• Volume 110, Issue 4

      December 2001,   pages  267-463

    • Preface

      Samarendra Bhattacharya Jibamitra Ganguly

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    • Earth support systems: Threatened? why? what can we do?

      Paul H Reitan Eric H Reitan

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      The most important concept to emerge in the 20th century was the recognition that sustainability is threatened. A sustainable society is one that functions and lives in such harmony with earth systems that future generations will be able to function with equal or greater ease and the quality of life will in no way be diminished.

      Evidence of threats to sustainability is found in: global energy use; global climate change; availability of sufficient safe water; degradation of soil on agricultural lands; food production for a global population of 9,000 million by 2050; accelerated extinction rates and loss of biodiversity; human under- and over-nourishment; and the spread of diseases.

      Ignorance borne of alienation from nature deprives us of sensitivity to the threats human activities cause. Alienation may be traced to the agricultural revolution, but has become widespread and even inescapable for many with massive control of energy and the industrial revolution, dependence on machines, and urbanization. With the control of enough energy to dominate nature and the achievement of a high, but transient, level of wealth, a world view extolling growth—led by the highly industrialized nations, but now being emulated in the developing countries—has committed the world to an unsustainable path.

      Because of this, world societies must work to find practical “sustainability” world views to help guide our future choices. Wise choices will depend upon good scientific understanding and must be based upon a deep respect for the non-human world and a concern for the future. The environmental meaning of different world views, whether founded in the world religions or in nonreligious philosophy, share a common concern to promote an equitable, harmonious, and sustainable relationship between humanity and nature. The similarities in pragmatic meaning in relation to nature of, e.g., Christian stewardship and Deep Ecology, illustrate this.

      Our attention must not be directed towards alternative symbolic or linguistic vocabularies, but toward the practical environmental commitments that different world views entail. Our problems have global reach and many of them are urgent, but they are not intrinsically unsolvable. We must seek ways to find and use common ground in the search for sustainability. We must work together, but remember that each of us contributes to the final outcome.

    • Partial melting of metavolcanics in amphibolite facies regional metamorphism

      Alan Bruce Thompson

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      Metavolcanic rocks containing low-Ca amphiboles (gedrite, cummingtonite) and biotite can undergo substantial dehydration-melting. This is likely to be most prominent in Barrovian Facies Series (kyanite-sillimanite) and occurs at the same time as widespread metapelite dehydrationmelting. In lower pressure facies series, metavolcanics will be represented by granulites rich in orthopyroxene when dehydration occurs at much lower temperatures than melting. In higher pressure facies series it is not well known whether metavolcanic rocks dehydrate or melt at temperatures lower or similar to that of metapelites.

    • Some aspects of the role of intergranular fluids in the compositional evolution of metamorphic rocks

      Sumit Chakraborty Ralf Dohmen

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      Minerals that react with each other during the progressive evolution of metamorphic terranes are not always in physical contact. As such, an “intergranular fluid” could play a major role in element transfer and chemical evolution. However, the nature of this fluid and its specific role remains somewhat elusive. Recent experiments in our laboratory shed some light on the behavior of such a fluid. Here we present a simple mathematical model which accounts for diffusion within crystals and fluid, solubility in the fluid and mass balance between the various reservoirs. The model elucidates the nature of element exchange between two minerals via the mediation of an intergranular fluid. It is shown that a coupling of thermodynamics and kinetics controls the evolution of the system and the concentration of an element in the intergranular fluid is a key parameter of interest.

      The results have important implications for standard tools of metamorphic petrology such as geothermometers and barometers, geospeedometry and the closure of isotopic systems. For example, homogeneity of mineral grains may be a poor criterion for equilibrium and the rim compositions of minerals showing diffusion zoning may be out of equilibrium with distant exchange partners, even in the presence of a fluid in which transport is fast.

    • Reaction texture and Fe-Mg zoning in granulite garnet from SØstrene Island, Antarctica: Modeling and constraint on the time scale of metamorphism during the Pan-African collisional event

      J Ganguly B J Hensen W Cheng

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      Garnets from the S⊍strene island, Antarctica, show reaction textures corresponding to two metamorphic episodes, one at c. 1000 Ma (M1) and the other at c. 500 Ma (M2). The latter is associated with a Pan-African tectono-metamorphic event that has been interpreted to represent a continent-continent collision followed by extensional collapse. Reaction-diffusion modeling of the compositional zoning of garnet associated with the development of reaction texture during M2 yields a time scale of ∼ 5–16 Myr for the duration of the peak of this overprinting metamorphism at ∼ 730 ± 20‡C. The associated velocity of the reaction front is ∼∼ 5.0-1.6Μm/Myr. The inferred duration of peak metamorphism during the Pan-African event seems to be in good agreement with the available U-Pb SHRIMP ages of zircon and monazite that may be interpreted to have formed at the beginning and end stages of crystallization of granite during the metamorphic peak.

    • Orogeny, migmatites and leucogranites: A review

      Michael Brown

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      The type ofP-T-t path and availability of fluid (H2O-rich metamorphic volatile phase or melt) are important variables in metamorphism. Collisional orogens are characterized by clockwiseP-T evolution, which means that in the core, where temperatures exceed the wet solidus for common crustal rocks, melt may be present throughout a significant portion of the evolution. Field observations of eroded orogens show that lower crust is migmatitic, and geophysical observations have been interpreted to suggest the presence of melt in active orogens. A consequence of these results is that orogenic collapse in mature orogens may be controlled by a partially-molten layer that decouples weak crust from subducting lithosphere, and such a weak layer may enable exhumation of deeply buried crust. Migmatites provide a record of melt segregation in partially molten crustal materials and syn-anatectic deformation under natural conditions. Grain boundary flow and intra-and inter-grain fracture flow are the principal grain scale melt flow mechanisms. Field observations of migmatites in ancient orogens show that leucosomes occur oriented in the metamorphic fabrics or are located in dilational sites. These observations are interpreted to suggest that melt segregation and extraction are syntectonic processes, and that melt migration pathways commonly relate to rock fabrics and structures. Thus, leucosomes in depleted migmatites record the remnant permeability network, but evolution of permeability networks and amplification of anomalies are poorly understood. Deformation of partially molten rocks is accommodated by melt-enhanced granular flow, and volumetric strain is accommodated by melt loss. Melt segregation and extraction may be cyclic or continuous, depending on the level of applied differential stress and rate of melt pressure buildup. During clockwiseP-T evolution, H2O is transferred from protolith to melt as rocks cross dehydration melting reactions, and H2O may be evolved above the solidus at lowP by crossing supra-solidus decompression-dehydration reactions if micas are still present in the depleted protolith. H2O dissolved in melt is transported through the crust to be exsolved on crystallization. This recycled H2O may promote wet melting at supra-solidus conditions and retrogression at subsolidus conditions. The common growth of ‘late’ muscovite over sillimanite in migmatite may be the result of this process, and influx of exogenous H2O may not be necessary. However, in general, metasomatism in the evolution of the crust remains a contentious issue. Processes in the lower-most crust may be inferred from studies of xenolith suites brought to the surface in lavas. Based on geochemical data, we can use statistical methods and modeling to evaluate whether migmatites are sources or feeder zones for granites, or simply segregated melt that was stagnant in residue, and to compare xenoliths of inferred lower crust with exposed deep crust. Upper-crustal granites are a necessary complement to melt-depleted granulites common in the lower crust, but the role of mafic magma in crustal melting remains uncertain. Plutons occur at various depths above and below the brittle-to-viscous transition in the crust and have a variety of 3-D shapes that may vary systematically with depth. The switch from ascent to emplacement may be caused by amplification of instabilities within (permeability, magma flow rate) or surrounding (strength or state of stress) the ascent column, or by the ascending magma intersecting some discontinuity in the crust that enables horizontal magma emplacement followed by thickening during pluton inflation. Feedback relations between rates of pluton filling, magma ascent and melt extraction maintain compatibility among these processes.

    • Patchy charnockites from Jenapore, Eastern Ghats granulite belt, India: Structural and petrochemical evidences attesting to their relict nature

      Rajib Kar

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      The charnockite patches that occur within leptynite host, in and around Jenapore, northern sector of the Eastern Ghats granulite belt, are disposed in a linear fashion and generally have sharp lithological contact with the host leptynite. Sometimes the patches and foliations of the host are cofolded. Also, the patches sometimes have the internalS1 foliation, while the host leptynite records onlyS2 foliation. Mineralogically and chemically patchy charnockites and host leptynites are distinct entities, and cannot be related by any prograde and retrograde reactions. Particularly important is the peraluminous granitic composition and high Rb/Sr ratios of the leptynites, presumably resulting from biotite-dehydration melting; as against metaluminous granodioritic to tonalitic composition and low Rb/Sr ratios of the patchy charnockites, presumably resulting from hornblende-dehydration melting. The charnockite patches here can be interpreted as caught up patches or xenolith within granitic melt (leptynite). Mg-rich rims of garnet in the charnockite patch were probably caused by heat from the crystallising melt or decompression during ascent of melt.

    • Evolution of the Bhandara-Balaghat granulite belt along the southern margin of the Sausar Mobile Belt of central India

      H M Ramachandra Abhinaba Roy

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      The Bhandara-Balaghat granulite (BBG) belt occurs as a 190 km long, detached narrow, linear, NE-SW to ENE-WSW trending belt that is in tectonic contact on its northern margin with the Sausar Group of rocks and is bordered by the Sakoli fold belt in the south. The Bhandara part of the BBG belt is quite restricted, comprising a medium to coarse grained two-pyroxene granulite body that is of gabbroic composition and preserves relic igneous fabric. The main part of the belt in Arjuni-Balaghat section includes metasedimentary (quartzite, BIF, Al- and Mg-Al metapelites) and metaigneous (metaultramafic, amphibolite and two-pyroxene granulite) protoliths interbanded with charnockite and charnockitic gneiss. These rocks, occurring as small bands and enclaves within migmatitic and granitic gneisses, show polyphase deformation and metamorphism. Geochemically, basic compositions show tholeiitic trend without Fe-enrichment, non-komatitic nature, continental affinity and show evolved nature. Mineral parageneses and reaction textures in different rock compositions indicate early prograde, dehydration melt forming reactions followed by orthopyroxene stability with or without melt. Coronitic and symplectitic garnets have formed over earlier minerals indicating onset of retrograde IBC path. Evidences for high temperature ductile shearing are preserved at places. Retrogressive hydration events clearly post-date the above paths. The present study has shown that the BBG belt may form a part of the Bastar Craton and does not represent exhumed oceanic crust of the Bundelkhand Craton. It is further shown that rocks of the BBG belt have undergone an earlier high-grade granulite metamorphism at 2672 ± 54 Ma (Sm-Nd age) and a post-peak granulite metamorphism at 1416 ± 59Ma (Sm-Nd age, 1380 ± 28Ma Rb-Sr age). These events were followed by deposition of the Sausar supracrustals and Neoproterozoic Sausar orogeny between 973 ± 63Ma and 800 ± 16Ma (Rb-Sr ages).

    • A reappraisal of polymetamorphism in the Eastern Ghats belt — A view from north of the Godavari rift

      A Bhattacharya S Gupta

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      Evidence collated from different parts of the Eastern Ghats belt north of the Godavari rift (barring the “Western Charnockite Zone” ) indicates that this sector evolved through a series of compressive structures (F1 to F3), with prolific migmatization in quartzofeldspathic and metapelitic gneisses synchronous with F1 shortening, as was the syn-F1 emplacement of profuse megacrystic K-feldspar-bearing granitoid bodies. Thereafter, melt productivity of the rocks (synchronous withF2– F3 folding) sharply decreased. Mineral parageneses stable in the S1, S2 and S3 fabrics indicate persistence of granulite facies conditions. P-T estimates on orthopyroxene + garnet + plagioclase + quartz assemblages anchored to recrystallized mosaic that overgrow all penetrative fabric elements in mafic granulites, granitoids and quartzofeldspathic gneisses are in the range of 900‡-950‡C and P≅ 8–9 kbar. This estimate is comparable to those retrieved from sapphirine-bearing paragenesis in Mg-Al metapelites that appear to be diachronous in relation to the fabric elements, and arguably disrupt the granoblastic mosaic. These facets in the northern sector of the orogenic belt are compatible with either a single cycle of tectonic events (i.e., F1, F2 and F3 in continuum), or temporally-separate thermo-tectonic events, with the peak of earlier metamorphism (pre- to syn-F1) at lower temperature (in the granulite facies) in comparison to the record of high post-F3-Tmax values.

      It is suggested on the basis of the above evidence that the late Proterozoic/Pan-African granulites in the Eastern Ghats belt north of the Godavari rift, are unlikely to be reworked equivalents of any older granulitic crust, such as the ∼1.6 Ga granulites south of the rift. Instead, the temporally disparate sectors may represent different crustal segments with unconnected pre-amalgamation tectonic history. However, if the ∼ 1.6 Ga granulites of the Western Charnockite Zone continue northwards across the rift, as suggested by recent isotope data, there are serious doubts as to the validity of a north-south division within the Eastern Ghats belt.

    • U-Pb age of the Diana Complex and Adirondack granulite petrogenesis

      Asish R Basu Wayne R Premo

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      U-Pb isotopic analyses of eight single and multi-grain zircon fractions separated from a syenite of the Diana Complex of the Adirondack Mountains do not define a single linear array, but a scatter along a chord that intersects the Concordia curve at 1145 ± 29 and 285 ± 204 Ma. For the most concordant analyses, the207Pb/206Pb ages range between 1115 and 1150 Ma. Detailed petrographic studies revealed that most grains contained at least two phases of zircon growth, either primary magmatic cores enclosed by variable thickness of metamorphic overgrowths or magmatic portions enclosing presumably older xenocrystic zircon cores. The magmatic portions are characterized by typical dipyramidal prismatic zoning and numerous black inclusions that make them quite distinct from adjacent overgrowths or cores when observed in polarizing light microscopy and in backscattered electron micrographs. Careful handpicking and analysis of the “best” magmatic grains, devoid of visible overgrowth of core material, produced two nearly concordant points that along with two of the multi-grain analyses yielded an upper-intercept age of 1118 ± 2.8 Ma and a lowerintercept age of 251 ± 13 Ma. The older age is interpreted as the crystallization age of the syenite and the younger one is consistent with late stage uplift of the Appalachian region. The 1118 Ma age for the Diana Complex, some 35 Ma younger than previously believed, is now approximately synchronous with the main Adirondack anorthosite intrusion, implying a cogenetic relationship among the various meta-igneous rocks of the Adirondacks. The retention of a high-temperature contact metamorphic aureole around Diana convincingly places the timing of Adirondack regional metamorphism as early as 1118 Ma. This result also implies that the sources of anomalous hightemperature during granulite metamorphism are the syn-metamorphic intrusions, such as the Diana Complex.

    • The Rajahmundry Traps, Andhra Pradesh: Evaluation of their petrogenesis relative to the Deccan Traps

      Ajoy K Baksi

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      Geochemical and geochronological data for rocks from the Rajahmundry Traps, are evaluated for possible correlation with the main Deccan province. Lava flows are found on both banks of the Godavari River and contain an intertrappean sedimentary layer. Based on40Ar/39 Ar age data, rocks on the east bank are post K-T boundary, show normal magnetic polarity, and belong to chron 29N. Their chemistry is identical to lavas in the Mahabaleshwar Formation in the Western Ghats, ∼1000km away. It was suggested earlier that the genetic link between these geographically widely separated rocks resulted from lava flowing down freshly incised river canyons at ∼ 64 Ma. For the west bank rocks, recent paleomagnetic work indicates lava flows below and above the intertrappean (sedimentary) layer show reversed and normal magnetic polarity, respectively. The chemical composition of the west bank flow above the intertrappean layer is identical to rocks on the east bank. The west bank lava lying below the sedimentary layer, shows chemistry similar to Ambenali Formation lava flows in the western Deccan.40Ar/39 Ar dating and complete chemical characterization of this flow is required to elucidate its petrogenesis with respect to the main Deccan Province.

    • Generation of Deccan Trap magmas

      Gautam Sen

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      Deccan Trap magmas may have erupted through multiple centers, the most prominent of which may have been a shield volcano-like structure in the Western Ghats area. The lavas are predominantly tholeiitic; alkalic mafic lavas and carbonatites are rare. Radioisotope dating, magnetic chronology, and age constraints from paleontology indicate that although the eruption started some 68 Ma, the bulk of lavas erupted at around 65–66 Ma. Paleomagnetic constraints indicate an uncertainty of ± 500,000 years for peak volcanic activity at 65 m.y. in the type section of the Western Ghats. Maximum magma residence times were calculated in this study based on growth rates of “giant plagioclase” crystals in lavas that marked the end phase of volcanic activity of different magma chambers. These calculations suggest that the > 1.7 km thick Western Ghats section might have erupted within a much shorter time interval of ∼ 55,000 years, implying phenomenal eruption rates that are orders of magnitude larger than any present-day eruption rate from any tectonic environment. Other significant observations/conclusions are as follows: (1) Deccan lavas can be grouped into stratigraphic subdivisions based on their geochemistry; (2) While some formations are relatively uncontaminated others are strongly contaminated by the continental crust; (3) Deccan magmas were produced by 15–30% melting of a Fe-rich lherzolitic source at ∼ 3–2 GPa; (4) Parent magmas of the relatively uncontaminated Ambenali formation had a primitive composition with 16%MgO, 47%SiO2; (5) Deccan magmas were generated much deeper and by significantly more melting than other continental flood basalt provinces; (6) The erupted Deccan tholeiitic lavas underwent fractionation and magma mixing at ∼ 0.2 GPa. The composition and origin of the crust and crust/mantle boundary beneath the Deccan are discussed with respect to the influence of Deccan magmatic episode.

    • Petrology, geochemistry and tectonic settings of the mafic dikes and sills associated with the evolution of the Proterozoic Cuddapah Basin of south India

      Nilanjan Chatterjee Somdev Bhattacharji

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      In this article we summarize the petrological, geochemical and tectonic processes involved in the evolution of the Proterozoic intracratonic Cuddapah basin. We use new and available ages of Cuddapah igneous rocks, together with field, stratigraphic, geophysical and other criteria, to arrive at a plausible model for the timing of these processes during basin evolution. We present petrological and geochronological evidence of dike emplacement along preferred lineament directions around the basin in response to stresses, which may have been responsible for the evolution of the basin itself. Basaltic dike intrusion started on the south Indian shield around 2400 Ma and continued throughout the Cuddapah basin evolution and sedimentation. A deep mantle perturbation, currently manifested by a lopolithic cupola-like intrusion under the southwestern part of the basin, may have occurred at the onset of basin evolution and played an important role in its development. Paleomagnetic, gravity and geochronological evidence indicates that it was a constant thermal source responsible for dike and sill emplacement between 1500 and 1200 Ma both inside and out-side the basin. Lineament reactivation in the NW-SE and NE-SW directions, in response to the mantle perturbation, intensified between 1400 and 1200 Ma, leading to the emplacement of several cross cutting dikes.

      Fe-Mg partition coefficients of olivine and augite and Ca-Na partition coefficient of plagioclase, calculated from the composition of these minerals and bulk composition of their host rocks, indicate that the dikes outside the Cuddapah basin are cumulates. The contemporary dikes may be related by fractional crystallization as indicated by a positive correlation between their plagioclase Ca# (atomic Ca/[Ca+Na]) and augite Mg# (atomic Mg/[Mg+Fe]). A few NW-SE and NE-SW cross cutting dikes of the period between 1400 and 1200 Ma, preserve petrographic evidence of episodic magmatic intrusive activity along preferred directions. Petrological reasoning indicates that a magmatic liquid reacted with a set of cross cutting dikes, intruding into one that was already solidified and altering the composition of the magma that produced the other dike.

      The Cuddapah basin tholeiites may be related by fractional crystallization at 5 kb and 1019-1154‡ C, which occurred in the lopolithic cupola near the southwestern margin of the basin. Xenolith bearing picrites, which occur near the periphery of the cupola, originated by the accumulation of xenoliths in the tholeiites. This is indicated by the composition of the olivine in the xenoliths (Fo78.7-81.9), which are closely similar to calculated olivine compositions (Fo77.8-78.3) in equilibrium with the tholeiites under the sameP-T conditions. It is inferred that fractionation in the cupola resulted in crystals settling on its walls. Hence, the xenolith-bearing sills occur at the periphery of the lopolithic body.

      The tholeiites both inside and outside the basin are enriched in incompatible elements compared to mid oceanic ridge basalts. The Ba, Rb and K contents of the Cuddapah and other Proterozoic Gondwana tholeiites indicate that a widespread metasomatic enrichment of the mantle source may have occurred between R∼2.9 and R∼2.7Ga. There may be local heterogeneity in the source of the Cuddapah tholeiites as indicated by different Ba/Rb, Ti/Zr, Ti/Y, Zr/Nb and Y/Nb in samples inside and outside the basin. Large-scale differences such as the low P2O5-TiO2 and high P2O5-TiO2 basaltic domains of the Jurassic Gondwana basalts, however, did not exist during the Proterozoic time period under consideration.

      Although we are beginning to understand the tectono-magmatic processes involved in the evolution of the Cuddapah basin, much work remains to be done to obtain a complete picture. Future research in the Cuddapah basin should focus on obtaining accurate ages of the igneous rocks associated with the evolution of the basin.

    • Subject Index

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    • Author Index

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    • Acknowledgements

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