• Volume 112, Issue 1

      March 2003,   pages  1-127

    • Late Quaternary sea level and environmental changes from relic carbonate deposits of the western margin of India

      V Purnachandra Rao G Rajagopalan K H Vora F Almeida

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      Relic carbonate deposits along the western margin of India occur as dolomite crusts, aragonite sands (pelletal / oolitic) and aragonite-cemented limestones, oyster shells, corals, encrusted coralline algal and foraminiferal-dominated nodules. The petrology and mineralogy of the deposits indicate that except for aragonite sands and foraminiferal nodules, the others were formed in shallow marine conditions and serve as sea level indicators. Radiocarbon dates were measured for 62 relic deposits covering the entire margin. The age of these deposits on the continental shelf off Cape Comorin and Mangalore, between 110 and 18 m depth, ranges between 12, 61014C yr BP and 6,39014C yr BP. On the northwestern margin of India, especially on the carbonate platform (between 64 and 100 m), the age ranges from 17,250 to 6,73014C yr BP. The relic deposits of the Gulf of Kachchh at depths between 35 and 25 m are dated at 12,550–9,63014C yr BP. The age vs. depth plot of the relic deposits further indicates that the Gulf of Kachchh was inundated much early, atleast by 15 ka, after the Last Glacial Maximum, and was subjected to uplift and subsidence during the Holocene. The carbonate platform subsided during the early Holocene. Some of the relic deposits between Cape Comorin and Mangalore plot on or, closely follow the glacio-eustatic sea level curve. Despite abundant siliciclastic flux discharged by the Narmada and Tapti during the early Holocene, the platform off these rivers is largely devoid of this flux and carbonate sedimentation continued until 6,70014C yr BP. We suggest that the river-derived sediment flux diverted southwards under the influence of the SW monsoon current and, thereby, increased the turbidity on the shelf and slope southeast of the carbonate platform and facilitated the formation of deeper water foraminiferal nodules off Vengurla-Goa.

    • Effects of galvanic distortions on magnetotelluric data: Interpretation and its correction using deep electrical data

      Jimmy Stephen S G Gokarn C Manoj S B Singh

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      The non-inductive galvanic disturbances due to surficial bodies, lying smaller than high frequency skin depth, cause serious interpretational errors in magnetotelluric data. These frequency independent distortions result in a quasi-static shift between the apparent resistivity curves known as static shift. Two-dimensional modelling studies, for the effects of surficial bodies on magnetotelluric interpretation, show that the transverse electric (TE) mode apparent resistivity curves are hardly affected compared to the transverse magnetic (TM) mode curves, facilitating the correction by using a curve shifting method to match low frequency asymptotes. But in the case of field data the problem is rather complicated because of the random distribution of geometry and conductivity of near surface inhomogeneities. Here we present the use of deep resistivity sounding (DRS) data to constrain MT static shift. Direct current sensitivity studies show that the behaviour of MT static shift can be estimated using DC resistivity measurements close to the MT sounding station to appreciable depths. The distorted data set is corrected using the MT response for DRS model and further subject to joint inversion with DRS data. Joint inversion leads to better estimation of MT parameters compared to the separate inversion of data sets.

    • 2D stabilised analytic signal method in DC pole-pole potential data interpretation

      Paras R Pujari Rambhatla G Sastry

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      Using analytic signal method, interpretation of pole-pole secondary electric potentials due to 2D conductive/resistive prisms is presented. The estimated parameters are the location, lateral extent or width and depth to top surface of the prism. Forward modelling is attempted by 2D-Finite Difference method. The proposed stabilised analytic signal algorithm (RES2AS) uses Tikhonov’s regularization scheme and FFT routines. The algorithm is tested on three theoretical examples and field data from the campus of Roorkee University. The stability of RES2AS is also tested on synthetic error prone secondary pole-pole potential data.

    • Dissolved helium and TDS in groundwater from Bhavnagar in Gujarat: Unrelated to seismic events between August 2000 and January 2001

      S K Gupta R D Deshpande

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      Temporal variations have been observed in both dissolved helium and TDS in the form of increase in basaltic and decrease in alluvial aquifers. The increase in basaltic aquifers has been explained by enhanced pumping of old groundwater with relatively higher concentration of dissolved helium and salt, whereas the decrease in alluvial aquifers has been explained by dilution from the post monsoon groundwater recharge. Therefore, the observed temporal variations cannot be ascribed to the contemporary enhanced seismic activity in this region since August–September 2000.

    • Indian Ocean surface winds from NCMRWF analysis as compared to QuikSCAT and moored buoy winds

      B N Goswami E N Rajagopal

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      The quality of the surface wind analysis at the National Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasts (NCMRWF), New Delhi over the tropical Indian Ocean and its improvement in 2001 are examined by comparing it within situ buoy measurements and satellite derived surface winds from NASA QuikSCAT satellite (QSCT) during 1999, 2000 and 2001. The NCMRWF surface winds suffered from easterly bias of 1.0–1.5 ms-1 in the equatorial Indian Ocean (IO) and northerly bias of 2.0–3.0 ms-1 in the south equatorial IO during 1999 and 2000 compared to QSCT winds. The amplitude of daily variability was also underestimated compared to that in QSCT. In particular, the amplitude of daily variability of NCMRWF winds in the eastern equatorial IO was only about 60% of that of QSCT during 1999 and 2000. The NCMRWF surface winds during 2001 have significantly improved with the bias of the mean analyzed winds considerably reduced everywhere bringing it to within 0.5 ms-1 of QSCT winds in the equatorial IO. The amplitude and phase of daily and intraseasonal variability are very close to that in QSCT almost everywhere during 2001. It is shown that the weakness in the surface wind analysis during 1999 and 2000 and its improvement in 2001 are related to the weakness in simulation of precipitation by the forecast model in the equatorial IO and its improvement in 2001.

    • Impact of horizontal resolution on prediction of tropical cyclones over Bay of Bengal using a regional weather prediction model

      M Mandal U C Mohanty K V J Potty A Sarkar

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      The present study is carried out to examine the performance of a regional atmospheric model in forecasting tropical cyclones over the Bay of Bengal and its sensitivity to horizontal resolution. Two cyclones, which formed over the Bay of Bengal during the years 1995 and 1997, are simulated using a regional weather prediction model with two horizontal resolutions of 165 km and 55 km. The model is found to perform reasonably well towards simulation of the storms. The structure, intensity and track of the cyclones are found to be better simulated by finer resolution of the model as compared to the coarse resolution. Rainfall amount and its distribution are also found to be sensitive to the model horizontal resolution. Other important fields, viz., vertical velocity, horizontal divergence and horizontal moisture flux are also found to be sensitive to model horizontal resolution and are better simulated by the model with finer horizontal grids.

    • The Indian summer monsoon as revealed by the NCMRWF system

      P L S Rao U C Mohanty P V S Raju Gopal Iyengar

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      In this study, we present the mean seasonal features of the Indian summer monsoon circulation in the National Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasting (NCMRWF) global data assimilation and forecast system. The large-scale budgets of heat and moisture are examined in the analyzed and model atmosphere. The daily operational analyses and forecasts (day 1 through day 5) produced for the summer seasons comprising June, July and August of 1995 and 1993 have been considered for the purpose. The principal aim of the study is two-fold. Primarily, to comprehend the influence of the systematic errors over the Indian summer monsoon, secondarily, to analyze the performance of the model in capturing the interseasonal variability.

      The heat and moisture balances show reduction in the influx of heat and moisture in the model forecasts compared to the analyzed atmosphere over the monsoon domain. Consequently, the diabatic heating also indicates reducing trend with increase in the forecast period. In effect, the strength of Indian summer monsoon, which essentially depends on these parameters, weakens considerably in the model forecasts. Despite producing feeble monsoon circulation, the model captures interseasonal variability realistically. Although, 1995 and 1993 are fairly normal monsoon seasons, the former received more rainfall compared to the latter in certain pockets of the monsoon domain. This is clearly indicated by the analyzed and model atmosphere in terms of energetics.

    • Laser microprobe for the study of noble gases and nitrogen in single grains: A case study of individual chondrules from the Dhajala meteorite

      R R Mahajan S V S Murty

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      A laser microprobe capable of analysing nitrogen and noble gases in individual grains with masses less than a milligram is described. It can be used in both continuous wave (CW) mode, useful for stepwise heating of an individual grain, as well as in pulsed mode, useful for ablating material from a small selected area of a sample, for gas extraction. We could achieve low blanks (in ccSTP units) for 4He(4.8 x 10{-12}),22Ne(1.0 x 10{-12}),36Ar(1.0 x10-13),84Kr(2.9 x 10{-14}),132 Xe(2.6 x 10{-14}), and N (87 pg), using this system. Preliminary data for individual chondrules from the Dhajala meteorite show that noble gases and nitrogen from grains as small as 170 microgram can be analysed using the present laser microprobe setup. The amount of trapped neon in Dhajala chondrules is very small, and nitrogen in the chondrules is isotopically heavier as compared to the bulk meteorite.

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