Volume 111, Issue 1
March 2002, pages 1-85
pp 1-15 March 2002
The aftershock sequence of the September 30th, 1993 Killari earthquake in the Latur district of Maharashtra state, India, recorded by 41 temporary seismograph stations are used for estimating 3-D velocity structure in the epicentral area. The local earthquake tomography (LET) method of Thurber (1983) is used. About 1500P and 1200S wave travel-times are inverted. TheP andS wave velocities as well asVP/VSratio vary more rapidly in the vertical as well as in the horizontal directions in the source region compared to the adjacent areas. The main shock hypocentre is located at the junction of a high velocity and a low velocity zone, representing a fault zone at 6–7 km depth. The estimated average errors ofP velocity andVP/VSratio are ±0.07 km/s and ±0.016, respectively. The best resolution ofP and S-wave velocities is obtained in the aftershock zone. The 3-D velocity structure and precise locations of the aftershocks suggest a ‘stationary concept’ of the Killari earthquake sequence.
pp 17-28 March 2002
Analyses of bathymetry, gravity and seismic reflection data of the diffusive plate boundary in the central Indian Ocean reveal a new kind of deformed structure besides the well-reported structures of long-wavelength anticlinal basement rises and high-angle reverse faults. The structure (basement trough) has a length of about 150 km and deepens by up to 1 km from its regional trend (northward dipping). The basement trough includes a rise at its center with a height of about 1.5km. The rise is about 10 km wide with rounded upper surface and bounded by vertical faults. A broad freeair gravity low of about 20 mGal and a local high of 8 mGal in its center are associated with the identified basement trough and rise structure respectively. Seismic results reveal that the horizontal crustal compression prevailing in the diffusive plate boundary might have formed the basement trough possibly in early Pliocene time. Differential loading stresses have been generated from unequal crust/sediment thickness on lower crustal and upper mantle rocks. A thin semi-ductile serpentinite layer existing near the base of the crust that is interpreted to have been formed at mid-ocean ridge and become part of the lithosphere, may have responded to the downward loading stresses generated by the sediments and crustal rocks to inject the serpentinites into the overlying strata to form a classic diapiric structure.
pp 29-37 March 2002
In the present investigation, it is shown that there exists five basic waves in a microstretch elastic solid half-space. The problem of reflection of plane waves from free surface of a microstretch elastic solid half-space is studied. The energy ratios for various reflected waves are obtained for aluminiumepoxy composite as a microstretch elastic solid half-space. The variations of the energy ratios with the angle of incidence are shown graphically. The microstretch effect is shown on various reflected waves.
pp 39-49 March 2002
The depth profiles of electrical conductance, δ18O,210Pb and cosmogenic radio isotopes10Be and36Cl have been measured in a 30 m ice core from east Antarctica near the Indian station, Dakshin Gangotri. Using210Pb and δ18O, the mean annual accumulation rates have been calculated to be 20 and 21 cm of ice equivalent per year during the past ∼ 150 years. Using these acumulation rates, the volcanic event that occurred in 1815 AD, has been identified based on electrical conductance measurements. Based on δ18O measurements, the mean annual surface air temperatures (MASAT) data observed during the last 150 years indicates that the beginning of the 19th century was cooler by about 2‡ C than the recent past and the middle of 18th century. The fallout of cosmogenic radio isotope10Be compares reasonably well with those obtained on other stations (73‡ S to 90‡ S) from Antarctica and higher latitudes beyond 77‡N. The fallout of36Cl calculated based on the present work agrees well with the mean global production rate estimated earlier by Lal and Peters (1967). The bomb pulse of36Cl observed in Greenland is not observed in the present studies – a result which is puzzling and needs to be studied on neighbouring ice cores from the same region.
pp 51-62 March 2002
The Indian Antarctic station Maitri (geog. 70‡45’S, 11‡45’E, geom. 66‡.03S, 53‡.21E) occupies a sub-auroral location during magnetically quiet conditions(Σκρ < 10), but attains an auroral position when the auroral oval shifts equatorwards with increasing strength of magnetic disturbance. At the latter times, triangulation with 3 fluxgate magnetometers located at the vertices of a suitable triangle provides a means of monitoring mobile auroral ionospheric current systems over Maitri. The spacing between the magnetometers is typically kept at 75–200 km, keeping in mind the scale-sizes of ∼ 100 km for these mobile current systems. This work reports the results of two triangulation experiments carried out around Maitri in January 1992 and January 1995, both during Antarctic summer. The velocities estimated for pulsations of the Pc4 and Pc5 type were about 0.59 km/sec in the direction 102‡.7 east of due north, in the first case, and about 1–3 km/sec in the second case in the east-west direction.
While several magnetometer arrays exist in the northern auroral regions (e.g., the Alberta array in Canada, the Alaskan array in the U.S. and the IMS Scandinavian array), there is no report in literature of triangulation through arrays in Antarctica, except for a one-day study by Neudegget al 1995 for ULF pulsations of the Pc1 and Pc2 type. The velocities obtained for the Pi3 type of irregular pulsations over Antarctica in the present study tally well with those obtained for northern auroral locations.
pp 63-77 March 2002
Atmospheric boundary layer observations are conducted at a coastal site during a transition phase from winter to summer season over the Indian peninsula. Thermal Internal Boundary Layer (TIBL) characteristics in presence of an off-shore and a weakly influenced on-shore synoptic wind are examined with the help of measurements carried out with a mini-SODAR (SOund Detection And Ranging), tethered balloon, and tower-based micrometeorological measurements. Influence of the changing synoptic scale conditions on turbulent characteristics of TIBL is discussed.
Mini-SODAR data showed the development and decay of sea and land breeze. It is seen that the characteristics of TIBL over the coastal land after sea breeze onset are similar to that of a shallow convective boundary layer (CBL) commonly found over plain land. Inside the TIBL, a maximum wind speed was noted close to the surface due to the penetration of sea breeze. In the off-shore case, a distinct sea breeze circulation was observed unlike in the case of on-shore flow. In the presence of weak on-shore case, a ‘minor sea’ breeze is noted before the establishment of sea breeze and a reduction in the momentum fluxes gives rise to decrease in the turbulence intensity. Updraft in the sea breeze front was stronger during weak synoptic conditions. Influence of synoptic changes on the sea breeze-land breeze circulation such as onset, strength and duration of the sea-land breeze are also examined.
pp 79-85 March 2002
We have studied the soil and air temperature characteristics over a period of one year at Kariavattom of Kerala. Thermal diffusivity(ks) of the soil has been calculated by range and lag methods and also from amplitudes and phase angles of first and second harmonics. The two methods lead to similar results. Diurnal soil heat flux and soil temperatures at different depths are modelled and found to be comparable with observations.