Volume 110, Issue 1
March 2001, pages 1-94
pp 1-8 March 2001
The temperature field within the crust is closely related to tectonic history as well as many other geological processes inside the earth. Therefore, knowledge of the crustal thermal structure of a region is of great importance for its tectonophysical studies. This work deals with the two-dimensional thermal modelling to delineate the crustal thermal structure along a 230 km long Deep Seismic Sounding (DSS) profile in the north Cambay basin. In this work P-wave velocities obtained from the DSS studies have been converted into heat generation values for the computation of temperature distribution. The model result reveals the Curie isotherm at a depth of ≈22 km and Moho temperature at around 900‡C.
pp 9-23 March 2001
The strong motion displacement records available during an earthquake can be treated as the response of the earth as the a structural system to unknown forces acting at unknown locations. Thus, if the part of the earth participating in ground motion is modelled as a known finite elastic medium, one can attempt to model the source location and forces generated during an earthquake as an inverse problem in structural dynamics. Based on this analogy, a simple model for the basic earthquake source is proposed. The unknown source is assumed to be a sequence of impulses acting at locations yet to be found. These unknown impulses and their locations are found using the normal mode expansion along with a minimization of mean square error. The medium is assumed to be finite, elastic, homogeneous, layered and horizontal with a specific set of boundary conditions. Detailed results are obtained for Uttarkashi earthquake. The impulse locations exhibit a linear structure closely associated with the causative fault. The results obtained are shown to be in good agreement with reported values. The proposed engineering model is then used to simulate the acceleration time histories at a few recording stations. The earthquake source in terms of a sequence of impulses acting at different locations is applied on a 2D finite elastic medium and acceleration time histories are found using finite element methods. The synthetic accelerations obtained are in close match with the recorded accelerations.
pp 25-32 March 2001
Detailed gravity data collected across the Gadwal schist belt in the state of Andhra Pradesh show an 8.4 mgal residual gravity anomaly associated with meta-sediments/volcanics of the linear NNW-SSE trending schist belt that shows metamorphism from green schist to amphibolite facies. This schist belt is flanked on either side by the peninsular gneissic complex. The elevation and slab Bouguer corrected residual gravity profile data were interpreted using 2-D prism models. The results indicate a synformal structure having a width of 1.8 km at the surface, tapering at a depth of about 2.6 km with a positive density contrast of 0.15 gm/cc with respect to the surrounding peninsular gneissic complex.
pp 33-38 March 2001
A new space-domain operator based on the shape function concept of finite element analysis has been developed to derive the residual maps of the Gorda Plate of western United States. The technique does not require explicit assumptions on isostatic models. Besides delineating the Gorda Plate boundary, the residual maps exhibit a close match both in their anomaly patterns and magnitudes with previously computed residual maps based on the theory of isostasy.
pp 39-61 March 2001
Fine grained sericite deposits occur at the interface between Archean Mewar Gneiss Complex and the Proterozoic Aravalli Supergroup independent of shearing. They show a gradational contact with the basement granites and gneisses and a sharp contact with the overlying quartz pebble conglomeratic quartzites. Rip-up clasts of these sericite schists are found in the overlying conglomerates. The sericite schists are rich in sericite towards the top and contain chlorite towards the base. The sericite in these schists was formed by metasomatic alteration of kyanite and not from the feldspars of the basement granitoids and gneisses. Uni-directional variations of SiO2 and Al2O3, high Al2O3 content (>30%), positive correlation between Al2O3 and TiO2, Ti/Al and Ti/Zr ratios, high pre-metasomatic chemical indices of alteration (> 90), and enrichment of heavy rare earth elements relative to the parent granites and gneisses—all these chemical characteristics combined with field evidence suggest that the sericite schists are formed from a paleosol protolith, which developed on Archean basement between 2.5 and ~2.1 Ga in the Precambrian of Rajasthan. The superimposed metasomatic alteration restricts the use of Fe2+/Ti and Fe3+/Ti ratios of these paleosols for interpretation of PO2 conditions in the atmosphere.
pp 63-76 March 2001
The diamond bearing pipe rocks in Majhgawan-Hinota (more than four pipes) occur as intrusives in sandstones of Kaimur Group. These Proterozoic (974 ±30-1170 ±20 Ma) intrusive rocks, occupying the southeastern margin of Aravalli craton, were called as ‘micaceous kimberlite’ in tune with the reported kimberlite occurrences from other parts of the world. Judging from the definition of kimberlite, as approved by the IUGS Subcommission on Systematics of Igneous Rocks, it is not justified to call these rocks as ‘micaceous kimberlite’. Rather the mineralogical assemblages such as absence of typomorphic mineral monticellite (primary), abundance of phlogopite cognate, frequent presence of barite and primary carbonate mostly as calcite coupled with ultrapotassic and volatile-rich (dominantly H2O) nature and high concentration of incompatible elements (such as Ba, Zr, Th, U), low Th/U ratios, low REE and no Eu-anomaly clearly indicate a close similarity with that of South African orangeites. Thus orangeites of Proterozoic age occur outside the Kaapvaal craton of South Africa which are much younger (200 Ma to 110 Ma) in age.
pp 77-86 March 2001
The aim of this paper is to study the feasibility of deriving vertical wind profiles from current satellite observations. With this aim, we carried out complex empirical orthogonal function (CEOF) analysis of a large number of radiosonde observations of wind profiles over the Indian Ocean during the monsoon months. It has been found that the first two CEOFs explain 67% of the total variance in wind fields. While the first principal component is well correlated with the winds at 850 mb (r = 0:80), the second one is highly correlated with winds at 200 mb (r = 0:89). This analysis formed the basis of a retrieval algorithm which ensures the retrieval of vertical profiles of winds using satellite tracked cloud motion vector winds. Under the assumption that accurate measurements of wind are available at the above mentioned levels, the r.m.s. error of retrieval of each component of wind is estimated to range between 2 ms-1 and 6 ms-1 at different levels, which is much less than the natural variance of winds at these levels. For a better visualization of retrieval, we have provided retrieved and true wind profiles side by side for four typical synoptic conditions during the monsoon season.
pp 87-94 March 2001
It is well known that heavy rainfall occurs in the southwestern sector of the monsoon depressions due to strong convergence in that sector. By examining the rainfall distribution associated with the monsoon disturbances (lows and depressions) in one of the central Indian river basins, ‘Godavari’, the author found that when the disturbance-centre is away from the basin, heavy rainfall may also occur in the basin area close to the confluence line and cause severe floods in the river. The confluence line is the zone of convergence between the northeasterlies to the west of the disturbance centre and the monsoon westerlies. This study further reveals the importance of the position and movement of the confluence line with respect to the basin, on which the intensity and the raising period of the resulting flood depend.