bay of Bengal using the fifth-generation Pennsylvania State University — National Center for Atmospheric Research (Penn State — NCAR) Mesoscale Model (MM5). A series of numerical experiments are conducted to generate initial vortices by assimilating the bogus wind information into MM5. Wind speed and location of the tropical cyclone obtained from best track data are used to define maximum wind speed, and centre of the storm respectively, in the initial vortex. The initialization scheme produced an initial vortex that was well adapted to the forecast model and was much more realistic in size and intensity than the storm structure obtained from the NCEP analysis. Using this scheme, the 24-h, 48-h, and 72-h forecast errors for this case was 63, 58, and 46 km, respectively, compared with 120, 335, and 550 km for the non-vortex initialized case starting from the NCEP global analysis. When bogus vortices are introduced into initial conditions, the significant improvements in the storm intensity predictions are also seen.

      The impact of the vortex size on the structure of the initial vortex is also evaluated. We found that when the radius of maximum wind (RMW) of the specified vortex is smaller than that of which can be resolved by the model, the specified vortex is not well adapted by the model. In contrast, when the vortex is sufficiently large for it to be resolved on horizontal grid, but not so large to be unrealistic, more accurate storm structure is obtained.

    • Geomagnetic activity control on VHF scintillations over an Indian low latitude station, Waltair (17.7‡N, 83.3‡E, 20‡N dip)

      D S V V D Prasad P V S Rama Rao G Uma S Gopi Krishna K Venkateswarlu

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      Using the data of amplitude scintillations recorded at 244 MHz from the geostationary satellite, FLEETSAT (73‡E) at a low latitude station, Waltair (17.7‡N, 83.3‡E, 20‡N dip), during the increasing sunspot activity period of 1997–2000, the effect of the geomagnetic storms on the occurrence of ionospheric scintillations has been studied. A total of 60 SC storms studied during this period, following the Aarons’ criterion, reveals that the local time of onset of the recovery phase of the geomagnetic storms play an important role in the generation or inhibition of the ionospheric irregularities. Out of the 60 storms studied, nearly 60 to 70% satisfied the categories I, II and III of Aarons’ criteria. However, in the remaining 30 to 40% of the cases, no consistent results were observed. Thus, there is a necessity for further investigation of the effect of geomagnetic storms on ionospheric irregularities, particularly with reference to the altitude variations of the F-layer (h’F) relating to the changes in the local electric fields.

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