Volume 103, Issue 1
March 1994, pages 1-97
pp 1-15 March 1994
We have theoretically considered the problem of interpretation of nutrient profiles in the upper ocean (100–2000m). We compare the experimental depth profiles of nonconservative tracers, both stable and radioactive, with solutions of one-dimensional steady state transport equations of increasing complexity including situations not encountered in the real oceans. Apart from gaining insight into the nutrient transport processes, this analysis is useful in offering a way to obtain operational estimates of depth dependent/independent eddy diffusivity and dissolution fluxes in the ocean. These parameters are essential for estimating new production, total production and burial of carbon in the sediments.
pp 17-26 March 1994
A detailed analysis of bathymetry and magnetic data of Visakhapatnam-Paradip shelf, east coast of India revealed three major structural lineaments over the shelf/slope of the area. Models derived from the anomalies associated with the trends indicate that trend A represents horst and graben type continental basement while trend B is due to a series of dyke intrusions. Trend C off Chilka lake forms the northward extension of 85°E lineation from deep sea Bengal Fan.
A two stage evolution of the eastern continental margin of India has been inferred from the study of this part of the margin, viz., the rift stage evidenced by dyke intrusions of reverse polarity located within the inner part of the shelf and post-rift stage characterized by vertical tectonics in the form of a horst and graben type continental basement. The hotspot related aseismic 85°E ridge further complicated the tectonics of this part of the area.
pp 27-36 March 1994
In this paper the effect of transient uplift/erosion on the relationship between surface heat flow and heat generation for truncated exponential model of radiogenic heat source distribution and basal asthenospheric convection is investigated. Asthenospheric convection is described by a parameterized model, in the form of a nonlinear heat flux boundary condition involving basal temperature and mantle internal temperature. This boundary condition has been linearized and the analytical solution of the problem is obtained by the eigenvalue-eigenfunction expansion method. The analytical solution is used to derive the nature of surface heat flow and heat generation relationship. The results show that the linear relationship is maintained during the uplift/erosion and the estimates of the slope of the linear relationship are different from the depth scale of the exponential model and increase with the rate of uplift/erosion. The estimates of the reduced heat flow also increase with the rate of uplift/erosion. These results would find applications in the interpretation of linear surface heat flow and heat generation relationship which is observed in different tectonic environment.
pp 37-46 March 1994
The Main Central Thrust (MCT) and the Main Boundary Thrust (MBT) are the two major thrusts in Kumaun, the MCT forming the boundary between highly sheared, deformed and mylonitized rocks of the Great Himalayan Central Crystallines and the Lesser Himalayan metasedimentaries. While in the Central Crystallines four-folding episodes are observed of which two are of the Precambrian age, the Lesser Himalayan rocks show only two phases of folding. MCT has its own distinctive structural history and the crystalline mass comprises an integral part of peninsular India.
pp 47-55 March 1994
Variation of temperature and salinity in the lower 22 km stretch of the Gautami-Godavari estuary are reported during four different seasons; hot-weather, south-west monsoon, post-monsoon and winter seasons. The seasonal variation in temperature is small, with a high of about 30°C during hot-weather season and a low of about 26°C during winter season. Unlike temperatures, the salinities in the estuary show large seasonal fluctuations. During south-west monsoon surface salinities were low (0 to 8‰) due to high fresh water run off into the estuary. During hot-weather season surface salinities of 25 to 30‰ were observed due to negligible fresh water run off.
pp 57-82 March 1994
Magnesium, potassium and calcium isotope compositions in terrestrial samples and refractory phases from primitive meteorites are determined using an ion microprobe. A thorough investigation of the different instrument parameters is carried out to ensure that conditions necessary for high mass resolution and high precision isotopic studies are adequately satisfied. The instrument can be tuned to achieve mass resolution (M/ΔM) of up to 10,000 (M≤60); it has a very good dynamic stability (ΔB/B≤10 ppm over durations of ≤40 minutes) and the counting system has an effective dead-time of ≤25 nsec and a dynamic background of ≤0·01 c/s. Reproducibility and precision of isotopic measurements are checked by analyzing magnesium and titanium isotopic compositions in terrestrial standards and isotopically doped silicate glasses. A precision of 2‰ (2σm) was achieved during magnesium isotopic analysis in samples with low Mg content (200 ppm). Results from studies of magnesium and potassium isotopic compositions in several Ca−Al-rich refractory inclusions (CAIs) from the primitive meteorites Efremovka and Grosnaja, representing some of the early solar system objects, are presented. The well-behaved Mg−Al isotopic systematics confirm the pristine nature of the Efremovka CAIs inferred earlier from petrographic and trace element studies. The Grosnaja CAIs that have experienced secondary alterations show disturbed magnesium isotopic systematics. Observation of excess26Mg in several of the analyzed CAIs confirms the presence of the now extinct26Al (t1/2=7×105 years) in the solar nebula at the time of CAI formation. Our data also suggest a relatively uniform distribution of26Al in the solar nebula. Several Efremovka CAIs with excess26Mg also have excess41K resulting from the decay of41Ca (t1/2≃105 years). This observation constrains the time interval between cessation of nucleosynthetic input to the solar nebula and the formation of some of the first solar system solids (CAIs) to less than a million years.
pp 83-97 March 1994
Thermotectonic history of the Trans-Himalayan Ladakh Batholith in the Kargil area, N. W. India, is inferred from new age data obtained here in conjunction with previously published ages. Fission-track (FT) ages on apatite fall around 20±2 Ma recording cooling through temperatures of ∼100°C and indicating an unroofing of 4 km of the Ladakh Range since the Early Miocene. Coexisting apatite and zircon FT ages from two samples in Kargil show the rocks to have cooled at an average rate of 5–6°C/Ma in the past 40 Ma. Zircon FT ages together with mica K−Ar cooling ages from the Ladakh Batholith cluster around 40–50 Ma, probably indicating an Eocene phase of uplift and erosion that affected the bulk of the batholith after the continental collision of India with the Ladakh arc at 55 Ma. Components of the granitoids in Upper Eocene-Lower Oligocene sediments of the Indus Molasse in Ladakh supports this idea. Three hornblende K−Ar ages of 90 Ma, 55 Ma, and 35 Ma are also reported; these distinctly different ages probably reflect cooling through 500–550°C of three phases of I-type plutonism in Ladakh also evidenced by other available radiometric data: 102 Ma (mid-Cretaceous), 60 Ma (Palaeocene), and 40 Ma (Late Eocene); the last phase being localised sheet injections. The geodynamic implications of the age data for the India-Asia collision are discussed.