• Volume 111, Issue 2

      June 2002,   pages  87-185

    • Trace element and isotopic studies of Permo-Carboniferous carbonate nodules from Talchir sediments of peninsular India: Environmental and provenance implications

      Prosenjit Ghosh S K Bhattacharya A M Dayal J R Trivedi M Ebihara M M Sarin A Chakrabarti

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      Syngenetic carbonate nodules constitute an interesting feature of the glaciogene sediments of various Talchir basins in peninsular India. Petrographic, cathodoluminescence and sedimentary results suggest that many of these nodules contain primary carbonate precipitates whose geochemical signatures can be used for determining environment of deposition and provenance of the sediments and drainage source. Several nodules were collected from Gondwana basins of east-central India and analyzed for stable carbon and oxygen isotope ratios, REE and trace element composition, and Sr isotope ratio. The mean 𝛿18O and 𝛿13C values of the calcites in the nodules are — 19.5‰ and -9.7‰ (w.r.t. PDB) respectively suggesting a freshwater environment (probably lacustrine) for formation of these objects. Trace element ratios (Eu/Eu and La/Yb) of the nodule samples show that the source of the sediments in the Damodar valley basin was the granites, gneisses and intrusives in the Chotanagpur region. The sediments in the Mahanadi valley were derived from granulites, charnockites and granites of the eastern ghat region. The Sr concentration of the carbonate phase of the nodules is low, ranging from 10-60 ng/g . The 87Sr/86Sr ratios of the samples from the west Bokaro basin and Ramgarh basin vary from 0.735 to 0.748 (mean: 0.739) and from 0.726 to 0.733 (mean: 0.730) respectively. These values are consistent with our proposition that water of these basins drained through the granitic rocks of the Chotanagpur region. In contrast, the 87Sr/86Sr ratios of the samples from the Talchir basin (Type area) of Mahanadi valley vary from 0.718 to 0.723 (mean: 0.719). These 87Sr/86Sr ratios are close to those of the granulites in the adjoining eastern ghat belt suggesting that area as the drainage source.

    • Electron spin resonance dating of fault gouge from Desamangalam, Kerala: Evidence for Quaternary movement in Palghat gap shear zone

      T K Gundu Rao C P Rajendran George Mathew Biju John

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      The field investigations in the epicentral area of the 1994 Wadakkancheri (Desamangalam), Kerala, earthquake (M 4.3) indicate subtle, but clearly recognizable expressions of geologically recent fault zone, consisting of fracture sets showing brittle displacement and a gouge zone. The fracture zone confines to the crystalline basement, and is spatially coincident with the elongation of the isoseismals of the 1994 mainshock and a 10-km-long WNW-ESE trending topographic lineament. The preliminary results from the electron spin resonance (ESR) dating on the quartz grains from the fault gouge indicate that the last major faulting in this site occurred 430 ± 43 ka ago. The experiments on different grain sizes of quartz from the gouge showed consistent decrease in age to a plateau of low values, indicating that ESR signals in finer grains were completely zeroed at the time of faulting due to frictional heat. The results show a relatively young age for displacement on the fault that occurs within a Precambrian shear zone. Discrete reactivated faults in such areas may be characterized by low degree of activity, but considering the ESR age of the last significant faulting event, the structure at Desamangalam may be categorized as a potentially active fault capable of generating moderate earthquakes, separated by very long periods of quiescence.

    • Age and duration of the Deccan Traps, India: A review of radiometric and paleomagnetic constraints

      Kanchan Pande

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      A review of the available radiometric and paleomagnetic data from the Deccan Flood Basalt Province (DFBP) suggests that the volcanism was episodic in nature and probably continued over an extended duration from 69Ma to 63Ma between 31R and 28N. It is likely that the most intense pulse of volcanism at 66.9 ± 0.2Ma preceded the Cretaceous Tertiary Boundary (KTB, 65.2 ± 0.2Ma) events by ∼1.7Ma. The magnetostratigraphic record in the Deccan lava pile is incomplete and it is therefore possible that the lava ows constituting the reverse polarity sequence were erupted in more than one reversed magnetic chron.

    • Static deformation of two welded monoclinic elastic half-spaces due to a long inclined strike-slip fault

      Anil Kumar Sarvajit Singh Jagdish Singh

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      Static deformation of two monoclinic elastic half-spaces in welded contact due to a long inclined strike-slip fault situated in one of the half-spaces is studied analytically and numerically. Closed-form algebraic expressions for the displacement at any point of the medium are obtained. The variation of the displacement at the interface with the horizontal distance from the fault is studied. The effect of anisotropy on the displacement field is examined. It is found that while the anisotropy of the source half-space has a significant effect on the displacement at the interface, the anisotropy of the other half-space has only a marginal effect.

    • Mechanical sources in orthotropic micropolar continua

      Rajneesh Kumar Suman Choudhary

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      The present paper is concerned with the problem of an orthotropic micropolar half-space subjected to concentrated and distributed loads. The disturbance due to normal and tangential loads are investigated by employing eigen-value approach. The integral transforms have been inverted by using a numerical technique to obtain the normal displacement, normal force stress and tangential couple stress in the physical domain. The results of these quantities are given and illustrated graphically.

    • Response of an anisotropic liquid-saturated porous medium due to two dimensional sources

      Rajneesh Kumar Aseem Miglani N R Garg

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      Eigenvalue approach, following Laplace and Fourier transforms, has been employed to find the general solution to the field equations in an anisotropic liquid-saturated porous medium, in the transformed domain. The results of isotropic liquid-saturated porous medium can be derived as a special case. A numerical inversion technique has been applied to get the solutions in the physical domain. To illustrate the utility of the approach, an application of infinite space with impulsive force at the origin has been considered. The results in the form of displacement and stress components have been obtained and discussed graphically for a particular model.

    • Momentum transport of wave zero during March: A possible predictor for the Indian summer monsoon

      S M Bawiskar V R Mujumdar S S Singh

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      Analysis of monthly momentum transport of zonal waves at 850 hPa for the period 1979 to 1993, between 30°S and 30°N for January to April, using zonal (𝑢) and meridional (𝜐) components of wind taken from the ECMWF reanalysis field, shows a positive correlation (.1% level of significance) between the Indian summer monsoon rainfall (June through September) and the momentum transport of wave zero TM(0) over latitudinal belt between 25°S and 5°N (LB) during March. Northward (Southward) TM(0) observed in March over LB subsequently leads to a good (drought) monsoon season over India which is found to be true even when the year is marked with the El- Nino event. Similarly a strong westerly zone in the Indian Ocean during March, indicates a good monsoon season for the country, even if the year is marked with El-Nino. The study thus suggests two predictors, TM(0) over LB and the strength of westerly zone in the Indian Ocean during March.

    • Seasonal and interannual variability of phytoplankton pigment in the Laccadive (Lakshadweep) Sea as observed by the Coastal Zone Color scanner

      Lisa Jade Lierheimer Karl Banse

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      Based on Coastal Zone Color Scanner data from November 1978 through December 1981, the seasonal cycle of phytoplankton pigment in the upper part of the euphotic zone is established for the offshore Laccadive Sea. Year-round, the pigment content is low and the seasonal range is small, following the pattern of the nutrient-poor Arabian Sea to the west. Apparently, indigenous phytoplankton blooms are absent. July and August, however, were poorly studied because of cloud cover. Interannual differences during the northeast monsoon and the spring intermonsoon periods are minor. The abundant phytoplankton caused by the upwelling off India during the southwest monsoon remains essentially restricted to the shelf, but there are occasional large, zonal outbreaks into the Laccadive Sea, as well as others advected to the south of India. Visual inspection of the raw CZCS scenes for June through November 1982–1985, with almost no data until August or even September, shows such outbreaks of pigment-rich water to be common. Inspection of monthly SeaWiFS images for 1997 through part of 2001 confirms the absence of indigenous phytoplankton blooms.

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