• Volume 100, Issue 3

      September 1991,   pages  219-307

    • Atmospheric surface layer characteristics with MONTBLEX data

      P Bandyopadhyay S Chowdhury G Bandyopadhyay

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      Data obtained from the 30m high MONTBLEX tower installed at the Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur are described. Data on wind speed and direction, temperature and humidity were recorded during the first week of July 1989 at six levels on the tower. They indicate some of the atmospheric surface layer characteristics. Using two levels of tower data involving wind speed and temperature a profile method was used for computing the surface fluxes of heat and momentum. A method for calculating the surface roughness length using the data was also used to obtain the vertical windspeed profile. The computed wind profile was compared with observations, while the surface roughness length was compared with values obtained by a least square fit. The computed surface fluxes were compared with theoretical values obtained by an energy budget method which uses only wind data at one level. The agreement was reasonably good.

    • Cumulus convection and lateral boundary conditions in a limited area model

      E N Rajagopal S S Singh

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      Three versions of Kuo's cumulus parameterization have been tested in a limited area model to investigate their comparative performances. Results show that the version of Anthes produces better forecasts than those produced by other versions. To identify a suitable scheme of lateral boundary conditions for the limited area model, impact of two time-invariant and two time-dependent boundary conditions have been examined. The forecasts suggest that the time-dependent tendency modification scheme, based on large-scale tendencies obtained from observed data, is a better boundary scheme for the model. Furthermore, the forecast produced with the revised version of the model incorporating improved versions of Kuo's scheme and lateral boundary conditions shows an overall improvement.

    • SporadicE ionization associated with meteor events

      Girija Rajaram H Chandra

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      Two meteor events which were sighted in the Gujarat skies of India, were accompained by the visibility of sporadicE ionization on the ionograms recorded at Ahmedabad (Geog. Lat. 23·2°N, long. 72·30°E). The first event was the Dhajala fireball which flashed into the geoatmosphere along an E-N to W-S trail at about 20·40 h IST on 28 January 1976; the closest distance of the ground projection of meteor trail from Ahmedabad was 50km. The other event was a possible meteor group sighted over Ahmedabad on 28 May 1978, at about 21·10 h IST. This work describes the nature of the sporadicE ionization observed on Ahmedabad ionograms during the two events. Features of theEs echo during the Dhajala event which indicate that it could be of meteoric origin are discussed. Meteor theory is used to relate the observed ionization with the physical dimensions of the Dhajala meteorite as obtained by other workers.

    • Gravity induced near-surface stresses in long-symmetric ridge-valley systems

      P Mandal R N Singh

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      Patterns of near-surface gravity and tectonically-induced stresses within ridge-valley systems greatly illuminate our understanding of important geodynamic processes as well as design of experiments to elucidate them. This paper presents analytical results derived for a number of geometrical configurations and range of mechanical properties of a ridge-valley system using the elastic solution of McTigue and Mei. The study reveals (i) the presence of non-zero compressive stresses near the ridge crests, which decrease with increasing Poisson's ratio (μ) and reduce to zero at ridge crests for μ=0·5 and that (ii) the central tensional regime characterizing a valley becomes narrower due to the presence of two ridges; and decreases with increasing μ, becoming compressive at depth. For all geometrical parameters considered, all components of stress show concentration at the outer flanks of the ridges and increase with depth approaching a standard state of stress.

    • Coexisting pyroxenes from the basic granulites of Visakhapatnam area in the Eastern Ghats terrain

      A T Rao J U Rao A Madhava Rao P Ch Sanjeeva Rao

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      Fifteen pairs of coexisting pyroxenes from basic granulites associated with leptynites in the khondalite suite of rocks are analysed and the distribution of Mg and Fe2+ ratios is presented. Temperature estimates for the coexisting pyroxenes from the basic granulites of Visakhapatnam may be expressed as 750±100†C corresponding to intermediate pressure granulites.

    • Stratigraphy of the Lesser Himalayan rocks in Kumaun

      L S Chamyal

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      The geology of Kumaun Lesser Himalaya falls within three main tectonic units, viz the Almora Nappe, Inner Krol Nappe and the Outer Krol Nappe, and the three units comprising the entire succession occur in five distinct zones or belts. The stratigraphy of the area has been revised on the basis of the occurrences of chloritic horizons (spilites) and also the existence of an unconformity at the base of Loharkhet/Bageshwar/Ganai/Bhimtal Formation. This paper describes briefly the lithological and structural characters of the rocks of the five belts and the observations are synthesized to present an integrated picture of the regional stratigraphic framework for the metasediments lying between the Main Central Thrust and the Main Boundary Thrust/Fault which define the tectonic boundaries of the Lesser Himalaya in Kumaun.

    • High resolution radio refractive index studies in India using airborne microwave refractometers

      S B S S Sarma

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