• Volume 103, Issue 4

      December 1994,   pages  1-517

    • A debt of gratitude

      Vinod K Gaur

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    • Singular spectral analysis of homogeneous Indian monsoon (HIM) rainfall

      G K Rangarajan

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      Homogeneous Indian Monsoon region rainfall for the epoch 1871–1990 has been analysed using Singular Spectral Analysis. It is shown that the HIM time series is simple in structure with only the annual oscillation and its first two harmonics accounting for almost the entire variability. Longer period oscillations related to lunar tidal forcing, solar activity and quasibiennial variation are conspicuously absent. It is also shown that the singular spectral decomposition is closely similar to complex demodulation and thus provides variations in the signals which evolve only slowly with time. As the rainfall series is marked by several jerky changes, predictability of HIM rainfall through the principal components derived from SSA appears impossible.

    • Incipient vortex size-dependent evolution of tropical disturbances Part II — Some governing processes

      R Koteswar Rao P Goswami

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      Recently it was shown (Goswami and Rao 1993) that the process of intensification of tropical disturbances depends on the size of the incipient vortex in a rather nonlinear fashion. Among vortices of size ranging from 100 to 450 km (radius), embedded in the same large scale condition, it is the vortex with size about 250 km that intensifies to the most severe system. These results also showed a strong correspondence between the maximum intensity reached and the initial (3–6 hour) low level convergence field near the centre. The purpose of the present work is to identify the process(es) responsible for this scale selective intensification of tropical disturbances. It is proposed that diffusion is likely to play a crucial role in bringing about this selective intensification. In the present work a series of experiments with an axisymmetric numerical model of tropical cyclone (Wada’s model) is carried out to determine the relative roles of horizontal diffusion of momentum, moisture, heat and vertical diffusion. The results show that diffusion significantly affects the process of intensification and scale selection. While moderate diffusion does not alter the magnitude of intensification significantly, the scale selection is quite sensitive to the strength of diffusion. Interestingly, these diffusion processes, of momentum, moisture, heat and vertical do not affect the scale selection in the same fashion. The scale selection process turns out to be a result of a combined effect of these diffusion processes. However, no single diffusion process alone can give rise to a sharp selection of scale at the size of 250 km.

    • Spectral analysis of monsoonal global energy and enstrophy and their nonlinear exchanges in the zonal wavenumber domain

      S S Desai S K Mishra

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      Vertical distributions of various components of the tropospheric global rotational kinetic energy, enstrophy and available potential energy during July 1979, and the contributions to these from different zonal wave categories were studied. Representative levels in the lower and upper troposphere for the stationary and transient energetics were identified on the basis of different components of energy and enstrophy. The eddy energy and enstrophy contained in different zonal scale components in the lower and upper troposphere were studied to find out the preferred scales for stationary and transient monsoonal motion in the two atmospheric layers. The role of different zonal wave categories in the nonlinear exchanges of energy and enstrophy arising due to stationary-stationary, transient-transient, stationary-transient and observed flow interactions was examined. Stationary and transient global spectra of the aforesaid dynamical variables in terms of the zonal wavenumber(m) with triangular truncation atm = 42 were utilized for this purpose.

      It was found from the global average kinetic energy in lower and upper troposphere that the global stationary and transient motions were comparable in the lower troposphere while in the upper troposphere stationary motion dominated over the transient motion. The computed zonal and eddy energy confirmed that the stationary motion was predominantly zonal while the transient motion was dominated by eddies. From the time mean nonlinear interaction of kinetic energy (enstrophy) of observed flow it was seen that the long and short waves as well as the zonal flow gained kinetic energy (enstrophy) from medium waves due to nonlinear interactions. The transfer of available potential energy due to nonlinear interaction was down the scale except for short waves in the upper troposphere. The stationary-transient interaction was found to be an important element of the spatial-temporal varying atmospheric flow.

    • Some aspects on the variations in depositional flux of excess Thorium-230 in the Central Indian basin during Late Quaternary

      N P Sukumaran

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      Examined in this paper is the tentative history of the depositional flux of230Thxs (the unsupported fraction of230Th scavenged from the overlying water column), for the Late Quaternary period from a sediment core of the Central Indian Basin (CIB). The measured depositional flux of230Thxs is found substantially higher than that of the possible theoretical flux from the overlying water column. Historical records, reconstructed from the230Thxs chronology suggests that the depositional flux has varied considerably with time, reflecting an enhanced scavenging during the Holocene and the preceding interglacial periods whereas, comparatively lower flux than the predicted one occurred during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) period. The average ratio of the measured depositional flux to that of the predicted flux from the overlying water column, indicates that the core site acts as a sink for230Thxs and based on the existence of bottom current activity; the230Thxs could be the result of focusing of younger sediments. The depositional index (Di) has also been calculated to quantify the extent of lateral supply throughout the core with time. The estimated (Di) suggests that bottom focusing and feeble deposition and/or winnowing processes had occurred and that the former was most prevalent during the Holocene and the preceding interglacials, whereas the latter was observed at the LGM period.

    • Pleistocene oceanographie changes indicated by deep sea benthic foraminifera in the northern Indian Ocean

      Ajai K Rai M S Srinivasan

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      An attempt has been made to understand the Pleistocene bottom water history in response to the paleoclimatic changes in the northern Indian Ocean employing quantitative analyses of deep sea benthic foraminifera at the DSDP sites 219 and 238. Among the 150 benthic foraminifera recorded a few species show dominance with changing percent frequencies during most of the sequence. The dominant benthic foraminiferal assemblages suggest that most of the Pleistocene bottom waters at site 219 and Early Pleistocene bottom waters at site 238 are of North Indian Deep Water (NIDW) origin. However, Late Pleistocene assemblage at site 238 appears to be closely associated with a water mass intermediate between North Indian Deep Water (NIDW) and Antarctic Bottom Water (AABW).

      Uvigerina proboscidea is the most dominant benthic foraminiferal species present during the Pleistocene at both the sites. A marked increase in the relative abundance ofU. proboscidea along with less diverse and equitable fauna during Early Pleistocene suggests a relative cooling, an intensified oceanic circulation and upwelling of nutrient rich bottom waters resulting in high surface productivity. At the same time, low sediment accumulation rate during Early Pleistocene reveals increased winnowing of the sediments possibly due to more corrosive and cold bottom waters. The Late Pleistocene in general, is marked by relatively warm and stable bottom waters as reflected by low abundance ofU. proboscidea and more diverse and equitable benthic fauna.

      The lower depth range for the occurrence ofBulimina aculeate in the Indian Ocean is around 2300 m, similar to that of many other areas.B. aculeata also shows marked increase in its abundance near the Pliocene/Pleistocene boundary while a sudden decrease in the relative abundance ofStilostomella lepidula occurs close to the Early/Late Pleistocene boundary.

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