• Volume 108, Issue 1

      March 1999,   pages  1-68

    • What triggers Koyna region earthquakes? Preliminary results from seismic tomography digital array

      S S Rai Sunil K Singh P V S S Rajagopal Sarma D Srinagesh K N S Reddy K S Prakasam Y Satyanarayana

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      The cause for prolific seismicity in the Koyna region is a geological enigma. Attempts have been made to link occurrence of these earthquakes with tectonic strain as well as the nearby reservoirs. With a view to providing reliable seismological database for studying the earth structure and the earthquake process in the Koyna region, a state of the art digital seismic network was deployed for twenty months during 1996–97. We present preliminary results from this experiment covering an area of 60 × 80 km2 with twenty seismic stations. Hypocentral locations of more than 400 earthquakes confined to 11×25 km2 reveal fragmentation in the seismicity pattern — a NE — SW segment has a dip towards NW at approximately 45°, whilst the other two segments show a near vertical trend. These seismic segments have a close linkage with the Western Ghat escarpment and the Warna fault. Ninety per cent of the seismicity is confined within the depth range of 3–10 km. The depth distribution of earthquakes delimits the seismogenic zone with its base at 10 km indicating a transition from an unstable to stable frictional sliding regime. The lack of shallow seismicity between 0 and 3 km indicates a mature fault system with well-developed gouge zones, which inhibit shallow earthquake nucleation. Local earthquake travel time inversion for P- and S-waves show ≈ 2% higher velocity in the seismogenic crust (0–10 km) beneath the epicentral tract relative to a lower velocity (2–3%) in the adjoining region. The high P- and S-wave velocity in the seismogenic crust argues against the presence of high pressure fluid zones and suggests its possible linkage with denser lithology. The zone of high velocity has been traced to deeper depths (≈ 70 km) through teleseismic tomography. The results reveal segmented and matured seismogenic fault systems in the Koyna region where seismicity is possibly controlled by strain build up due to competent lithology in the seismic zone with a deep crustal root.

    • Rheological stratification of the Indian continental lithosphere: Role of diffusion creep

      A Manglik R N Singh

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      Dynamic recrystallization and reduction in grain-size at large strains, e.g. in shear zones, leads to rheological weakening of the lithosphere and facilitates intense ductile deformation. In the present work, we include this effect into the rheological models of the Indian continental lithosphere to analyse its role in modifying the rheological structure and strength of the Indian lithosphere. The results computed by using quartz and felspar rheologies for the upper and lower crust, respectively, and grain-size dependent olivine rheology for the upper mantle, indicate an increase in the ductility of the mantle lithosphere.

    • Fluid evolution in quartz vein-hosted tungsten mineralization in Chhendapathar, Bankura District, West Bengal: Evidence from fluid inclusion study

      B Mishra D C Pal M K Panigrahi

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      Tungsten mineralization in Chhendapathar area is hosted by quartz veins that traverse mostly the metasediments in and around Jikhu Nala. Fluid inclusion microthermometric experiments reveal the presence of four distinct types of inclusions. These are: aqueous biphase, monophase carbonic, aqueouscarbonic and halite-bearing polyphase inclusions. Salinity-temperature variation points towards the presence of two fluids of contrasting salinities and both independently followed simple cooling paths without any indication of fluid mixing. The P-T of mineralization was calculated from the intersection of coexisting and coeval aqueous biphase, carbonic and halite-bearing inclusions. The deduced values range from 1.63kb/361°C to 2.30kb/385°C. However, the initial temperature must have been much higher as indicated from the high dissolution temperature (> 450°C) of halite. Transportation of tungsten in the high saline fluid was facilitated by cation-tungstate ion pairing, i.e., with the help of Na2WO4 and/or NaHWO4 complexes. A rapid fall in solubility in such fluid with falling temperature (in the range of 300–400°C), and by occasional fluid-rock interaction triggered precipitation of wolframite.

    • Alkaline rocks of Samchampi-Samteran, District Karbi-Anglong, Assam, India

      S Nag S K Sengupta R K Gaur A Absar

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      The Samchampi-Samteran alkaline igneous complex (SAC) is a near circular, plug-like body approximately 12 km2 area and is emplaced into the Precambrian gneissic terrain of the Karbi Anglong district of Assam. The host rocks, which are exposed in immediate vicinity of the intrusion, comprise granite gneiss, migmatite, granodiorite, amphibolite, pegmatite and quartz veins.

      The SAC is composed of a wide variety of lithologies identified as syenitic fenite, magnetite ± perovskite ± apatite rock, alkali pyroxenite, ijolite-melteigite, carbonatite, nepheline syenite with leucocratic and mesocratic variants, phonolite, volcanic tuff, phosphatic rock and chert breccia.

      The magnetite ± perovskite ± apatite rock was generated as a cumulus phase owing to the partitioning of Ti, Fe at a shallow level magma chamber (not evolved DI = O1). The highly alkaline hydrous fluid activity indicated by the presence of strongly alkalic minerals in carbonatites and associated alkaline rocks suggests that the composition of original melt was more alkalic than those now found and represent a silica undersaturated ultramafic rock of carbonated olivine-poor nephelinite which splits with falling temperature into two immiscible fractions—one ultimately crystallises as alkali pyroxenite/ijolite and the other as carbonatite. The spatial distribution of varied lithotypes of SAC and their genetic relationships suggests that the silicate and carbonate melts, produced through liquid immiscibility, during ascent generated into an array of lithotypes and also reaction with the country rocks by alkali emanations produced fenitic aureoles (nephelinisation process). Isotopic studies (δ18O and δ13C) on carbonatites of Samchampi have indicated that the δ13C of the source magma is related to contamination from recycled carbon.

    • K-Ar age of Ukra glauconites from the Kutch Basin, India

      S S Rathore B N Prabhu A R Vijan K C Vig K N Misra

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      The present paper reports the K-Ar ages determined on glauconitic samples collected from the Ukra Member of the Mesozoic Bhuj Formation in two different sections, one located on the Ghuneri-Ghaduli road near Katesar Mahadeo temple and the other at the base of the Ukra hill in the northwestern part of the Kutch Mainland area.

      Three glauconite samples viz., UkraKT-1, UkraKT-4 and UkraUH-3 have yielded K-Ar ages of 107.9 ± 3.4 Ma, 105.5 ± 3.3 Ma and 103.5 ± 3.4 Ma, respectively. The sample UkraKT-l treated with 0.5N HC1 and analysed in duplicate has yielded a mean age of 104 ± 2.3 Ma while the sample UkraKT-4 treated with 0.1N HCl has given an age of 106.5 ± 3.3 Ma. The ages of the treated and untreated glauconites are indistinguishable within 2σ uncertainty with a mean of 105.2 ± 1.3 Ma, which has been interpreted as the depositional age of the Ukra Member of the Mesozoic Bhuj Formation. The study has further indicated that mild acid treatment (up to 0.5N HCl) does not lead to any loss of radiogenic argon in the glauconites and can be helpful in purification of the samples.

    • Mudbank regime off the Kerala coast during monsoon and non-monsoon seasons

      R Tatavarti A C Narayana P Manoj Kumar Shyam Chand

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      Field experiments conducted in the nearshore ocean to understand the dynamics of mudbank off Kerala, south-west coast of India, are highlighted. Real time monitoring of the nearshore ocean off Purakkad, Kerala was accomplished using pressure transducers for nearshore surface wave measurements, and current sensors for nearshore velocity measurements. Comprehensive information on the spatial structure of mudbank was obtained from aerial surveys. Extensive data collected on surface waves and currents in the nearshore ocean, indicate that the infra-gravity (IG) waves (leaky modes and trapped edge wave modes), and far infra-gravity (FIG) waves coupled with strong shoreline reflections and undertow play an important role in the dynamics associated with the mudbanks off Kerala during the monsoon season. During the non-monsoon season evidence for progressive edge waves in the infragravity frequency band, an energetic gravity wave band and a strong undertow with weak reflections was observed.

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