Volume 102, Issue 4
December 1993, pages 507-585
pp 507-519 December 1993
The impact of moisture anomalies on the circulation of the south-west Indian monsoon has been studied with a general circulation model. Newtonian relaxation is adopted to subject the model atmosphere under sustained moisture anomalies. The impact of negative anomalies of moisture was seen as a divergent circulation anomaly, while the positive anomaly was a stronger convergent anomaly. Although the humidity fields display a resilient behaviour, and relax back to normal patterns 1–2 days after the forcing terms in humidity are withdrawn, the circulation anomalies created by the moisture variation keeps growing. A feedback between positive moisture anomalies and low level convergence exists, which is terminated in the absence of external forcings.
pp 521-536 December 1993
The variational technique of data assimilation using adjoint equations has been illustrated using a nonlinear oceanographic shallow water model. The technique consists of minimizing a cost function representing the misfit between the model and the data subject to the model equations acting as constraints. The problem has been transformed into an unconstrained one by the use of Lagrange multipliers. Particular emphasis has been laid on finite difference formulation of the algorithm. Several numerical experiments have been conducted using simulated data obtained from a control run of the model. Implications of this technique for assimilating asynoptic satellite altimeter data into ocean models have been discussed.
pp 537-545 December 1993
Refined geothermobarometers are presented for cordierite granulites. The refinement was achieved by using internally consistent thermodynamic datasets.
Improved calibrations have been demonstrated for a number of granulite areas. Also, the usefulness of the improved geobarometer in identifying decompression paths has been discussed.
pp 547-565 December 1993
The Archaean Peninsular Gneiss of southern India is considered by a number of workers to be the basement upon which the Dharwar supracrustal rocks were deposited. However, the Peninsular Gneiss in its present state is a composite gneiss formed by synkinematic migmatization during successive episodes of folding (DhF1, DhF1a and DhF2) that affected the Dharwar supracrustal rocks. An even earlier phase of migmatization and deformation (DhF*) is evident from relict fabrics in small enclaves of gneissic tonalites and amphibolites within the Peninsular Gneiss. We consider these enclaves to represent the original basement for the Dharwar supracrustal rocks. Tonalitic pebbles in conglomerates of the Dharwar Supergroup confirm the inference that the supracrustal rocks were deposited on a gneissic basement.
Whole rock Rb-Sr ages of gneisses showing only the DhF1 structures fall in the range of 3100–3200 Ma. Where the later deformation (DhF2) has been associated with considerable recrystallization, the Rb-Sr ages are between 2500 Ma and 2700 Ma. Significantly, a new Rb-Sr analysis of tonalitic gneiss pebbles in the Kaldurga conglomerate of the Dharwar sequence is consistent with an age of ∼2500 Ma and not that of 3300 Ma reported earlier by Venkatasubramanian and Narayanaswamy (1974). Pb-Pb ages based on direct evaporation of detrital zircon grains from the metasedimentary rocks of the Dharwar sequence fall into two groups, 3300–3100 Ma, and 2800–3000 Ma. Stratigraphic, structural, textural and geochronologic data, therefore, indicate that the Peninsular Gneiss of the Dharwar craton evolved over a protracted period of time ranging from > 3300 Ma to 2500 Ma.
pp 567-585 December 1993
The middle to late Archaean rocks of Kola and Karelia in the eastern Baltic shield consist of the Infracomplex overlain by the Saamian complex, and the Lopian greenstone belts. The Infracomplex which forms the basement is a polymigmatite, parts of which are at least 3100 Ma old. The Saamian in the central Belomorian region comprises granite gneiss, amphibolite, garnet-kyanite gneiss and high alumina gneisses which belong to the Keret, Hetolombina and Chupa suites. The Lopian greenstone belts ranging in age from 3000 to 2700 Ma are composed of peridotitic, pyroxenitic and basaltic komatiites, tholeiitic basalts, andesites, dacites and rhyolites, together with tuffs, graywackes and iron formations. Whereas there is a dominance of volcanic over sedimentary rocks in the greenstone belts of the Baltic shield, a significant proportion of detrital and chemogenic sedimentary rocks characterizes the Dharwar succession of approximately the same time span in the southern Indian shield. Association of mature and immature detrital sedimentary rocks with bimodal volcanic assemblages points to a back-arc setting for the Dharwar belts. This contrasts with the association of immature sediments with calc-alkaline volcanic rocks in the greenstone belts of the eastern Baltic shield, suggesting an island arc environment there.