Volume 111, Issue 3
September 2002, pages 187-378
pp 187-187 September 2002
pp 189-195 September 2002
The Indian remote sensing satellite, IRS-P4 (Oceansat-I) launched on May 26th, 1999 carried two sensors on board, i.e., the Ocean Colour Monitor (OCM) and the Multi-frequency Scanning Microwave Radiometer (MSMR) dedicated for oceanographic research. Sequential data of IRS-P4 OCM has been analysed over parts of both east and west coast of India and a methodology to retrieve sea surface current velocities has been applied. The method is based on matching suspended sediment dispersion patterns, in sequential two time lapsed images. The pattern matching is performed on a pair of atmospherically corrected and geo-referenced sequential images by Maximum Cross-Correlation (MCC) technique. The MCC technique involves computing matrices of cross-correlation coefficients and identifying correlation peaks. The movement of the pattern can be calculated knowing the displacement of windows required to match patterns in successive images. The technique provides actual flow during a specified period by integrating both tidal and wind influences. The current velocities retrieved were compared with synchronous data collected along the east coast during the GSI cruise ST-133 of R.V. Samudra Kaustubh in January 2000. The current data were measured using the ocean current meter supplied by the Environmental Measurement and CONtrol (EMCON), Kochi available with the Geological Survey of India, Marine Wing. This current meter can measure direction and magnitude with an accuracy of ±5‡ and 2% respectively. The measurement accuracies with coefficient of determination (R2) of 0.99, for both magnitude (cm.s-1) and direction (deg.) were achieved.
pp 197-207 September 2002
Estimates of water quality variables such as chlorophylla concentration (Chl), colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM), or salinity from satellite sensors are of great interest to resource managers monitoring coastal regions such as the Florida Bay and the Florida Shelf. However, accurate estimates of these variables using standard ocean color algorithms have been difficult due to the complex nature of the light field in these environments. In this study, we process SeaWiFS satellite data using two recently developed algorithms; one for atmospheric correction and the other a semianalytic bio-optical algorithm and compare the results with standard SeaWiFS algorithms. Overall, the two algorithms produced more realistic estimates of Chl and CDOM distributions in Florida Shelf and Bay waters. Estimates of surface salinity were obtained from the CDOM absorption field assuming a conservative mixing behavior of these waters. A comparison of SeaWiFS-derived Chl and CDOM absorption with field measurements in the Florida Bay indicated that although well correlated, CDOM was underestimated, while Chl was overestimated. Bottom reflectance appeared to affect these estimates at the shallow central Bay stations during the winter. These results demonstrate the need for new bio-optical algorithms or tuning of the parameters used in the bio-optical algorithm for local conditions encountered in the Bay.
pp 209-213 September 2002
The Sulu Sea, located between Borneo and the Philippines, is separated from the surrounding ocean by two chains of islands. There are no passages below 500 m depth and the basin, which at the deepest is 5,000m, is filled with warm low oxygen water.
The near surface chlorophyll concentration has been examined with the aid of ocean colour sensors on board satellites. Direct comparisons between a field observation of chlorophyll and its remotely sensed values from OCTS (Ocean Colour Temperature Scanner) are found to be in satisfactory agreement. An 8-month time series of chlorophyll near the centre of the Sulu Sea has been used to show that the chlorophyll level is significantly higher than the level in the adjacent South China Sea. This was most pronounced at the period of change between the monsoons. The greater primary productivity may provide the explanation for the higher deposition rate of carbon in the Sulu Sea.
Although the Sulu Sea is more productive than the adjacent South China Sea, the central area can still be classified as a desert. Estimates of the new primary production in the central Sulu Sea seem to be just sufficient to support the current fishery.
pp 215-225 September 2002
Spatial and temporal variability of pigments was studied from the CZCS satellite data and fromin situ chlorophyll and transparency for the period 1979-1985. The three Adriatic sites, Northern, Middle, and Southern Adriatic are differently influenced by meteorological, hydrological and oceanographic parameters. The differences between seasonalin situ chlorophyll and remotely sensed pigment concentrations (from CZCS satellite data) from the Adriatic are large in winter. Through the correlation analysis, pigments were compared to meteo-oceanographic and hydrological parameters from different Adriatic sites. The PCA (principal component analysis) was applied to the pigment data series and significant components were compared. Different correlations are obtained for warm and cold periods of the year pointing to seasonal differences in the underlying mechanism of pigment variability. The first PC is influenced mainly by temperature. In the warm period more parameters seem to influence the pigment field, than in the cold period. The pigments in the Adriatic are in good correlation to a number of hydrologic and meteo-oceanographic factors.
pp 227-236 September 2002
Variability of the oceanographic conditions in the Colombian Pacific Ocean, a part of the Panama Basin, is subjected to the variability of wind conditions in the equatorial part of the Pacific Ocean. Data of OCTS and NSCAT of ADEOS-I satellite provided as monthly averages for the period November 1996-June 1997 by NASDA, were processed and manipulated. A meridional (N-S) component and a zonal (E-W) component were run in order to analyse the data variability and correlation. It is concluded that the variability of the oceanic surface chlorophyll and SST in the Colombian Pacific is a seasonal event related to the migration of the ITCZ and the generation of a wind jet at the Isthmus of Panama. Upwelling due to the wind rotor is present throughout the whole period, with variable spatial distribution and a tendency to be located towards the eastern part of the basin. In a similar way, high chlorophyll concentrations observed in March coincide with both the intensification of the vertical velocities during that month, and the maximal rise of the thermocline in the northern part of the Panama Basin. Picture series of surface chlorophyll, SST, wind stress and Ekman pumping are provided for the studied area.
pp 237-245 September 2002
The optical classification of the different water types provides vital input for studies related to primary productivity, water clarity and determination of euphotic depth. Image data of the IRSP3 MOS-B, for Path 90 of 27th February, 1998 was used for deriving vertical diffuse attenuation coefficient (Kd) and an optical classification based onKd values was performed. An atmospheric correction scheme was used for retrieving water leaving radiances in blue and green channels of 412, 443, 490 and 550 nm. The upwelling radiances from 443 nm and 550 nm spectral channels were used for computation of vertical diffuse attenuation coefficientKd at 490 nm. The waters off the Gujarat coast were classified into different water types based on Jerlov classification scheme. The oceanic water type IA (Kd range 0.035-0.040m-1), type IB (0.042-0.065 m-1), type II (0.07-0.1m-1) and type III (0.115-0.14m-1) were identified. For the coastal waters along Gujarat coast and Gulf of Kachchh, Kd(490) values ranged between 0.15 m-1 and 0.35 m-1. The depth of 1% of surface light for water type IA, IB, II and III corresponds to 88, 68, 58 and 34 meters respectively. Classification of oceanic and coastal waters based onKd is useful in understanding the light transmission characteristics for sub-marine navigation and under-water imaging.
pp 247-256 September 2002
In this paper, MSMR geophysical products like Integrated Water Vapour (IWV), Ocean Surface Wind Speed (OWS) and Cloud Liquid Water (CLW) in different grids of 50, 75 and 150 kms are compared with similar products available from other satellites like DMSP-SSM/I and TRMMTMI. MSMR derived IWV, OWS and CLW compare well with SSM/I and TMI finished products. Comparison of MSMR derived CLW with that derived from TMI and SSM/I is relatively in less agreement. This is possibly due to the use of 37 GHz in SSM/I and TMI that is highly sensitive to CLW, while 37 GHz channels are not available on MSMR. Monthly comparison of MSMR geophysical products with those from TMI is all carried out for climatological purpose. The monthly comparisons were much better compared to instantaneous comparisons. In this paper, details of the data analysis and comparison results are presented. The usefulness of the MSMR vis-à-vis other sensors is also discussed.
pp 257-266 September 2002
In this paper rain estimation capability of MSMR is explored. MSMR brightness temperature data of six channels corresponding to three frequencies of 10, 18 and 21 GHz are colocated with the TRMM Microwave Imager (TMI) derived rain rates to find a new empirical algorithm for rain rate by multiple regression. Multiple correlation analysis involving various combinations of channels in linear and non-linear forms and rain rate from TMI is carried out, and thus the best possible algorithm for rain rate measurement was identified which involved V and H polarized brightness temperature measurements at 10 and 18 GHz channels. This algorithm explained about 82 per cent correlation (r) with rain rate, and 1.61 mm h-1 of error of estimation.
Further, this algorithm is used for generating global average rain rate map for two contrasting months of August (2000) and January (2001) of northern and southern hemispheric summers, respectively. MSMR derived monthly averaged rain rates are compared with similar estimates from TRMM Precipitation Radar (PR), and it was found that MSMR derived rain rates match well, quantitatively and qualitatively, with that from PR.
pp 267-279 September 2002
Time-dependent wind-driven circulation in the subarctic north Pacific is investigated by using Topex/Poseidon (T/P) altimeter data and European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) wind data for about 6 years. The first empirical orthogonal function (EOF) of the T/Pderived sea level anomaly (SLA) without the variation related to the steric height change (SLA1) and the first EOF of the ECMWF-based wind stress curl fields represent basin-sized south-north oscillations and their time series agree well with a correlation of 0.49. They appear to express the spin-up and spin-down of the subarctic gyre. The third EOF of SLA (SLA3) and the second EOF of the wind stress curl are also related to the variation of the subarctic gyre. Though the correlation of their time series is 0.27, drastic changes in early winter coincide well. The two EOF pairs can be considered to mean that the SLA variation followed by the latitudinal migration of the Aleutian low is separated into two standing oscillation patterns, that is, the sea level variation combined with SLA1 and SLA3 expresses seasonal variations of the wind-driven circulation of the subarctic gyre. The interannual SLAs constructed by subtracting the SLA1 and SLA3 components clearly show trans-pacific westward propagation even in the high-latitudes. The time series of SLA1 is in agreement with that ofin situ SLAs measured with the tide gauge at Petropavlovsk (53-01N, 158-38E), which implies the possibility to monitor the subarctic circulation using tide gauge data.
pp 281-295 September 2002
Continuous observations since 1991 by using synthetic aperture radar (SAR) on board the Almaz1, ERS-1/2, JERS-1, and RADARSAT satellites support the well-known fact that oceanic eddies are distributed worldwide in the ocean. The paper is devoted to an evaluation of the potential of SAR for detection of eddies and vortical motions in the ocean. The classification of typical vortical features in the ocean detected in remote sensing images (visible, infrared, and SAR) is presented as well as available information on their spatial and temporal scales. Examples of the Almaz-1 and ERS-1/2 SAR images showing different eddy types, such as rings, spiral eddies of the open ocean, eddies behind islands and in bays, spin-off eddies and mushroom-like structures (vortex dipoles) are given and discussed. It is shown that a common feature for most of the eddies detected in the SAR images is a broad spectrum of spatial scales, spiral shape and shear nature. It is concluded that the spaceborne SARs give valuable information on ocean eddies, especially in combination with visible and infrared satellite data.
pp 297-303 September 2002
The nature of the inherent temporal variability of surface winds is analyzed by comparison of winds obtained through different measurement methods. In this work, an auto-correlation analysis of a time series data of surface winds measuredin situ by a deep water buoy in the Indian Ocean has been carried out. Hourly time series data available for 240 hours in the month of May, 1999 were subjected to an auto-correlation analysis. The analysis indicates an exponential fall of the autocorrelation in the first few hours with a decorrelation time scale of about 6 hours. For a meaningful comparison between satellite derived products andin situ data, satellite data acquired at different time intervals should be used with appropriate ‘weights’, rather than treating the data as concurrent in time. This paper presents a scheme for temporal weighting using the auto-correlation analysis. These temporal ‘weights’ can potentially improve the root mean square (rms) deviation between satellite andin situ measurements. A case study using the TRMM Microwave Imager (TMI) and Indian Ocean buoy wind speed data resulted in an improvement of about 10%.
pp 305-313 September 2002
Relationship between the non-dimensional roughness length and inverse of wave age has been discussed without consideration of wave directions, though wind wave field consists of various directional component waves. In this study we observe wave heights by an array of four wave gauges at the Hiratsuka Tower of (Independent Administrative Institution) National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention (NIED), Japan, and discuss the effect of wave directionality. As a result, the data sets were classified into two different groups according to the directional wave spectrum distribution. In case 1 only swell and wind waves exist and in case 2 there exist wave components from several directions. It is shown that the case of multiple-directional component waves (case 2) may affect the non-dimensional roughness length and friction velocity.
pp 315-319 September 2002
Stage A whitecaps (spilling wave crests) have a microwave emissivity of close to 1. Thus if even a small fraction of the sea surface is covered by these features there will be a detectable enhancement in the apparent microwave brightness temperature of that surface as determined by satellite-borne microwave radiometers. This increase in the apparent microwave brightness temperature can as a consequence be routinely used to estimate the fraction of the sea surface covered by stage A whitecaps. For all but the very lowest wind speeds it has been shown in a series of controlled experiments that the air-sea gas transfer coefficient for each of a wide range of gases, including carbon dioxide and oxygen, is directly proportional to the fraction of the sea surface covered by these stage A whitecaps.
pp 321-337 September 2002
A high resolution model, using the Miami Isopycnic Coordinate Ocean Model (MICOM), has been implemented for the first time to study the seasonal circulation and coastal upwelling off the southwest Indian coast during 1974. This model is part of a model and data assimilation system capable of describing the ocean circulation and variability in the Indian Ocean and its predictability in response to the monsoon system.
Along the southwest coast of India the dominant coastal current is the reversing West Indian Coastal Current which is well simulated and described, in addition to the weaker undercurrent of the opposite direction. Upwelling of cold water, 4‡C lower than offshore temperatures appear in April. The upwelling intensifies with the southwest monsoon and is simulated in accordance within situ observations. Upwelling appears to be strongest off Cochin and Quilon, and the upwelling of cold water is seen together with a decrease in salinity in the model simulation.
pp 339-349 September 2002
Western tropical Indian Ocean, Arabian Sea, and the equatorial Pacific are known as regions of intense bio-chemical-physical interactions: the Arabian Sea has the largest phytoplankton bloom with seasonal signal, while the equatorial Pacific bloom is perennial with quasi-permanent upwelling. Here, we studied three dimensional ocean thermodynamics comparing recent ocean observation with ocean general circulation model (OPYC) experiment combined with remotely sensed chlorophyll pigment concentrations from the Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS). Using solar radiation parameterization representing observations that a higher abundance of chlorophyll increases absorption of solar irradiance and heating rate in the upper ocean, we showed that the mixed layer thickness decreases more than they would be under clear water conditions. These changes in the model mixed layer were consistent with Joint Global Ocean Flux Study (JGOFS) observations during the 1994-1995 Arabian Sea experiment and epi-fluorescence microscopy (EFM) on samples collected during Equatorial Pacific Ocean Climate Study (EPOCS) in November, 1988. In the Arabian Sea, as the chlorophyll concentrations peak in October (3 mg/m3) after the summer plankton bloom induced by coastal upwelling, the chlorophyll induced biological heating enhanced the sea surface temperature (SST) by as much as 0.6‡C and sub-layer temperature decreases and sub-layer thickness increases. In the equatorial Pacific, modest concentrations of chlorophyll less than 0.3 mg/m3 is enough to introduce a meridional differential heating, which results in reducing the equatorial mixed layer thickness to more than 20 m. The anomalous meridional tilting of the mixed layer bottom enhances off equatorial westward geostrophic currents. Consequently, the equatorial undercurrent transports more water from west to east. We proposed that these numerical model experiments with use of satellite andin situ ocean observations are consistent under three dimensional ocean circulation theory combined with solar radiation transfer process.
pp 351-364 September 2002
Oceansat-1 was successfully launched by India in 1999, with two payloads, namely Multi-frequency Scanning Microwave Radiometer (MSMR) and Ocean Color Monitor (OCM) to study the biological and physical parameters of the ocean. The MSMR sensor is configured as an eight-channel radiometer using four frequencies with dual polarization. The MSMR data at 75 km resolution from the Oceansat-I have been assimilated in the National Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasting (NCMRWF) data assimilation forecast system. The operational analysis and forecast system at NCMRWF is based on a T80L18 global spectral model and Spectral Statistical Interpolation (SSI) scheme for data analysis. The impact of the MSMR data is seen globally, however it is significant over the oceanic region where conventional data are rare. The dry-nature of the control analyses have been removed by utilizing the MSMR data. Therefore, the total precipitable water data from MSMR has been identified as a very crucial parameter in this study. The impact of surface wind speed from MSMR is to increase easterlies over the tropical Indian Ocean. Shifting of the positions of westerly troughs and ridges in the south Indian Ocean has contributed to reduction of temperature to around 30‡S.
pp 365-378 September 2002
In this study, the possible linkage between summer monsoon rainfall over India and surface meteorological fields (basic fields and heat budget components) over monsoon region (30‡E-120‡E, 30‡S30‡N) during the pre-monsoon month of May and summer monsoon season (June to September) are examined. For this purpose, monthly surface meteorological fields anomaly are analyzed for 42 years (1958-1999) using reanalysis data of NCEP/NCAR (National Center for Environmental Prediction/National Center for Atmospheric Research). The statistical significance of the anomaly (difference) between the surplus and deficient monsoon years in the surface meteorological fields are also examined by Student’s t-test at 95% confidence level.
Significant negative anomalies of mean sea level pressure are observed over India, Arabian Sea and Arabian Peninsular in the pre-monsoon month of May and monsoon season. Significant positive anomalies in the zonal and meridional wind (at 2 m) in the month of May are observed in the west Arabian Sea off Somali coast and for monsoon season it is in the central Arabian Sea that extends up to Somalia. Significant positive anomalies of the surface temperature and air temperature (at 2 m) in the month of May are observed over north India and adjoining Pakistan and Afghanistan region. During monsoon season this region is replaced by significant negative anomalies. In the month of May, significant positive anomalies of cloud amount are observed over Somali coast, north Bay of Bengal and adjoining West Bengal and Bangladesh. During monsoon season, cloud amount shows positive anomalies over NW India and north Arabian Sea.
There is overall reduction in the incoming shortwave radiation flux during surplus monsoon years. A higher magnitude of latent heat flux is also found in surplus monsoon years for the month of May as well as the monsoon season. The significant positive anomaly of latent heat flux in May, observed over southwest Arabian Sea, may be considered as an advance indicator of the possible behavior of the subsequent monsoon season. The distribution of net heat flux is predominantly negative over eastern Arabian Sea, Bay of Bengal and Indian Ocean. Anomaly between the two extreme monsoon years in post 1980 (i.e., 1988 and 1987) shows that shortwave flux, latent heat flux and net heat flux indicate reversal in sign, particularly in south Indian Ocean. Variations of the heat budget components over four smaller sectors of Indian seas, namely Arabian Sea, Bay of Bengal and west Indian Ocean and east Indian Ocean show that a small sector of Arabian Sea is most dominant during May and other sectors showing reversal in sign of latent heat flux during monsoon season.