Volume 112, Issue 4
December 2003, pages 485-607
pp 485-498 December 2003
Experimental and analytical procedures devised for measurement of rare earth element (REE) abundances using a secondary ion mass spectrometer (ion microprobe) are described. This approach is more versatile than the conventional techniques such as neutron activation analysis and isotope dilution mass spectrometry by virtue of its high spatial resolution that allows determination of REE abundances in small domains (10-20 micron) within individual mineral phases. The ion microprobe measurements are performed at a low mass-resolving power adopting the energy-filtering technique (Zinner and Crozaz 1986) for removal and suppression of unresolved complex molecular interferences in the REE masses of interest. Synthetic standards are used for determining various instrument specific parameters needed in the data deconvolution procedure adopted for obtaining REE abundances. Results obtained from analysis of standards show that our ion microprobe may be used for determining REE abundances down to ppm range with uncertainties of ∼ 10 to 15%. Abundances of rare earth and several other refractory trace elements in a set of early solar system objects isolated from two primitive carbonaceous chondrites were determined using the procedures devised by us. The results suggest that some of these objects could be high temperature nebular condensates, while others are products of melting and recrystallization of precursor nebular solids in a high temperature environment.
pp 499-519 December 2003
At the India Meteorological Department (IMD), New Delhi, a 12-level limited area model with 100 km horizontal resolution has been in use for weather forecasting. The present study uses this model together with a higher horizontal resolution (50 km) and vertical resolution (16-levels) model to examine the impact of increased resolution to simulate mesoscale features of rainfall during monsoon disturbances. The model was run for 22 days in the month of August 1997 and one week in September 1997 during three monsoon depressions and one cyclonic storm in the Bay of Bengal. The model results are compared with observations. The study shows that the model can capture mesoscale convective organization associated with monsoon depression.
pp 521-527 December 2003
In this paper Regional Pressure Index (RPI) over the Indian region (20‡N—40‡N and 70‡0E—85‡E) has been constructed for 101 years (1899-1999) on a monthly scale. The relationship of these indices was carried out with the Indian Summer Monsoon Rainfall (June–September) (ISMR) over the various homogeneous regions, for all the time scales. From the analysis it has been seen that RPI in the month of May is significantly associated with ISMR over various regions on all the scales. The relationship is statistically significant at 1% level. The study reveals that RPI in the month of May and January will be a new precursor for the long range forecasting of ISMR on the smaller spatial scale. On the decadal and climatological scale, winter and spring time RPI show a significant inverse relationship with the rainfall over the regions Peninsular India (PI) and North West India (NWI), while the association is direct with Central North East India (CNEI) and North East India (NEI). The relationship is significant at 0.1 and 1% level respectively.
pp 529-558 December 2003
For over a century, the term break has been used for spells in which the rainfall over the Indian monsoon zone is interrupted. The phenomenon of ’break monsoon’ is of great interest because long intense breaks are often associated with poor monsoon seasons. Such breaks have distinct circulation characteristics (heat trough type circulation) and have a large impact on rainfed agriculture. Although interruption of the monsoon rainfall is considered to be the most important feature of the break monsoon, traditionally breaks have been identified on the basis of the surface pressure and wind patterns over the Indian region. We have defined breaks (and active spells) on the basis of rainfall over the monsoon zone. The rainfall criteria are chosen so as to ensure a large overlap with the traditional breaks documented by Ramamurthy (1969) and Deet al (1998). We have identified these rainbreaks for 1901-89. We have also identified active spells on the basis of rainfall over the Indian monsoon zone. We have shown that the all-India summer monsoon rainfall is significantly negatively correlated with the number of rainbreak days (correlation coefficient -0.56) and significantly positively correlated with the number of active days (correlation coefficient 0.47). Thus the interannual variation of the all-India summer monsoon rainfall is shown to be related to the number of days of rainbreaks and active spells identified here.
There have been several studies of breaks (and also active spells in several cases) identified on the basis of different criteria over regions differing in spatial scales (e.g., Websteret al 1998; Krishnanet al it 2000; Goswami and Mohan 2000; and Annamalai and Slingo 2001). We find that there is considerable overlap between the rainbreaks we have identified and breaks based on the traditional definition. There is some overlap with the breaks identified by Krishnanet al (2000) but little overlap with breaks identified by Websteret al (1998). Further, there are three or four active-break cycles in a season according to Websteret al (1998) which implies a time scale of about 40 days for which Goswami and Mohan (2000), and Annamalai and Slingo (2001) have studied breaks and active minus break fluctuations. On the other hand, neither the traditional breaks (Ramamurthy 1969; and Deet al 1998) nor the rainbreaks occur every year. This suggests that the `breaks’ in these studies are weak spells of the intraseasonal variation of the monsoon, which occur every year.
We have derived the OLR and circulation patterns associated with rainbreaks and active spells and compared them with the patterns associated with breaks/active minus break spells from these studies. Inspite of differences in the patterns over the Indian region, there is one feature which is seen in the OLR anomaly patterns of breaks identified on the basis of different criteria as well as the rainbreaks identified in this paper viz., a quadrapole over the Asia-west Pacific region arising from anomalies opposite (same) in sign to those over the Indian region occurring over the equatorial Indian Ocean and northern tropical (equatorial) parts of the west Pacific. Thus it appears that this quadrapole is a basic feature of weak spells of the intraseasonal variation over the Asia-west Pacific region. Since the rainbreaks are intense weak spells, this basic feature is also seen in the composite patterns of these breaks. We find that rainbreaks (active spells) are also associated with negative
pp 559-567 December 2003
During the magnetic storm of 21st March 1990, the DE-1 spacecraft encountered the auroral region at high invariant latitude at altitudes ranging from a few thousand kilometers in the ionosphere to many earth radii in the magnetosphere. The magnetic field perturbations interpretable as field aligned current (FAC) layers and the electrostatic turbulence possibly due to electrostatic ion acoustic instability driven by these currents are shown. The critical drift velocity of Hot Plasma Torus (HPT) electrons and the growth rate of ion acoustic wave as a function of electron to ion temperature ratio (Te/Ti) for low and high current densities and energy of HPT electrons are found out. The intense FAC destabilizes the ion acoustic wave and the resultant electrostatic turbulence creates an anomalous resistivity. The current driven resistivity produces parallel electric field and high power dissipation. The anomalous resistivityη, potential difference along the auroral field lines Vt|, intensity of electric field turbulenceEt| and power produced per unit volumeP are computed. It is found that the change in westward magnetic perturbation increasesJt|, η, Vt|, Et| andP. Hence HPT electrons are heated and accelerated due to power dissipation during magnetically active periods in the auroral region. Concerning, applications, such HPT electrons can be used in particle accelerators like electron ring accelerator, smokatron etc.
pp 569-576 December 2003
CodaQ (Qc) estimates for the Kumaun Himalaya region have been obtained in high frequency range. Local earthquakes, recorded by a digital seismic network in the region, which fall in the epicentral distances range of 10 to 80 km and with a local magnitude range of 1.4 to 2.8, have been used. The coda waves of 30 sec window length, filtered at seven frequency bands centered at 1.5, 3, 6, 9, 12, 18 and 24Hz, have been analysed using the single backscattering model. The values ofQc estimates vary from 65 to 283 at 1.5 Hz to 2119 to 3279 at 24.0 Hz which showed thatQc is frequency dependent and its value increases as frequency increases.
A frequency-dependentQc relationship,Qc = (92 ± 4.73)f(1.07±.023), is obtained for the region representing the average attenuation characteristics of seismic waves for Kumaun Himalaya region.
pp 577-586 December 2003
Semi-detailed gravity investigations were carried out over an area of approximately 2750 sq km with maximum N-S and E-W extents of 55 and 50 km respectively in the Gadag region in the Dharwar craton with a view to obtain a clearer perception of the structural configuration of the region.
From qualitative analysis of the gravity data, several tectonic features are inferred: the high density Gadag schist belt is characterized by a gravity high and occurs in two discontinuous segments — the main N-S trending segment, and its thinner NW-SE trending extension, the two separated by a NE-SW trending deep seated fault. While the N-S trend of the Gadag schist belt is bounded on its east by the NW-SE trending Chitradurga thrust fault and on its west by another major NNWSSE trending fault, the NW-SE extension is likewise bounded by two other NW-SE major faults.
Quantitative evaluation from forward modeling/inversion of five profiles in the region, assuming a density contrast of 0.29gm/cc of the anomalous schistose body with the gneissic host rocks indicated a synclinal structure plunging to the southeast along its axis for the Gadag schist belt. The maximum width and depth from surface of the schist belt are 22 km and 5.6 km respectively.
pp 587-596 December 2003
Closed form analytical expressions of stresses and displacements at any field point due to a very long dip-slip fault of finite width buried in a homogeneous, isotropic elastic half-space, are presented. Airy stress function is used to derive the expressions of stresses and displacements which depend on the dip angle and depth of the upper edge of the fault. The effect of dip angle and depth of the upper edge of the fault on stresses and displacements is studied numerically and the results obtained are presented graphically. Contour maps for stresses and displacements are also presented. The results of Rani and Singh (1992b) and Freund and Barnett (1976) have been reproduced.
pp 597-602 December 2003
pp 603-605 December 2003
pp 607-607 December 2003