• Volume 102, Issue 3

      September 1993,   pages  415-505

    • Cosmic ray produced nitrogen in extra terrestrial matter

      K J Mathew S V S Murty

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      Production rates of15N by both solar cosmic rays (SCR) and galactic cosmic rays (GCR) have been calculated for moon, as well as meteorites of various sizes. Our production rates of15N which considered both the reaction channels16O(p, pn)15O and16O(p, 2p)15N separately are about 30% higher than those by Reedy (1981) who considered only the channel16O(p, pn)15O and used an empirical scaling factor to estimate the contribution from16O(p, 2p)15N. Production ratio15N21 Ne is composition dependent and hence is different for various silicate minerals. Additionally the ratio15N/21Ne is very sensitive to the energy spectrum of the cosmic rays. This fact can be made use of in characterizing as well as in decoupling the SCR and GCR effects in extraterrestrial samples.

    • Incipient vortex size-dependent evolution of tropical disturbances Part I — Results from a numerical experiment

      P Goswami R Koteswar Rao

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      The present work is concerned with the study of intensification of tropical disturbances with a view to improve prediction and early warning. The tropical disturbances are known to come in sizes (radii) ranging from 100–400 kms. Since the vortices of different sizes give rise to different initial convergence fields and since the subsequent development of the tropical depressions is very sensitive to the initial convergence fields, we argue that the size of the incipient vortex is likely to be an important factor in determining the subsequent development of a tropical disturbance.

      We have examined the above hypothesis using an axisymmetric model of tropical cyclone. The incipient vortex is introduced by prescribing an initial temperature perturbation with wind in gradient balance. The results show a fairly sharp selection of scale at about 250 km radius. This implies that out of a number of initial disturbances of varying sizes and embedded in the same large scale environment, it is the vortex with about 250 km radius size that will develop to the most severe system. The sensitivity of this selective intensification at this incipient vortex radius to initial perturbation field and the mean thermodynamic state is investigated. Finally, the importance of such a selective scale of intensification for prediction, tracking and early warning of tropical cyclones is emphasized.

    • Numerical simulation of upwelling off Visakhapatnam on east coast of India during pre-monsoon months

      A D Rao P C Sinha S K Dube S Chamarthi

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      A three-dimensional numerical model of the type described by Johns and coworkers (1992), hereafter referred to as model (J), is applied to study the response of a coastal ocean to pure wind-stress forcing. Conservation equations are applied for mass, momentum, temperature, salinity and turbulence energy. Experiments are performed to investigate the evolution of the thermal structure and upwelling processes along the east coast of India during the pre-monsoon season. A comparison between the computed results and the limited observations on the thermal structure and alongshore currents over the inner-shelf off Visakhapatnam is presented.

    • Crustal density model across West Bengal basin, India: An integrated interpretation of seismic and gravity data

      P R Reddy N Venkateswarlu A S S S R S Prasad P Koteswara Rao

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      An integrated interpretation of the seismic refraction and wide-angle reflection data, geological and structural details, bore-hole litholog information and gravity particulars along Beliator-Burdwan-Bangaon deep seismic sounding (DSS) profile in West Bengal basin has helped in getting a crustal density model. This model is consistent with all available surface and bore-hole geophysical data that can realistically explain the trend, shape and magnitude of gravity data across the West Bengal basin.

      The present exercise pointed out that the thick sedimentary column (with thickening trend towards east), conspicuous lateral variations in the Moho configuration (with a prominent 40 km wide domal feature covering the eastern part of the stable shelf and trie western segment of the deep basinal part) coupled with the structural trends in the basement, mid and lower crustal columns have combinedly contributed to the gravity effect and as such the prominent lateral variations in the Bouguer gravity anomalies could be mainly attributed to regionally extending causative factors.

      The synthesis clearly points out the need to take proper care in selecting the density values as direct conversion of velocities into densities, adapting well-known conversion formulae, does not always hold good specially in the eastern part of the West Bengal basin where a huge thickness of sediments (velocities ranging between 4 to 5 km/sec) of high density 2.6 to 2.8 g/cm3 are sandwiched between younger sediments and the crystalline basement.

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