Volume 104, Issue 2
June 1995, pages 157-326
pp 157-187 June 1995
This paper sets out the motivation for carrying out an observational experiment on the atmospheric boundary layer along the monsoon trough, in the light of earlier studies of the atmospheric boundary layer in India and elsewhere, and the significant role that the trough has been shown to play as a key semi-permanent feature of the southwest monsoon. The scientific objectives of the experiment are set out, and its planning and execution are touched upon. Some of the gains resulting from the experiment are mentioned, and lessons for the future about the conduct of such programmes are drawn.
pp 189-220 June 1995
In the present paper a review of meteorological observations conducted by India Meteorological Department during MONTBLEX-90, including intensive observation periods, has been made. Also, an exhaustive weather summary, discussing the special weather features that occurred during the MONTBLEX observational period, is presented. The paper has been prepared to provide a ready reference of the synoptic features to research workers who are utilizing MONTBLEX data for their studies.
pp 221-248 June 1995
Tower platforms, with instrumentation at six levels above the surface to a height of 30 m, were used to record various atmospheric parameters in the surface layer. Sensors for measuring both mean and fluctuating quantities were used, with the majority of them indigenously built. Soil temperature sensors up to a depth of 30 cm from the surface were among the variables connected to the mean data logger. A PC-based data acquisition system built at the Centre for Atmospheric Sciences, IISc, was used to acquire the data from fast response sensors. This paper reports the various components of a typical MONTBLEX tower observatory and describes the actual experiments carried out in the surface layer at four sites over the monsoon trough region as a part of the MONTBLEX programme. It also describes and discusses several checks made on randomly selected tower data sets acquired during the experiment. Checks made include visual inspection of time traces from various sensors, comparative plots of sensors measuring the same variable, wind and temperature profile plots, calculation of roughness lengths, statistical and stability parameters, diurnal variation of stability parameters, and plots of probability density and energy spectrum for the different sensors. Results from these checks are found to be very encouraging and reveal the potential for further detailed analysis to understand more about surface layer characteristics.
pp 249-256 June 1995
A co-ordinated project Monsoon Trough Boundary Layer Experiment (MONTBLEX) to study the atmospheric boundary layer in the monsoon trough region was taken up during 1990. 30-m high instrumented towers were erected at Kharagpur, Banaras, Delhi and Jodhpur. Sophisticated equipment like Doppler sodar and Kytoon were used at Kharagpur. Sodars were exposed at Calcutta, Delhi and Jodhpur. ORVSagarkanya cruises were arranged in the Bay of Bengal. The India Meteorological Department set up new surface and radiation observatories and released special radio-sonde, pilot balloons. Using the above mentioned platforms, data were collected during April - September 1990 and after proper editing the entire data were archived at the Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology, Pune. The DST-MONTBLEX data bank was started at IITM on 25th November 1991. The paper contains the details of this data.
pp 257-271 June 1995
It is observed that the daily mean temperature of the soil is linear with depth and the variation of the temperature is sinusoidal with a period of a day. Based on these observations the one-dimensional heat conduction equation for the soil can be solved which gives the amplitude and phase variation of the temperature wave with depth. Given the temperature data at three levels below the surface, the amplitude and phase variation and hence the surface temperature variation over the day are estimated. The daily mean temperature of the surface is estimated from linear extrapolation of the daily means at the three levels below the surface. Estimated values of soil thermal diffusivity show a subtantial change after sudden and heavy rains.
pp 273-287 June 1995
In the estimation of momentum fluxes over land surfaces by the bulk aerodynamic method, no unique value of the drag coefficient (CD) is found in the literature. The drag coefficient is generally estimated from special observations at different parts of the world. In this study an attempt is made to estimate drag coefficient over the western desert sector of India using data sets of Monsoon Trough Boundary Layer Experiment (MONTBLEX) during the summer monsoon season of 1990. For this purpose, the fast and slow response data sets obtained simultaneously from a 30 m high micro-meteorological tower at Jodhpur are used. All the observations used in this study are confined to a wind speed regime of 2.5–9.0 ms−1.
A comparison of momentum fluxes computed by eddy correlation (direct estimation) with profile and bulk aerodynamic (CD = 3.9 × 10−3, Garratt, 1977) methods revealed that though the nature of variation of the fluxes by all these methods is almost similar, both the indirect methods give an under-estimated value of the fluxes. The drag coefficient is estimated as a function of wind speed and surface stability by a multiple regression approach. An average value of the estimated drag coefficient is found to be of the order of 5.43 × 10−3. The estimated value ofCD is validated with a set of independent observations and found to be quite satisfactory. The recomputed momentum fluxes by bulk aerodynamic method using the estimated drag coefficient are in close agreement with the directly estimated fluxes.
pp 289-302 June 1995
As a part of the MONTBLEX-90 observational programme, Kytoon and Doppler sodar observations were taken at Kharagpur. These data are analysed to study the turbulent characteristics of the atmospheric boundary layer in terms of stability, temperature structure function (CT2) and velocity structure function (Cv2).CT2follows aZ−4/3 law on most of the days, whereas the variation ofCV2is not systematic.CV2andCT2values are found to vary between 10−5−10−1 m4/3s−2 and 10−5−10−2°C2 m−2/3 respectively.
pp 303-315 June 1995
Characteristic wavelengths for theu andv components of wind are studied using the Monsoon Trough Boundary Layer Experiment (MONTBLEX) data obtained from a Doppler Sonic Detection and Ranging System (sodar) over the land station Kharagpur (near sea-coast). The principal stability parameter (Zi/Lo) is used to infer the behaviour of the non-dimensional form of the characteristic wavelength (LH) within the entire stability range occurring during the sounding periods. This is compared with GATE - 1974 results (over the sea surface) published by Fitzjarrald (1978).
pp 317-326 June 1995
Doppler sodar wind data for the boundary layer over Kharagpur obtained during MONTBLEX-1990 at a height interval of 30 m from surface up to 1500 m have been analysed for the periods when intense synoptic scale disturbances from north Bay of Bengal moved along the eastern end of the monsoon trough. The variation in the vertical wind profile in the lower boundary layer over Kharagpur during the passage of synoptic scale disturbances has been discussed in the paper. The analysis indicates that the mean winds over Kharagpur veered with height in the lower boundary layer near the surface suggesting divergence over Kharagpur when the system lay south/southwest of the station. No such veering has been noticed when the centre of the system lay very close to the station.