Volume 105, Issue 2
June 1996, pages 101-207
pp 101-117 June 1996
The suitability of the European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasting (ECMWF) operational wind analysis for the period 1980–1991 for studying interannual variability is examined. The changes in the model and the analysis procedure are shown to give rise to a systematic and significant trend in the large scale circulation features. A new method of removing the systematic errors at all levels is presented using multivariate EOF analysis. Objectively detrended analysis of the three-dimensional wind field agrees well with independent Florida State University (FSU) wind analysis at the surface. It is shown that the interannual variations in the detrended surface analysis agree well in amplitude as well as spatial patterns with those of the FSU analysis. Therefore, the detrended analyses at other levels as well are expected to be useful for studies of variability and predictability at interannual time scales. It is demonstrated that this trend in the wind field is due to the shift in the climatologies from the period 1980–1985 to the period 1986–1991.
pp 119-129 June 1996
Stable isotope ratios of oxygen (δ18O) and carbon (δ13C) in tests ofGloborotalia menardii from samples at 25 cm intervals of top 900 cm cores, representing different thicknesses of the Pleistocene, from DSDP Sites 219, 220 and 241 in the northern Indian Ocean have been measured. Based on the δ18O stratigraphy, glacial and interglacial phases during the Pleistocene have been recognized, which are in good agreement with the standard Quaternary planktonic foraminiferal/climatic zones i.e., Ericson zones at these sites, based onG. menardii abundances. The GIA (glacial interglacial amplitude) at Sites 241, 219 and 220 are of the order of 1·2, 1·4 and 1·9‰ respectively. The last glacial and interglacial maxima (18 ka BP and 125 ka BP respectively) could be identified in DSDP Cores 241, and 219 with some precision. ‘Isotopic ages’ could be assigned to the different levels of these core sections based on the correlation of δ18O record from these sites with the SPECMAP record (Imbrieet al 1984). Changes in sediment accumulation rates at different levels of the Pleistocene have been worked out on the basis of changes in oxygen isotopic ratio.
Oscillations in δ13C stratigraphy at Site 241 indicated southwest monsoon induced increase in upwelling and productivity during warmer periods. At Sites 219 and 220, variations in the δ13C record were due to the mixing of bottom water.
pp 131-141 June 1996
A new Rb−Sr age of 779±10 Ma has been obtained for a suite of andesite-daciterhyolite from the Malani Igneous Province of southwestern Rajasthan, dated earlier at 745±10 Ma by Crawford and Compston (1970). The associated basalts may be slightly younger than the felsic volcanics and have a mantle source. The felsic volcanics on the other hand were most probably derived by fractional crystallization of a crustal magma (Srivastavaet al 1989a, b).40Ar−39Ar systematics of three samples viz., a basalt, a dacite and a rhyolite show disturbed age spectra indicating a thermal event around 500–550 Ma ago. This secondary thermal event is quite wide-spread and possibly related to the Pan-African thermo-tectonic episode observed in the Himalayas and south India.
pp 143-155 June 1996
The generation of intraplate earthquakes has been attributed to perturbations in the stress regime, either due to surface and sub-surface loading or strength weakening of the rock mass. The present work aims at estimating the intraplate stresses associated with topography and crustal density inhomogeneities beneath the Deccan Volcanic Province (DVP). A layered crustal model with irregular interfaces of small amplitude has been used for elastostatic stress calculations. The computed principal stress differences show a significant concentration at 5–20 km depths beneath the western side of the region. The maximum magnitude of principal stress difference occurs beneath the Karad at a depth of 10 km with a value of 60 MPa. The deviatoric stress estimates are further superposed on inferred stresses due to the regional plate tectonic forces. These results show principal stress difference concentrations beneath the Koyna, Poona and Karad regions which may thus be more vulnerable to brittle failure. It is also seen that the principal total stress directions point to the strike slip motion at Koyna, similar to that which is associated with the 1967 Koyna earthquake.
pp 157-171 June 1996
Numerous peraluminous and porphyritic granitic bodies and augen gneisses of granitic compositions occur in the nappe sequences of the Lower Himalaya. They are Proterozoic-to-lower Paleozoic in age and have been grouped into the ‘Lesser Himalaya granite belt’. The mode of emplacement and tectonic significance of these granites are as yet uncertain but they are generally considered to be sheet-like intrusions into the surrounding rocks. The small and isolated granite body (the Chur granite) that crops out around the Chur peak in the Himachal Himalaya is one of the more famous of these granites. Several lines of evidence have been adduced to show that the Chur granite has a thrust (the Chur thrust) contact with the underlying metasedimentary sequence (locally called the Jutogh Group). The Chur granite with restricted occurrence at the highest topographic and structural levels represents an erosional remnant of a much larger sub-horizontal thrust sheet. The contact relations between the country rocks and many of the other granite and granitic augen gneisses in the Lesser Himalaya belt are apparently similar to that of the Chur granite suggesting that at least some of them may also represent thrust sheets.
pp 173-189 June 1996
The Moyar, Bhavani and Palghat-Cauvery shear zones have figured prominently in tectonic and metamorphic syntheses in the southern Indian Precambrian shield. Implicit in these studies is the assumption that in the Moyar shear zone in particular, transport has a large strike-slip component, with a dextral displacement of as high as 70 km. Detailed structural investigations in several key sectors and reconnaissance over a large terrane cast doubt on several aspects of the accepted tectonic model. Both the Moyar and the Bhavani shear zones are steeply-dipping thrusts, with the Moyar shear in particular characterized by a predominantly dip-slip transport. Such a movement on a subvertical plane striking EW could in no way rotate the northerly ‘trends’ to EW ones as believed by many worker. Further, the Moyar and Bhavani shear zones are neither as extensive nor as pervasive as envisaged. Veering of the ‘trends’ in southern Karnataka, northern Tamil Nadu and northern Kerala is an inherent feature of the superposed fold systems here. Isoclinal folds with axial planes of diverse attitudes, overprinted by upright folds of varying tightness, have resulted in this change in ‘trend’.
pp 191-195 June 1996 Rapid Communication
We present some preliminary results from a multi-layer soil temperature finite-difference model using the data set obtained during the pilot experiment on land surface processes at Anand. We hope that the present results will prove useful during the final field experiments scheduled for the coming monsoon season.
pp 197-206 June 1996 Rapid Communication
A physical model of thrust faulting has been constructed out of elastic foam rubber. The thrust wedge has an angle of 25°., and is forced from the back by a steel-hydraulic system of effectively infinite rigidity, analogous to the force exerted by tectonic plates. The observed particle motions show many features different from those commonly assumed in dislocation models of subduction thrusts. Interface waves associated with fault opening propagate along the thrust plane (from the back) and temporarily decouple the overlying hanging wall plate from the foot wall. Because of the geometry of the reflecting fault boundary, and the free surface (also reflecting), energy is trapped in the wedge and, as a consequence, the particle motions and energy in the hanging wall are much greater than in the foot wall. The interface wave and the energy trapped in the upper plate propagate up the wedge and break out at the toe of the thrust with a spectacular increase in motions.
If this model is analogous to the real earth, it suggests that some common assumptions in dislocation modeling may be incorrect. The model may explain apparent missing energy radiated to teleseismic distances, the anomalously low number of empirical Green’s functions needed to model teleseismicp waves, and the evidence of intense shaking on the hanging wall toe of some thrust fault earthquakes. The results support the suggestion that interface waves may explain the lack of high frictional heat generation from thrust faults, and may explain the ‘paradox of large overthrusts’. The results also suggest that the seismic hazard of great subduction thrust earthquakes and continental shallow angle thrust faults might in some cases be seriously underestimated.
pp 207-207 June 1996 Erratum