• Volume 99, Issue 3

      September 1990,   pages  357-438

    • Seamounts in the Central Indian Ocean Basin: indicators of the Indian plate movement

      Ranadhir Mukhopadhyay N H Khadge

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      The study of seamount parameters in the tectonically most-complicated and least-understood Indian Ocean assumes importance since their properties vary as a function of tectonic setting, physics of lithosphere, conduit geometry and chemical composition of magma. More than 100 such seamounts ranging in summit height (h) from 300 to 2870 m, are indentified in the oceanic crust between Indian continent and Mid-Indian Ridge (MIR) and South-East Indian Ridge (SEIR). Most of the minor seamounts (h > 1000) are found in the southern part of the study area. Major seamounts (h < 1000 m) are roughly distributed in two groups—the northern group on Cretaceous Oceanic Crust and southern group on Pliocene-Miocene Oceanic Crust. On an average northern group seamounts (SM 1 to 6) are taller, wider and flatter than those from the southern group. These seamounts appear to be the result of continuous growth from tapped, moving magma chamber while stress depleted magma and inconsistent Indian Plate movement during Mid-Tertiary are attributed to the origin of southern group of smaller seamounts. Distribution and morphology of seamounts as a whole indicate their formation either from Reunion hotspot or from two separate hotspots in the geological past.

    • High saline waters in Bay of Bengal

      S K Sasamal

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      Bay of Bengal is well known for less saline waters in the surface layer of northern Indian Ocean. High saline waters of the Bay are considered as an influx from the Arabian Sea within a depth range of 200 to 900 m. Some of the recent observations in the western Bay of Bengal have shown salinity values higher than those reported earlier (35-2 × 10−3). Such values are explained on the basis of regional climatology suggesting their local formation on the shallow continental shelf during pre-monsoon months and their subsequent distribution along the coast.

    • Toroidal oscillations of a transradially isotropic elastic sphere

      Alka Gupta Sarva Jit Singh

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      In order to consider the effect of anisotropy on the periods of the oscillations of the Earth, the problem of toroidal oscillations of a transradially isotropic elastic sphere is considered. At each point, the medium is assumed to be transversely isotropic about the radius through the point. The roots of the frequency equation are obtained for different values of the anisotropy parameter α. It is found that, for large order oscillations, the percentage change in the frequency of the toroidal oscillations on account of the anisotropy is nearly equal to ¦α-1¦ × 100.

    • Air-sea interaction over the tropical Indian Ocean during several contrasting monsoon seasons

      M R Ramesh Kumar J S Sastry

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      Monthly mean anomaly fields of various parameters like sea surface temperature, air temperature, wind stress, effective radiation at the surface, heat gain over the ocean and the total heat loss between a good and bad monsoon composite and the evaporation rates over the Arabian Sea and southern hemisphere have been studied over the tropical Indian Ocean. The mean rates of evaporation on a seasonal scale over the Arabian Sea during a good and bad monsoon composites were equal (about 2·48 × 1010 tons/day). The evaporation rates over the southern hemisphere were greater during all the months. The mean evaporation rates over the southern hemisphere on a seasonal scale for the good and bad monsoon composites were 4·4 × 1010 and 4·6 × 1010 tons/day respectively. The maximum evaporation rates over the southern hemisphere were observed in August. The anomalies of wind stress, effective radiation at the surface and the heat gain over the ocean also exhibit large variations in August, as compared to other monsoon months.

    • Variability of theSq focus position in the South American continent

      R P Kane

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      The daily variation of the H component at Pilar (31.7°S, 63–9°W) and Trelew (43.3°S, 65.3°W) in the South American continent indicates a great variability in amplitude from season to season and even from day to day. However, Pilar always remains equatorward of the southern Sq, focus. On the other hand, Trelew is in most cases slightly poleward of the Sq, focus; but the focus has large latitudinal excursions above and near Trelew. A cause of this variability could be the encroachment of polar ionospheric current systems into the low latitude ionospheric Sq, current system.

    • Vertical structure and characteristics of 23–60 day (zonal) oscillations over the tropical latitudes during the winter months of 1986 — Results of equatorial wave campaign—II

      R Raghavarao R Suhasini R Sridharan B V Krishnamurthy O P Nagpal

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      The equatorial wave campaign-II which formed a part of the Indian Middle Atmosphere Programme (IMAP), was conducted from SHAR (13.7°N, 80.2°E) from 15 January to 28 February 1986. Winds were measured from ground to 60 km by means of high altitude balloon and a meteorological rocket (RH-200), once everyday, for 45 days. The frequencies of the oscillations in the deviations of the east-west component of the winds from its mean at each height with one kilometer interval were obtained by the maximum entropy (ME) method and phases/amplitudes of these frequencies were determined by the least squares technique on the wind variation time series. The ME method has the inherent advantage of providing periodicities up to 1.5 times the data length.

      The height structure of the long period waves of > 23 day periodicities that have larger amplitudes nearly by a factor of 2 as compared to the medium (9 to 22 day) or shorter period (4 to 8 day) ones, reveal two height regions of enhanced amplitudes, one in the troposphere and another in the upper stratosphere/lower mesosphere, that too, mostly in the regions of positive (westerly increasing or easterly decreasing with height) wind shears. The waves are seen to be inhibited in the negative wind shear regions. From the abrupt changes in the altitude variation of phase, the possible source region has been identified. The vertical wavelengths have been estimated to be 34 km and 19 km in the troposphere and lower stratosphere respectively and 8 km in the upper stratosphere and lower mesosphere. Around 56 km the wave amplitude is reduced to 1/4 of its value below, while the vertical shear strength in the mean wind doubled up. The tropospheric waves are suggested to be Rossby waves of extratropical origin penetrating to tropical latitudes. The stratospheric/mesospheric waves however appear to emanate from a source around the stratopause.

    • Entrainment of circumpolar water in the Indian Ocean region of the Antarctic

      G S Sharma Benny N Peter

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      The net influx of the circumpolar water on the western (approximately along 10°E) and eastern (approximately 115°E) boundaries of the Indian Ocean, adopting the method of Montgomery and Stroup is computed on bivariate distribution of potential thermosteric anomaly and salinity to identify the characteristics of the flux. The zonal flux at both the boundaries indicates an alternate strong easterly and westerly flow between 36°S and 45°S, south of which the flow is mainly easterly but weak up to 56°S. At the western boundary the easterly flow is 146 Sv and westerly is 98.07 Sv, while at the eastern boundary (115°E) the corresponding fluxes are 123.46 Sv and 27.20 Sv respectively, indicating a net outflux of 48.33 Sv. This water should have been accounted by the melting of ice and influx of the Equatorial Pacific Ocean Water.

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