Volume 106, Issue 1-2
June 1997, pages 1-59
pp 1-8 June 1997
Broadband receiver functions abstracted from teleseismicP waveforms recorded by a 3-component Streckeisen seismograph at Hyderabad, have been inverted to constrain the shear velocity structure of the underlying crust. Receiver functions obtained from the Hyderabad records of both shallow and intermediate focus earthquakes lying in different station-event azimuths, show a remarkable coherence in arrival times and shapes of the significant shear wave phases:Ps, PpPs, PsPs/PpSs, indicating horizontal stratification within the limits of resolution. This is also supported by the relatively small observed amplitudes of the tangential component receiver functions which are less than 10% of the corresponding radial component. Results of several hundred inversions of stacked receiver functions from closely clustered events (within 2°), show that the crust beneath the Hyderabad granites has a thickness of 36 ± 1 km, consisting of a 10 km thick top layer in which shear wave velocity is 3.54 ± 0.07 km/sec, underlain by a 26 ± 1 km thick lower crust in which the shear wave velocity varies uniformly with a small gradient of 0.02 km/sec/km. The shear wave velocity at its base is 4.1 ± 0.05 km/sec, just above the moho transition zone which is constrained to be less than 4 km thick, overlying a 4.74 ±0.1 km/sec half space.
pp 9-14 June 1997
The postseismic lithospheric deformation is usually explained as viscoelastic relaxation of the coseismic stresses. In general, for computing the postseismic deformation, the shear modulus (μ) is relaxed, keeping either the bulk modulus (k) or the La’me parameter (A) fixed. It is shown that the two assumptions yield significantly different results. The assumptionk = const. implies that the medium behaves like an elastic body for dilatational changes which can be justified on physical grounds, but such a justification cannot be given in the case of the assumption λ = const.
pp 15-26 June 1997
Wave number discretization method is applied to study the near-field of seismic sources embedded in a cracked elastic solid. Near-field solutions are obtained for horizontal and vertical line forces. Effects of modifications in cracks of focal region on ground motion, in the near-field, are studied numerically for different
An earthquake process is assumed to be going through five major stages. These stages represent continuous accumulation of stress, interconnections between cracks leading to eventual failure and drainage of fluid from cracks after the major shock. Variations in the velocity ratio of waves noted from accelerograms verify the process of preparation of an earthquake.P wave contribution to vertical acceleration is negligible when the source is a vertical line force andS wave contributes only a little to horizontal acceleration when the source is a horizontal line force.
pp 27-32 June 1997
Satellite altimetry can be used to infer subsurface geological structures analogous to gravity anomaly maps generated through ship-borne survey. The Eastern offshore was taken up for analysis using Geosat Exact Repeat Mission (ERM) altimeter data. A methodology is developed to use altimeter data as an aid to offshore hydrocarbon exploration. Processing of altimeter data involves corrections for various atmospheric and oceanographic effects, stacking and averaging of repeat passes, cross-over correction, removal of deeper earth and bathymetric effects, spectral analysis and conversion into free-air gravity anomaly. The final processed results were derived for Eastern offshore in the form of prospecting geoid and gravity anomaly maps and their spectral components. The highs and lows observed in those maps were derived in terms of a number of prominent megastructures e.g., gravity linears, 85°E and 90°E ridges, the Andaman trench complex etc. Satellite-derived gravity profiles along 12°N latitude match well with the existing structures.
pp 33-42 June 1997
Seasonal variation of chlorophyll has been of considerable interest on account of the effect of photosynthesis on ocean-atmosphere carbon exchange. It can be predicted by a dynamical system model of the marine ecosystem coupled with a physical oceanographic model. There is however a major difficulty in the calibration of contemporary ecosystem models on account of sparse data and a large number of model parameters. This paper reports a new approach of macrocalibration in which values of six parameters are determined by examining in detail the seasonal variation of chlorophyll and primary productivity keeping in view the observations of two Indian JGOFS cruises. Both switching and non-switching versions of grazing functions are used in a 7-component FDM model. Detailed simulations are reported for one station (16°N, 65°E). They show the effects of dependence of grazing preference on prey density on the behaviour of the ecosystem. The results of the simulation also provide a partial basis for developing correlations of primary production with chlorophyll and sediment flux.
pp 43-53 June 1997
The Modular Ocean Model (MOM) is perhaps the most versatile ocean model available today for the simulation of the large scale circulation of the ocean. The Topex/Poseidon altimeter which has been operating since September 1992 has been providing sea surface heights (SSH) of the accuracy of 5–10 cms with a repeat cycle of 10 days. We examine in this paper, the SSH in the Indian Ocean obtained from a global simulation of MOM with a resolution of 1° in the longitude, 1/3° in the latitude between 30°S and 30°N and 20 levels in the vertical with climatological windforcing and restoring conditions on temperature and salinity. They are compared with the SSH from the Topex/Poseidon altimeter after suitable filtering in the time domain to remove smaller time and length scales. In addition, unfiltered data from both sources are analysed by estimating the cross-spectral density to find the coherence and crossphase at different frequencies. The agreement between the two, over most of the Northern Indian Ocean, especially the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal is quite good.
pp 55-59 June 1997
A new scheme is put forward based on the shape function concept of finite element approximation to compute regional gravity anomaly. The uniqueness of this approach is that excepting eight (or twelve) discrete gravity measurements coinciding with the eight (or twelve) nodes of a quadratic (or cubic) isoparametric element superimposing the map space, often very large, no other observed gravity data are invoked to compute the regional. Tests on two Bouguer gravity fields, an oil prospect and a rift valley confirmed better resolution by this approach. This technique is straight forward, uses simple mathematics to be easily automated and yields repeatable results.
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