• Volume 106, Issue 4

      December 1997,   pages  181-390

    • Preface

      Vinod K Gaur Dhruba Mukhopadhyay

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    • The kinematic history of the Singhbhum Shear Zone

      Sudipta Sengupta S K Ghosh

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      The progressive deformation of the Singhbhum Shear Zone (SSZ) involved the initiation of a mylonitic foliation, its deformation by three generations of reclined folds and superposition of two later groups of folds, i.e., a group of asymmetric folds with subhorizontal or gently plunging axes and a group of gentle and open, transverse and more or less upright folds. The occurrence of sheath folds and U-shaped deformed lineations indicate that the reclined folds were produced by rotation of fold hinges through large angles. The total displacement along the SSZ was compounded of displacements along numerous mesoscopic shear zones. The cleavages in the shear lenses and the mesoscopic shear zones cannot be distinguished as C and S surfaces. They have the same kinematic significance and were produced by ductile deformation, although there were localized discontinuous displacements along both sets,-of cleavages. A mylonitic foliation had formed before the development of the earliest recognizable folds. Its time of formation and folding could be synchronous, diachronous or partly overlapping in time in the different domains of the SSZ.

    • Structural and metamorphic evolution of the rocks of the Jutogh Group, Chur half-klippe, Himachal Himalayas: A summary and comparison with the Simla area

      Dilip K Mukhopadhyay Tamal K Ghosh Bidyut K Bhadra Deepak C Srivastava

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      The rocks of the Jutogh Group in the Himachal Himalayas and their equivalents elsewhere are now considered to represent a several km thick crustal scale ductile shear zone, the so called Main Central Thrust Zone. In this article we present a summary of structural and metamorphic evolution of the Jutogh Group of rocks in the Chur half-klippe and compare our results with those of Naha and Ray (1972) who worked in the adjacent Simla klippe.

      The deformational history of the Jutogh Group of rocks in the area around the Chur-peak, as deduced from small-scale structures, can be segmented into: (1) an early event giving rise to two sets of very tight to isoclinal and coaxial folds with gentle dip of axial planes and easterly or westerly trend of axes, (2) an event of superimposed progressive ductile shearing during which a plethora of small-scale structures have developed which includes successive generations of strongly non-cylindrical folds, several generations of mylonitic foliation, extensional structures and late-stage small-scale thrusts, and (3) a last stage deformation during which a set of open and upright folds developed, but these are regionally unimportant. The structure in the largest scale (tens of km) can be best described in terms of stacked up thin thrust sheets. Km-scale asymmetric recumbent folds with strongly non-cylindrical hinge lines, developed as a consequence of ductile shearing, are present in one of these thrust sheets. The ductile shearing, large-scale folding and thrusting can be related to the development of the Main Central Thrust Zone. The microstructural relations show that the main phase of regional low-to medium-grade metamorphism (T ≈ 430–600°C andP ≈ 4.5–8.5 kbar) is pre-kinematic with respect to the formation of the Main Central Thrust Zone. Growth zoned garnets with typical bell-shaped Mn profiles and compensating bowl-shaped Fe profiles are compatible with this phase of metamorphism. Some of the larger garnet grains, however, show flat compositional profiles; if they represent homogenization of growth zoning, it would be a possible evidence of a relict high-grade metamorphism. The ductile shearing was accompanied by a low-greenschist facies metamorphism during which mainly chlorite and occasionally biotite porphyroblasts crystallized.

    • Thrust tectonics in crystalline domains: The origin of a gneiss dome

      R O Greiling

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      Structural geological field work, microscopic and magnetic fabric studies have been applied in order to assess the structural origin of a gneiss dome, based on a regional example from the Neoproterozoic Pan-African Belt of NE Africa, the Wadi Hafafit Culmination (WHC). The culmination is dominated by a number of major shear zones, which form both the boundaries between the gneissic core and surrounding low grade successions as well as those of minor structural units within the gneisses. These shear zones form a linked fault system, which, based on shear criteria, fault-bend fold and overall geometric interrelationships, can be classified as an antiformal stack. The relative age sequence of the shear zones/thrusts with the highest thrust oldest and the lowermost youngest points to a forward-propagating thrust system. This, together with the shear criteria, exclude an origin of the WHC as a metamorphic core complex, where the highest shear zone should be youngest. The geometry of the WHC antiformal stack is documented by maps and sections as well as section balancing and restoration. Microscopic work showed brittle deformation in feldspar and dynamic recrystallization in quartz ribbons. The asymmetry of the fabric confirmed the macroscopically determined shear sense. However, there is one example of an earlier, perhaps extensional shear movement. Mylonitic foliation and transport-parallel lineation have also been determined by magnetic fabric studies. The observations suggest that thrusts may cut across both previously folded crystalline rocks as well as homogeneous granitoid plutonic bodies. According to the regional tectonic picture the large-scale structure of the gneiss dome originated after a phase of (late-orogenic) extensional collapse. It is speculated that during late-orogenic cooling the upper part of the lithosphere was sufficiently strong to allow brittle thrusting whilst the lithosphere as a whole was still weak enough to allow large-scale compressional deformation, perhaps in a transitional stage from lateorogenic to intra-cratonic deformation.

    • Flow laws in polymineralic aggregates deformed by a combination of diffusion creep and dislocation creep

      Dilip Saha

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      Microstructures in naturally deformed rocks in the upper crust demonstrate that creep strain in nature may be accommodated by a combination of dislocation creep, diffusion/dissolution processes and microcracking. A theoretical approach towards deriving an aggregate flow law is presented, where the strain in the constituent phases is assumed to occur by simultaneous operation of diffusive mass transfer and crystal plastic mechanisms (dislocation creep). Both uniform stress and uniform strain rate situations are considered.

    • Development of quartz ribbons in quartzofeldspathic granulites

      Nibir Manual Kiyoshi Fujino Susanta K Samanta

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      In high-grade (granulite facies) quartzofeldspathic rocks the progressive development of a fabric records contrasting deformation behaviour of quartz and feldspar. Feldspar has undergone deformation mainly by recrystallization-accommodated dislocation creep and produced smaller recrystallized grains progressively in the course of deformation. Quartz has not deformed solely by dislocation creep but also by a diffusion-controlled mechanism. Dislocation climb is important in the dislocation creep of quartz. In contrast to feldspar, quartz grains have not recrystallized into smaller grains at any stage of deformation. Rather, they have transformed initially to short monocrystalline ribbons and ultimately to long polycrystalline ribbons. This textural change of quartz is a continuous process and has taken place in the course of bulk textural change of the rocks during the deformation.

    • Structural geometry of the early Precambrian terrane south of Coimbatore in the “Palghat Gap”, southern India

      K Naha R Srinivasan G K Deb

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      The ENE-plunging macroscopic folds, traced by calc gneiss interbanded with marble and sillimanite schist within the Peninsular Gneiss around Suganapuram in the ‘Palghat gap’ in southern India, represent structures of the second generation (D2). They have folded the axial planes of a set of D1 isoclinal folds on stratification coaxially, so that the mesoscopic D1 folds range from reclined in the hinge zones, through inclined to upright in the limb zones of the D2 folds. Orthogonal relation between stratification and axial planar cleavage, and ‘M’ shaped folds on layering locate the hinge zones of the D1 folds, whereas folds on axial planar cleavage with ‘M’ shaped folds are the sites of the D2 fold hinges. Extreme variation in the shapes of the isoclinal D1 folds from class 1B through class 1C to nearly class 2 of Ramsay is a consequence of buckling followed by flattening on layers of widely varying viscosity contrast.

      The large ENE-trending structures in this supracrustal belt within the Peninsular Gneiss in the ‘Palghat gap’ could not have evolved by reorientation of NS-trending structures of the Dharwar tectonic province to the north by movement along the Moyar-Bhavani shear zone which marks the boundary between the two provinces. This is because the Moyar and Bhavani faults are steep dipping reverse faults with dominant dip-slip component.

    • The Dharwar craton, southern India, and its Late Archaean plate tectonic setting: current interpretations and controversies

      Brian Chadwick V N Vasudev G V Hegde

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      In spite of detailed geological investigations of the Dharwar craton since the 1890s, its principal lithological units, structure and chronology remain contentious. Important new work on lithostratigraphy, basin development, structure, geochemistry and geochronology has led to wide-ranging speculation on the Late Archaean plate tectonic setting. Much of the speculation is based on uniformitarian models which contrast with a recent proposal that the evolution of the craton was controlled by gravity-driven processes with no crustal shortening.

    • Structures in the banded iron-formation of the southeastern Bababudan Hills, Karnataka, India

      Dhruba Mukhopadhyay Mohan C Baral Ranjan K Niyogi

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      The banded iron-formation in the southeastern Bababudan Hills display a macroscopic synformal bend gently plunging towards WNW. The bedding planes in smaller individual sectors show a cylindrical or conical pattern of folding. The dominant set of minor folds has WNW-ESE trending axial planes and the axes plunge towards WNW at gentle to moderate angles, though there is considerable variation in orientation of both axes and axial planes. A later set of sporadically observed folds has N-S trending axial planes. The macroscopic synformal bend within the study area forms the southeastern corner of a horseshoe shaped regional synformal fold closure which encompasses the entire Bababudan range.

      The minor folds are buckle folds modified to a varying extent by flattening. In some examples the quartzose layers appear to be more competent than the ferruginous layers; in others the reverse is true. The folds are frequently noncylindrical and the axes show curvature with branching and en echelon patterns. Such patterns are interpreted to be the result of complex linking of progressively growing folds whose initiation is controlled by the presence of original perturbations in the layers. Domes and basins have at places developed as a result of shortening along two perpendicular directions in a constrictional type of strain. Development of folds at different stages of progressive deformation has given rise to nonparallelism of fold axes and axial planes. The axes and axial planes of smaller folds developed on the limbs of a larger fold are often oriented oblique to those of the latter. Progressive deformation has caused rotation and bending of axial planes of earlier formed folds by those developed at later stages of the same deformational episode. Coaxial recumbent to nearly reclined fold locally encountered on the N-S limb of the macroscopic fold may belong to an earlier episode of deformation or to the early stage of the main deformation episode.

      The E-W to ESE-WNW strike of axial plane of the regional fold system in the Bababudan belt contrasts with the N-S to NNW-SSE strike of axial planes of the main fold system in the Chitradurga and other schist belts of Karnataka.

    • Dehydration melting of micas in the Chilka Lake Khondalites: The link between the metapelites and granitoids

      S K Sen S Bhattacharya

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      Garnet-sillimanite gneisses, locally known as khondalites, occur abundantly in the Chilka Lake granulite terrane belonging to the Eastern Ghats Proterozoic belt of India. Though their chemistry has been modified by partial melting, it is evident that the majority of these rocks are metapelitic, with some tending to be metapsammitic. Five petrographically distinct groups are present within the khondalites of which the most abundant group is characteristically low in Mg:Fe ratios — the main chemical discriminant separating the five groups. The variations in Mg:Fe ratios of the garnets, biotites, cordierites, orthopyroxenes and spinels from the metapelites are compatible with those in the bulk rocks.

      A suite of granitoids containing garnet, K-feldspar, plagioclase and quartz, commonly referred to as leptynites in Indian granulite terranes, are interlayered with khondalites on the scale of exposures; in a few spots, the intercalated layers are thin. The peraluminous character of the leptynites and presence of sillimanite trails within garnets in some of them suggest derivation of leptynites by partial melting of khondalites. Here we examine this connection in the light of results derived from dehydration melting experiments of micas in pelitic and psammitic rocks.

      The plots of leptynites of different chemical compositions in a (MgO + FeO)-Na2O-K2O projection match the composition of liquids derived by biotite and muscovite dehydration melting, when corrected for co-products of melting reactions constrained by mass balance and modal considerations. The melt components of the leptynites describe four clusters in the M-N-K diagram. One of them matches melts produced dominantly by muscovite dehydration melting, while three clusters correspond to melting of biotite. The relative disposition of the clusters suggests two trends, which can be correlated with different paths that pelitic and psammitic protoliths are expected to generate during dehydration melting. Thus the leptynites evidently represent granitoids which were produced by dehydration melting in metapelites of different compositions.

      The contents of Ti, Y, Nb, Zr and Th in several leptynites indicate departures from equilibrium melt compositions, and entrainment of restites is considered to be the main causative factor. Disequilibrium in terms of major elements is illustrated by leucosomes within migmatites developed in a group of metapelites. But the discrete leptynites that have been compared with experimental melts approach equilibrium melt compositions closely.

    • A HFSE- and REE-enriched ferrodiorite suite from the Bolangir Anorthosite Complex, Eastern Ghats Belt, India

      M Raith A Bhattacharya S Hoernes

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      The massif-type anorthosite complex at Bolangir in the northern part of the Eastern Ghats belt occurs in a milieu of predominantly supracrustal granulite-grade rocks. The massif is separated from the host gneisses by coarse-grained garnetiferous granitoid gneisses which are interpreted as coeval crustallyderived melts. Melanocratic ferrodiorite rocks occur at the immediate contact with the anorthosite massif which they intrude in cross-cutting dikes and sheets. The emplacement age of the anorthosite diapir and the associated igneous suites is deemed to be pre-D2. Recrystallization of the igneous assemblages of the ferrodiorite suite (750–800°C, 7–8kbar,$$a_{H_2 O}< 0.25, logf_{O_2 }< - 18 bar$$) during a period of near-isobaric cooling from the igneous crystallization stage to the regionalP-T regime led to extensive development of coronitic garnet at the interface of plagioclase phenocrysts with the mafic matrix assemblage (opx + fay + cpx + ilm ± amph, bio). Abundant accessory phases are zircon, apatite and thorite. The mafic phases have extremely ferrous compositions (XFe gar: 0.93-0.87, fay: 0.90-0.87, opx: 0.80-0.60, cpx: 0.70-0.47, amph: 0.81-0.71) reflecting the low Mg-number (16-8) of the rocks. Compared to worldwide occurrences of similar rocks, the Bolangir ferrodiorites (SiO2 36–58 wt.%, FeO*: 39-10 wt.%) are characterized by exceptionally high concentrations of HFSE and REE (TiO2: 4.8-1.0 wt.%, P2O5: 1.7-0.5 wt.%, Zr: 5900-1300 ppm, Y: 240-80 ppm, La: 540-100 ppm, Ce: 1100-200 ppm, Yb: 22-10 ppm, Th: 195-65 ppm). Well defined linear variation trends for major and trace elements reflect progressive plagioclase accumulation towards the felsic members of the suite. The ferrodiorites are interpreted to represent residual liquids of anorthosite crystallization which after segregation and extraction from the ascending diapir became enriched in HFSE and REE through selective assimilation of accessory phases (zircon, monazite, apatite) from crustal felsic melts. Ferromonzodioritic rock presumably formed through hybridization between the ferrodiorite and overlying felsic melts.

    • The Turkei anorthosite complex revisited

      A K Maji A Bhattacharya M Raith

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      Geological investigation in recent years reveals that the anorthosite-leuconorite massif (81 sq km) is much larger than known from previous studies. The massif is bordered by a suite of garnetiferous felsic rocks comprising quartz monzonite gneiss, granite gneiss and megacrystic K-feldspar-bearing granite. Ferrodiorites, hitherto unknown from this area, occur as veins at the massif-felsic suite interface, and as rare apophyses within leuconorites at the massif margin. The massif and the bordering felsic rocks were presumably emplaced during the earliest of the three phases of folding documented by the metasedimentary gneisses that host the massif.

      The petrographic and geochemical characteristics suggest that the low-K anorthosite-leuconoriteferrodiorite suite does not share a common parentage with the bordering high-K felsic intrusives. The anorthosites and leuconorites were derived by polybaric fractionation of mantle-derived melts. The ferrodiorites are anorthosite residual melts that were not entirely segregated from the host solids. By contrast, the granite gneisses and granites originated by incongruent melting of crustal rocks. The chemical differences between quartz monzonite and granite gneisses point to their derivation from different crustal precursors.

    • Geochemistry of Archaean volcanic rocks from Iron Ore Supergroup, Singhbhum, eastern India

      S Sengupta S K Acharyya J B DeSmeth

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      Mafic-ultramafic rocks of Archaean age constitute a significant component of the Eastern Indian Craton. These occur in two different modes. In the eastern belt these occur as a long, linear enclave within the Singhbhum granite and the primary banding in them is subvertical. In the more extensive western belt along the periphery of the Singhbhum granite, the disposition of the primary banding is subhorizontal.

      The major rock type in both the belts is meta-basalt with minor peridotitic komatiite and basaltic komatiite occurring in the eastern belt. Rare ultramafic rocks with cumulate textures are present in both the belts. The larger volume of the basaltic rocks preclude the possibility of their being derived by fractional crystallization of the high-MgO components.

      On the basis of trace element and REE characters the rocks may be classified into three groups. One of the groups shows a tholeiitic trend and include samples mostly from the eastern belt while the second consisting mostly of samples from the western belt shows a calc-alkaline trend. The third group includes samples having elemental ratios intermediate between these two groups. Zr/Nb ratios for the tholeiitic and calc-alkaline samples are different suggesting their sources to be different. The tholeiitic samples have been generated from a source having chondritic REE characters, while the calc-alkaline samples have been generated from a source with LREE enriched character. The high-MgO components in both the groups are suggested to represent high degrees of melting compared to the basalts in each group.

      It is further suggested that the tholeiitic basalts have been generated relatively early from a chondritic source. Down-buckling of this material has added LREE enriched melts to the source, thereby changing its character into a LREE enriched one. Melting of a source with such changed character has subsequently produced the calc-alkaline melts. Rocks with variable but intermediate characters between these two groups have been generated as a result of contamination between these two groups.

    • Petrology, geothermobarometry and C-O-H-S fluid compositions in the environs of Rampura-Agucha Zn-(Pb) ore deposit, Bhilwara District, Rajasthan

      M Deb Uma Sehgal

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      The massive Zn-(Pb) sulfide ore body at Rampura-Agucha in Bhilwara district, Rajasthan, occurs within graphitic metapelites surrounded by garnet-biotite-sillimanite gneiss containing concordant bodies of amphibolite. These rocks and the sulfide ores have been studied to estimate the pressure, temperature and fluid composition associated with upper amphibolite facies metamorphism. Geothermobarometric calculations involving garnet-biotite and garnet-hornblende pairs, as well as sphalerite-hexagonal pyrrhotite-pyrite and garnet-plagioclase-sillimanite-quartz assemblages indicate that the most pervasive P-T condition during peak of regional metamorphism was 650°C and 6 kb, and was attained between the first and second deformations in the region. Some temperature-pressure estimates also cluster around 500°C–5.1 kb which probably represent retrograde cooling during unloading.

      Consideration of devolatilization equilibria in the C-O-H-S system at the pervasive metamorphic conditions mentioned above shows that the metamorphic fluid was H2O-rich ($$X_{H_2 O} = 0.52$$) but also had a substantial component of$$CO_2 (X_{CO_2 } = 0.39)$$.$$H_2 S(X_{H_2 S} = 0.043)$$ and$$CH_4 (X_{CH_4 } = 0.025)$$ were the other important phases in the fluid. CO (XCO = 0.002) and$$H_2 (X_{H_2 } = 0.002)$$ were the minor phases in the fluid. It is probable that a part of this aqueous fluid was consumed by re-/neocrystallization of hydrous silicate phases like chlorite during the retrogressive metamorphic path, so that fluid entrapped in quartz below 450°C was rendered CO2-rich (Holleret al 1996).

    • Geodynamic implications of chrome-poor enstatitite bodies in the Sukinda-Boula-Nausahi ultramafic suites of Orissa

      P K Banerjee

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      Within the Brahmani valley granulite terrane (Eastern Ghats) of Dhenkanal district, Orissa the sporadically outcropping pods of chromite-rich serpentinite are devoid of chrome-poor enstatitite which occurs abundantly in the northern Gorumahisani greenstone terrane as well defined units within the chromite-rich suites at Katpal, Sukinda and Boula-Nausahi, Cuttack and Keonjhar districts. Available field evidence is compatible with a model of emplacement of these ultramafic bodies along the contact between the two terranes in a number of stages involving soft and hard collision, subduction of Gorumahisani Group oceanic lithosphere below the Eastern Ghats granulites followed by delamination and asthenospheric upwelling. Falsifiability tests for the model have been indicated.

    • Significance of Sm-Nd isotope systematics in crustal genesis: A case study of Archaean metabasalts of the eastern Dharwar Craton

      J K Zachariah S Balakrishnan V Rajamani

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      Determination of the age of rocks by whole rock Sm-Nd isochron method has several limitations imposed by petrogenetic processes. If the age of the rocks can be determined by other independent methods, the Sm-Nd system provides a wealth of information to understand crustal genesis. Sm-Nd isotopic studies of metabasaltic rocks of the Archaean Kolar and Ramagiri Schist belts in the eastern Dharwar Craton indicate that the system was disturbed by postmagmatic fluid alteration processes associated with terrane accretion.

    • Rare earth element geochemistry and Rb-Sr geochronology of Archaean stromatolitic cherts of the Dharwar craton, south India

      R Srinivasan G V C Pantulu K Gopalan

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      Stromatolites associated with cherty dolomites of the Vanivilaspura Formation of the Archaean Dharwar Supergroup show a morphology indicative of the deposition of the latter in a intertidal to subtidal environment. The cherts are moderately high in their Al/Al + Fe ratios but depleted in Fe2C3 and also most trace elements. Unlike most other Archaean cherts, the Vanivilaspur cherts exhibit significant negative Ce anomaly, which is interpreted to have resulted from contemporary manganese deposition. The Rb/Sr ratios in the cherts show a sufficient spread to define a linear correlation line in the Rb-Sr evolution diagram corresponding to an age of 2512 ± 159 Ma and initial Sr ratio of 0.7128 ± 0.0012 (2σ). While this age is strikingly close to that of regional metamorphism in the Dharwar craton, the initial ratio is distinctly higher than that of the associated volcanics. Acid leaching experiments on the cherts suggest that they may have been isotopically equilibrated on a mm to cm scale about 500 Ma later than the time of regional metamorphism.

    • A debt of gratitude

      Vinod K Gaur

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