Volume 101, Issue 2
June 1992, pages 109-199
pp 109-122 June 1992
In the optimum interpolation scheme, the weights for the observations are computed by solving a set of linear equations for every grid point. As the number of observations increases particularly over data-rich regions, the matrix dimension increases and the computer time required to solve these equations to determine weights increases considerably. In order to reduce the computer time for computing the weights, Tanguay and Robert suggested schemes in which the gaussian function representing the autocorrelation function has been approximated by a second-order and also by a fourth-order Taylor series expansion. This resulted in the solution of matrices of order 4 or 9 respectively to obtain weighting functions irrespective of the number of observations used in the analysis. In the present study, the analyses of mean sea level pressure and geopotential height at 700 mbar level have been carried out for five days using the above two schemes and the regular OI scheme. The analyses are found to be similar in all the three cases suggesting that a lot of computer time could be saved without sacrificing the analysis accuracy by using the modified scheme in which the second-order approximation is utilized.
pp 123-152 June 1992
The objective of this study was two-fold: the first to investigate the role of moist convection and nongeostrophic effects on the growth of the monsoon depressions using a linearized multi-level moist primitive equation (PE) model and quasi-geostrophic (QG) model with only vertical shear. The second was to study the nonlinear evolution, growth, movement and detailed energetics of the monsoon depressions using a nonlinear moist global spectral model.
Our linear studies using both models revealed lower as well as upper tropospheric growing modes. For the lower tropospheric modes the shorter scales were found to grow faster. While the PE model showed faster growth rate for shorter scales, as compared to longer scales, the QG model showed less tendency for scale selection. The shorter scales in PE model had phase speeds ranging from 4 to — 1 ms−1 and in QG model from 8 to — 4 ms−1. The nongeostrophic effects were found to be, in general, important. One of the lower tropospheric modes with wavelength 2500 km was found to have many features similar to the observed monsoon depression of the Bay of Bengal.
In the upper troposphere the PE model showed much faster growth rates compared to the QG model. Also the fastest growing mode with a doubling time of 2.5 days had a scale of 6000 km. This was shorter than the scale predicted in the QG model. This mode had many characteristics similar to the observed features of the monsoon upper tropospheric easterly waves.
Using a nonlinear global spectral model, we simulated the monsoon depression around 21°N starting from an antisymmetric heating distribution (with respect to the equator) and with a specific vertical structure with and without basic flows. The model was integrated for a period of five days incorporating a simple form of cumulus heating. The simulated model disturbance showed a pronounced growth and a westward movement in the presence of cumulus heating. The detailed energetics calculations revealed that the baroclinic energy exchange is the primary energy exchange process and cumulus heating is the driving force for the generation of available potential energy.
pp 153-176 June 1992
The stability of a simple coupled ocean-atmosphere system similar to the one studied by Hirst with general ocean thermodynamics is investigated in which the atmospheric heating is determined by sea surface temperature anomalies as well as the convergence feedback (low level moisture convergence by the waves themselves). It is shown that the unstable coupled mode found by Hirst (UH mode) is profoundly modified by the convergence feedback. The feedback increases the unstable range of the UH mode and can increase its growth rate several folds. The maximally growing UH mode can become westward propagating for certain strength of convergence feedback. If the convergence feedback strength exceeds a critical value, several new unstable intraseasonal modes are also introduced. These modes are basically ‘advective’ modes. For relatively weak strengths of the convergence feedback the growth rates of these modes are smaller than that of the UH mode. As the atmosphere approaches ‘moist neutral’ state, the growth rates of these modes could become comparable or even larger than that of the UH mode. It is argued that these results explain why the El Nino and Southern Oscillation (ENSO) signal is clear in the eastern Pacific but not so in the western Pacific and they may also explain some of the differences between individual ENSO events. Our results also explain the aperiodic behaviour of some coupled numerical models. Importance of this process in explaining the observed aperiodicity of the ENSO phenomenon is indicated.
pp 177-189 June 1992
Current meter records from two depths, approximately 1000 and 3000 m, at three moorings in the deep mid-Arabian Sea were used to study tidal components. Tidal ellipses for the semi-diurnal (M2, S2 and K2) and the diurnal (K1, and P1) tidal constituents have been determined using the currents recorded at hourly intervals during May 1986–May 1987. The clockwise rotating M2 tidal currents were the strongest. The maximum horizontal velocities due to M2,2 and K1 tides were 2.2 cm/s, l.0cm/s and 0.89 cm/s respectively. The amplitudes of the other two constituents (P1, and K2) were much smaller. The barotropic M2 ellipses have been estimated by averaging the M2 tidal currents at the upper and lower levels. Although the amplitudes of computed ellipses are lower than those that have been predicted using numerical models of global tidal model, their orientations are the same.
pp 191-199 June 1992
The compositions of orthopyroxene, associated with magnetite and quartz in the system FeO-MgO-MnO-SiO2 were determined experimentally at temperatures of 700, 750, 800°C and pressures ranging between 3 and 5 kbar. On the basis of data obtained the value of the Guggenheim parameter of orthopyroxene solid solution was calculated: AFe. Mn = 2400 ±500 cal. For rocks rich in MnO, a modified version of orthopyroxene-magnetite-quartz oxygen barometer is suggested.
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