• Volume 109, Issue 2

      June 2000,   pages  205-314

    • Preface

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    • Bay of Bengal Monsoon Experiment (BOBMEX) — A component of the Indian Climate Research Programme (ICRP)

      D R Sikka P Sanjeeva Rao

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      The Indian Climate Research Programme (ICRP) focuses on the study of climate variability and its impact on agriculture. To address the role of the Bay of Bengal in monsoon variability, a process study was organised during July–August 1999, deploying research ships, buoys, INSAT, coastal radar and conventional observational systems to collect information about the coupled ocean-atmosphere system over the warm waters of the Bay of Bengal. The paper gives the background of the ICRP and the organisation and implementation of the Bay of Bengal Monsoon Experiment (BOBMEX) in its field phase.

    • Synoptic weather conditions during the pilot study of Bay of Bengal and Monsoon Experiment (BOBMEX)

      S R Kalsi

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      BOBMEX-Pilot was organised from 23rd October–11th November, 1998 when the seasonal trough had already shifted to south Bay of Bengal. The activity during this period was marked by the development of a monsoon depression from 26th–29th October that weakened over the sea; onset of northeast monsoon along the east coast of India on 29th October; a low pressure area that formed on 2nd November over southwest Bay off Sri Lanka — southTamilnadu coast; and another cyclonic circulation that formed towards the end of the BOBMEX-Pilot period. This paper describes the development of these synoptic systems through synoptic charts and satellite data.

    • Surface meteorological instrumentation for BOBMEX

      G S Bhat S Ameenulla

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      Although India has a long experience in ship-borne experiments and oceanographic instrumentation, the atmospheric component has not received much attention in the past. In this paper, the basis of the atmospheric instrumentation system assembled for use on board ORV Sagar Kanya for the BOBMEX-Pilot experiment is described along with some representative results. Wherever possible, Woods Hole's IMET recommendations for meteorological sensors for applications in the marine environment have been followed to keep our measurements in par with international standards. The sensors were tested during the BOBMEX-Pilot experiment and all sensors worked well. Velocity, humidity and temperature data have been successfully collected using fast sensors. It is shown that the component due to the ship's pitching motion can be removed from the measured vertical velocity by making use of an accelerometer. This makes it possible to calculate the surface fluxes by direct methods.

    • Atmospheric boundary layer characteristics during the BOBMEX-Pilot experiment

      G S Bhat S Ameenulla M Venkataramana K Sengupta

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      The atmospheric boundary layer characteristics observed during the BOBMEX-Pilot experiment are reported. Surface meteorological data were acquired continuously through an automatic weather monitoring system and manually every three hours. High resolution radiosondes were launched to obtain the vertical thermal structure of the atmosphere. The study area was convectively active, the SSTs were high, surface air was warm and moist, and the surface air moist static energy was among the highest observed over the tropical oceans. The mean sea air temperature difference was about 1.25‡C and the sea skin temperature was cooler than bucket SST by 0.5‡C. The atmospheric mixed layer was shallow, fluctuated in response to synoptic conditions from 100 m to 900 m with a mean around 500 m.

    • Inertial-Dissipation flux measurements over south Bay of Bengal during BOBMEX-Pilot experiment

      M Venkataramana K Sengupta G S Bhat S Ameenulla J V S Raju

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      This paper describes measurement of air-sea parameters and estimation of sensible and latent heat fluxes by the “Inertial-Dissipation” technique over south Bay of Bengal. The data were collected on ORV Sagar Kanya during BOBMEX-Pilot cruise during the period 23rd October 1998 to 12th November 1998 over south Bay of Bengal. The fluxes are estimated using the data collected through fast response sensors namely Gill anemometer, Sonic anemometer and IR Hygrometer. In this paper the analyses carried out for two days, one relatively cloud free day on November 3rd and the other cloudy with rain on November 1st, are presented. Sea surface and air temperatures are higher on November 3rd than on November 1st. Sensible heat flux for both the days does not show any significant variation over the period of estimation, whereas latent heat flux is more for November 3rd than November 1st. An attempt is made to explain the variation of latent heat flux with a parameter called thermal stability on the vapor transfer from the water surface, which depends on wind speed and air to sea surface temperature difference.

    • BOBMEX-98 pilot: Measurement and analysis of incoming shortwave radiation data

      K Gopala Reddy P Sree Ram

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      Empirical formulae for estimation of hourly incoming shortwave radiation over the Indian Ocean under different cloud amounts have been developed by using the pyranometer measurements of the incoming solar radiation and the cloud observations during BOBMEX Pilot (October–November 1998) cruise.

    • Thermohaline structure and circulation in the upper layers of the southern Bay of Bengal during BOBMEX-Pilot (October–November 1998)

      V Ramesh Babu V S N Murty L V G Rao C V Prabhu V Tilvi

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      Hydrographic data collected on board ORV Sagar Kanya in the southern Bay of Bengal during the BOBMEX-Pilot programme (October–November 1998) have been used to describe the thermohaline structure and circulation in the upper 200 m water column of the study region. The presence of seasonal Inter-Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) over the study area, typically characterized with enhanced cloudiness and flanked by the respective east/northeast winds on its northern part and west/southwest winds on its southern part, has led to net surface heat loss of about 55 W/m2. The sea surface dynamic topography relative to 500 db shows that the upper layer circulation is characterised by a cyclonic gyre encompassing the study area. The eastward flowing Indian Monsoon Current (IMC) between 5‡N and 7‡N in the south and its northward branching along 87‡E up to 13‡N appear to feed the cyclonic gyre. The Vessel-Mounted Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (VM-ADCP) measured currents confirm the presence of the cyclonic gyre in the southern Bay of Bengal during the withdrawing phase of the southwest monsoon from the northern/central parts of the Bay of Bengal.

    • Diurnal variability of upper ocean temperature and heat budget in the southern Bay of Bengal during October–November, 1998 (BOBMEX-Pilot)

      V S N Murty V Ramesh Babu L V G Rao Charuta V Prabhu V Tilvi

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      Time-series data on upper-ocean temperature, Vessel-Mounted Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (VM-ADCP) measured currents and surface meteorological parameters have been obtained for the first time in the southern Bay of Bengal at 7‡N, 10‡N, and 13‡N locations along 87‡E during October–November, 1998 under BOBMEX-Pilot programme. These data have been analysed to examine the diurnal variability of upper oceanic heat budget and to estimate the eddy diffusivity coefficient of heat in the upper layer. Diurnal variation of near-surface temperature is typical at northern location (13‡N) with a range of 0.5‡C while the diurnal range of temperature is enhanced to 0.8‡C at the central location (10‡N) due to intense solar radiation (1050 W/m2), clear skies and low wind speeds. At the southern location (7‡N), the diurnal variation of temperature is atypical with the minimum temperature occurring at 2000 hrs instead of at early morning hours. In general, the diurnal curve of temperature penetrated up to 15 to 20 m with decreasing diurnal range with depth. The VM-ADCP measured horizontal currents in the upper ocean were predominantly easterly/northeasterly at southern location, north/northerly at central location and northwesterly at northern location, thus describing a large-scale cyclonic gyre with the northward meridional flow along 87‡E. The magnitudes of heat loss at the surface due to air-sea heat exchanges and in the upper 50 m layer due to vertical diffusion of heat are highest at the southern location where intense convective activity followed by overcast skies and synoptic disturbance prevailed in the lower atmosphere. This and the estimated higher value (0.0235 m2/s) of eddy diffusivity coefficient of heat in the upper ocean (0–50 m depth) suggest that 1-D processes controlled the upper layer heat budget at the southern location. On the other hand, during the fair weather conditions, at the central and northern locations, the upper layer gained heat energy, while the sea surface lost (gained) heat energy at northern (central) location. This and lower values of eddy diffusivity coefficient of heat (0.0045 and 0.0150 m2/s) and the northward intensification of horizontal currents at these locations suggest the greater role of horizontal heat advection over the 1-D processes in the upper ocean heat budget at these two locations.

    • Controls of dimethyl sulphide in the Bay of Bengal during BOBMEX-Pilot cruise 1998

      D M Shenoy M Dileep Kumar V V S S Sarma

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      The air-sea exchange is one of the main mechanisms maintaining the abundances of trace gases in the atmosphere. Some of these, such as carbon dioxide and dimethyl sulphide (DMS), will have a bearing on the atmospheric heat budget. While the former facilitates the trapping of radiation (greenhouse effect) the latter works in the opposite direction through reflectance of radiation back into space by sulphate aerosols that form from oxidation of DMS in atmosphere. Here we report on the first measurements made on DMS in the Bay of Bengal and the factors regulating its abundance in seawater. Phytoplankton alone does not seem to control the extent of DMS concentrations. We find that changes in salinity could effectively regulate the extent of DMSP production by marine phytoplankton. In addition, we provide the first ever evidence to the occurrence of DMS precursor, DMSP, in marine aerosols collected in the boundary layer. This suggests that the marine aerosol transport of DMSP will supplement DMS gaseous evasion in maintaining the atmospheric non-sea salt sulphur budget.

    • Marine boundary layer simulation and verification during BOBMEX-Pilot using NCMRWF model

      Swati Basu

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      A global spectral model (T80L18) that is operational at NCMRWF is utilized to study the structure of the marine boundary layer over the Bay of Bengal during the BOBMEX-Pilot period. The vertical profiles of various meteorological parameters within the boundary layer are studied and verified against the available observations. The diurnal variation of various surface fields are also studied. The impact of non-local closure scheme for the boundary layer parameterisation is seen in simulation of the flow pattern as well as on the boundary layer structure over the oceanic region.

    • Numerical simulation of the marine boundary layer characteristics over the Bay of Bengal as revealed by BOBMEX-98 Pilot experiment

      A N V Satyanarayana U C Mohanty N V Sam Swati Basu V N Lykossov

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      An attempt has been made to study the marine boundary layer characteristics over Bay of Bengal using BOBMEX (Bay of Bengal and Monsoon Experiment) pilot experiment data sets, which was conducted between 23rd October and 12th November 1998 on board ORV Sagar Kanya. A one-dimensional multilevel atmospheric boundary layer with TKE-ε closure scheme is employed to study the marine boundary layer characteristics. In this study two synoptic situations are chosen: one represents an active convection case and the other a suppressed convection. In the present article the marine boundary layer characteristics such as temporal evolution of turbulent kinetic energy, height of the boundary layer and the airsea exchange processes such as sensible and latent heat fluxes, drag coefficient for momentum are simulated during both active and suppressed convection. Marine boundary layer height is estimated from the vertical profiles of potential temperature using the stability criterion. The model simulations are compared with the available observations.

    • Conserved variable analysis of the marine boundary layer and air-sea exchange processes using BOBMEX-Pilot data sets

      N V Sam U C Mohanty A N V Satyanarayana

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      The present study is based on the observed features of the MBL (Marine Boundary Layer) during the Bay of Bengal and Monsoon Experiment (BOBMEX) — Pilot phase. Conserved Variable Analysis (CVA) of the conserved variables such as potential temperature, virtual potential temperature, equivalent potential temperature, saturation equivalent potential temperature and specific humidity were carried out at every point of upper air observation obtained on board ORV Sagar Kanya. The values are estimated up to a maximum of 4 km to cover the boundary layer. The Marine Boundary Layer Height is estimated from the conserved thermodynamic profiles. During the disturbed period when the convective activity is observed, the deeper boundary layers show double mixing line structures. An attempt is also made to study the oceanic heat budget using empirical models. The estimated short-wave radiation flux compared well with the observations.

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