• Volume 106, Issue 3

      September 1997,   pages  61-179

    • Editorial

      Vinod K Gaur

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    • The Indian granulites

      S K Sen

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    • Evolution of Eastern Ghats granulite belt of India in a compressional tectonic regime and juxtaposition against Iron Ore Craton of Singhbhum by oblique collision — transpression

      S Bhattacharya

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      Three major episodes of folding are evident in the Eastern Ghats terrain. The first and second generation folds are the reclined type; coaxial refolding has produced hook-shaped folds, except in massif-type charnockites in which non-coaxial refolding has produced arrow head folds. The third generation folds are upright with a stretching lineation parallel to subhorizontal fold axes. The sequence of fold stylesreclinedF1and coaxialF2, clearly points to an early compressional regime and attendant progressive simple shear. Significant subhorizontal extension duringF3folding is indicated by stretching lineation parallel to subhorizontal fold axes. In the massif-type charnockites low plunges ofF2folds indicate a flattening type of deformation partitioning in the weakly foliated rocks (magmatic ?). The juxtaposition of EGMB against the Iron Ore Craton of Singhbhum by oblique collision is indicative of a transpressional regime.

    • Mineral reactions and geothermobarometry in a suite of granulite facies rocks from Paderu, Eastern Ghats granulite belt: A reappraisal of the P-T trajectory

      Supratim Pal Sankar Bose

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      High Mg-Al spinel-sapphirine granulites, orthopyroxene-bearing quartzofeldspathic granulites, two pyroxene-bearing mafic granulites and metapelitic gneisses are exposed around Paderu, Eastern Ghats Belt. Geothermobarometry in orthopyroxene-bearing quartzofeldspathic granulites and mafic granulites indicate near isobaric cooling through 90°C from ca. 720°C to 630°C, at 8.0 kbar. However, signatures of ultrahigh temperature metamorphism are recorded from the mineralogy and reaction textures in the high Mg-Al granulites. Mineral reactions deduced in this work, when combined with others described by Lalet al (1987) from the same area and plotted in an appropriate petrogenetic grid in the system FMASO indicate an ACW path comprising a high dT/dP prograde arm reaching Pmax − Tmax = 9.5 kbar, ∼ 1000°C, followed by near-isobaric cooling down to 9 kbar, 900°C and subsequent decompressive reworking.

    • Internally consistent calibrations for geothermobarometry of high-grade Mg-Al rich rocks in the system MgO-Al2O3-SiO2 and their application to sapphirine-spinel granulites of Eastern Ghats, India and Enderby Land, Antarctica

      R K Lal

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      Sixty-three internally consistent geothermobarometers for mineral equilibria involving sapphirine (2:2:1 and 7:9:3), pyrope, cordierite, enstatite, Mg-tschermak orthopyroxene, quartz, spinel and sillimanite have been calibrated in the MAS system. The updated thermodynamic data of these minerals are consistent, within limits of error, with highP-T experiments on several mineral equilibria and calorimetric data. TheP-T conditions of the granulite facies metamorphism, spanning a range of 700 to more than 1000°C and 4 to more than 10 kbar, can be estimated simultaneously from these geothermobarometers andP-T-t trajectories can be deduced from the reaction coronas well preserved in these rocks because of the refractory nature of aluminous phases.

      The geothermobarometers have been applied to sapphirine-spinel granulites of Eastern Ghats and Enderby Land. TheP-T conditions of metamorphism (a-prograde/thermal peak and b-retrograde isothermal/isobaric decompression/cooling) estimated for these granulites are: (1) Eastern Ghats (Visakhapatnam): Paderu- (a) 900°C/8.3kbar, (b-1) 900°C/6.8kbar and (b-2) 740°C/5.4 kbar; Anantgiri- (a) prograde anticlockwise 930°C/6.2 kbar and (b) 870°C/6.8 kbar, 820°C/6.1 kbar; Anakapalle- (b) 845°C/8.5-6.2 kbar; and Araku- (b) 840°C/6.2 kbar to 795°C/5.9 kbar. Enderby Land (Napier complex): Spot height 945, Tula Mts.- (a) 970°C/9.1 ± 0.6 kbar, isobaric cooling (b) 885°C/ 7.75 kbar, isothermal decompression (b) 880°C/6.85 kbar; Mt. Hardy, Tula Mts.- (b) 885°C/6.75 kbar; Mt. Riiser-Larsen, Amundsen bay- (a) 1000°C/7.0 kbar prograde anticlockwise; Mt. Sones- (b) 920°C/ 6.8 kbar; Forefinger Point, SW Enderby Land- (b) 840°C/6.7 kbar, 810°C/6.5 kbar and 775°C/5.0 kbar. The estimatedP-T andP-T-t are mostly consistent with those inferred from the granulites of these areas.

    • Reaction history of sapphirine granulites and a decompressional P-T path in a granulite complex from the Eastern Ghats

      A Mohan P Tripathi Y Motoyoshi

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      The sapphirine granulites from G. Madugula, Eastern Ghats preserve a variety of mineral textures and reactions. Corona and reaction textures are used in conjunction with mineral compositions to construct a sequence of metamorphic reactions describing the mineralogical evolution of sapphirine granulites. An early stage is characterized by the development of sapphirine + quartz, spinel + quartz in textural equilibrium, and possible relicts after osumilite during peak metamorphic conditions. Sapphirine/spinel crystals were later detached from quartz in the form of mineral coronas. During a subsequent sapphirine-cordierite stage, several cordierite forming reactions reflect decreasingP-T conditions. Finally during the late stage, a few samples show evidence of retrogressive hydration. Sapphirine is rather iron-rich (12.8 wt%) and the Mg number in the analysed minerals varies in the order: cordierite > phlogopite > sapphirine > orthopyroxene > spinel > garnet.P-T conditions of metamorphism have been constrained through the application of geothermobarometry and thermodynamically calibrated MAS equilibria.P-T vectors from granulite facies rocks in the G. Madugula area indicate that the rocks experienced substantial decompression (up to 3 kbar) and moderate cooling (150–200°C) subsequent to peak conditions of metamorphism (8.4 kbar, > 900°C). The decompressionalP-T history of sapphirine granulites interpreted from textural features and thermobarometric estimates suggest that they may have eventually resulted from exhumation of thickened crust.

    • Multiple episodes of tectonothermal processes in the Eastern Ghats granulite belt

      Santanu Kumar Bhowmik

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      A suite of rocks from Borra Carbonate Granulite Complex (BCGC) in the Eastern Ghats granulite belt displays superposed structures and overprinted mineral assemblages that reveal multiple episodes of tectonothermal reworking of the complex under granulite facies condition. Five distinct episodes of deformation (D1, D2, D3, D4 and D5) and four phases of metamorphism (M1, M2, M3 and M4) are recorded. The signature of the earliest tectonothermal event, D1 is a gneissic foliation (S1) denned by segregation of peak granulite facies mineral assemblages corresponding to prograde M1 metamorphism. M2 metamorphic overprint represents an episode of near-isobaric cooling of the complex under a static condition. D2 represents an episode of ductile deformation manifested by isoclinal folding (F2) and associated extensional structures, within a broad framework of coaxial bulk deformation. The present study reveals that D2 took place subsequent to M2 - Subsequent deformation, D3, produced F3 folds and also deformations of boudins formed during D2. M3, which is synchronous with F3, represents a near isothermal decompression of the BCGC. This was followed by a weak structural readjustment (D4), producing E-W cross folds. The latter was not, however, associated with any recognizable petrological reworking. In the terminal events, deformation (D5) and mineral reactions (M4) were localized along narrow intersecting shear zones. The latter acted as channelways for carbonic and still later hydrous fluid infiltration. The available thermobarometric data from BCGC and other areas of the Eastern Ghats belt reveal that reworking during M2 and M3 ensued in a thermally perturbed regime. The high thermal regime might also have persisted during carbonic fluid infiltration related to terminal reworking (M4).

    • A comparative study of implicit and explicit initialization for a tropical barotropic model

      Susmita Majumdar D R C Nair R S Saraswat A Chandrasekar

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      The explicit nonlinear normal mode initialization (ENMI) scheme is applied to a tropical barotropic limited area shallow water model in spherical coordinates. The model is formulated by considering potential enstrophy conserving finite difference scheme. It is seen from the results of this study that the ENMI scheme is fully capable of filtering out the spurious gravity wave oscillations. The results are compared with those using an implicit nonlinear normal mode initialization (INMI). The latter scheme gives equally satisfactory results, requiring less computational time than the explicit scheme.

    • A model study on the decay of volcanic aerosol layer and verification with Pinatubo and El Chichon data

      S Ramachandran A Jayaraman B R Sitaram

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      The time evolution of stratospheric aerosol layer formed after a volcanic eruption is studied taking into account the aerosol microphysical processes of growth, coagulation and sedimentation. Using a simple model we could explain the observed evolution of the Pinatubo volcanic layer which decayed in about 3 years. The experimental data obtained by Nd:YAG backscatter lidar over Ahmedabad further supports this finding. The data obtained after the El Chichon volcanic eruption also showed that the El Chichon aerosol layer decayed in about 3 years time. Thus, though the amount of SO2 injected has been higher, in the case of Pinatubo, about two to three times more than El Chichon, it has resulted in the production of larger aerosol particles due to faster growth and coagulation processes, and subsequently a faster removal rate, to give more or less a similar background aerosol amount at the stratosphere in about 3 years time.

    • Cooling age record of domal uplift in the core of the Higher Himalayan Crystallines (HHC), southwest Zanskar, India

      Rasoul B Sorkhabi Arvind K Jain Tetsumaru Itaya Shiro Fukui Nand Lal Ashok Kumar

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      The cooling and tectonic history of the Higher Himalayan Crystallines (HHC) in southwest Zanskar (along the Kishtwar-Padam traverse) is constrained by K-Ar biotite and fission-track (FT) apatite and zircon ages. A total of nine biotite samples yields ages in the range of 14–24 Ma, indicating the post-metamorphic cooling of these rocks through ∼ 300°C in the Miocene. Overall, the ages become younger away from the Zanskar Shear Zone (ZSZ), which marks the basement-cover detachment fault between the HHC and the Tethyan sedimentary zone, towards the core of the HHC. The same pattern is also observed for the FT apatite ages, which record the cooling of the rocks through ∼ 120°C. The apatite ages range from 11 Ma in the vicinity of the ZSZ to 4 Ma at the granitic core of the HHC. This pattern of discordant cooling ages across the HHC in southwest Zanskar reveals an inversion of isotherms due to fast uplift-denudation (hence cooling) of the HHC core, which is, in turn, related to domal uplift within the HHC. The Chisoti granite gneiss is the exposed domal structure along the studied traverse. Cooling history of two granite gneisses at the core of the HHC is also quantified with the help of the biotite, zircon and apatite ages; the time-temperatures thus obtained indicate a rapid pulse of cooling at ∼ 6 Ma, related to accelerated uplift-denudation of the HHC core at this time. Long-term denudation rates of 0.5–0.7 mm/yr are estimated for the high-grade rocks of the Higher Himalaya in southwest Zanskar over the past 4.0–5.5 m.yr.

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