Volume 99, Issue 2
June 1990, pages 167-355
pp 167-168 June 1990
pp 169-185 June 1990
The Indus Tsangpo suture zone in Ladakh lies between the Phanerozoic sequence of the Zanskar Zone of Tethys Himalaya in the south and Karakoram zone in the north. The five palaeotectonic regimes recognized in the suture zone are: The Indus palaeosubduction complex, the Ladakh magmatic arc, the Indus arc-trench gap sedimentation, the Shyok backarc and the Post-collision molasse sedimentation. The Ladakh magmatic arc, comprising intrusives of the Ladakh plutonic complex and extrusives of the Dras, Luzarmu and Khardung formations, owes its origin to the subduction of the Indian oceanic plate underneath the Tibet-Karakoram block. The Indus Formation, lower Cretaceous to middle Eocene in age, was laid down in a basin between the magmatic arc and the subduction complex. The Shergol and Zildat ophiolitic melange belts exhibit green-schist and blue-schist facies metamorphism and show structural geometry and deformation history dissimilar to that of the underlying and overlying formations. The melange belts and the flysch sediments of the Nindam Formation represent a palaeosubduction complex. The Shyok suture zone consists of tectonic slices of metamorphics of the Pangong Tso Crystallines, Cretaceous to lower Eocene volcanics and sedimentaries, together with ultramafic and gabbro bodies and molasse sediments. This petrotectonic assemblage is interpreted as representing a back-are basin. Post-collision molasse sedimentaries are continental deposits of Neogene age, and they occur with depositional contact transgressing the lithological and structural boundaries. Two metamorphic belts, the Tso Morari crystalline complex and the Pangong Tso Crystallines, flank to the south and north respectively of the Indus suture zone in Eastern Ladakh. Three generations of fold structures and associated penetrative (and linear) structures, showing a similar deformation history of both the metamorphic belts, are developed. The shortening structures developed as a result of collision during the postmiddle Eocene time.
pp 187-199 June 1990
The ophiolitic rocks of Naga Hills-Andaman belt occur as rootless slices, gently dipping over the Paleogene flyschoid sediments, the presence of blue-schists in ophiolite melange indicates an involvement of the subduction process. Subduction was initiated prior to mid-Eocene as proved by the contemporaneous lower age limit of ophiolite-derived cover sediment as against the accreted ophiolites and olistostromal trench sediment. During the late Oligocene terminal collision between the Indian and Sino-Burmese blocks, basement slivers from the Sino-Burmese block, accreted ophiolites and trench sediments from the subduction zone were thrust westward as nappe and emplaced over the down-going Indian plate. The geometry of the ophiolites and the presence of a narrow negative gravity anomaly flanking their map extent, run counter to the conventional view that the Naga-Andaman belt marks the location of the suture. The root-zone of the ophiolite nappe representing the suture is marked by a partially-exposed eastern ophiolite belt of the same age and gravity-high zone, passing through central Burma-Sumatra-Java.
The ophiolites of the Andaman and Naga Hills are also conventionally linked with the subduction activity, west of Andaman islands. This activity began only in late Miocene, much later than onland emplacement of the ophiolites; it further developed west of the suture in its southern part. Post-collisional northward movement of the Indian plate subparallel to the suture, also developed leaky dextral transcurrent faults close to the suture and caused Neogene-Quatemary volcanism in central Burma and elsewhere.
pp 201-213 June 1990
In the Kolar Schist Belt well-preserved small-scale diastrophic structures suggest four phases of folding (F1 — F4). The near coaxial F1 andF2folds are both isoclinal with long-drawn out limbs and sharp hinges. The axial planes of bothF1andF2folds are subvertical with N-S strikes; these control the linear outcrop pattern of the Schist belt. The later folds (F3and F4) are important in small-to-intermediate scales only and are accommodation structures formed during the relaxation period of the early folding episodes. Mesoscopic shear zones, post-F2 but pre-F3 in age, are present in all the rock types in this area. The F1 and F2 folds and the mesoscopic shear zones were formed during a continuous E-W subhorizontal compression. Available geochemical and isotopic data show that the Kolar Schist Belt with ensimatic setting is bounded by two granitic terrains of contrasting evolutionary histories. This, together with E-W subhorizontal compression over a protracted period of time, strengthens the recent suggestions that the Kolar Schist Belt represents a suture. This belt then marks the site of a continent-continent collision event of late Archaean-early Proterozoic age.
pp 215-228 June 1990
A multiple-deformation sequence is established for different types of gneisses, mafic-paleosomes and banded magnetite quartzites (BMQ) exposed within the area. In gneisses, the basin-shaped map pattern represents the type-i interference structure formed due to the overprinting of F3 folds with ENE striking axial planes on F2 folds with axial planes striking NNW. The BMQ band occurring as an enclave within the gneissic country, represents a large scale F1 fold with relatively smaller scale F2 folds developed on its limbs. Mafic-paleosomes within the streaky-charnockitic-gneisses exhibit structures formed due to the interference of more than two phases of folding (F1,Fla,F2,F3). It is shown that the deformation plan in these rocks is consistent with the generalized deformation scheme for Granite-greenstone belts. The difference in the map pattern of Granite-greenstone belts and Granulite-charnockite terrains is ascribed to the variance in Theological properties, layerthickness ratios and local displacement directions during different phases of folding. These differences apart, both the Granite-greenstone and Granulite-charnockite provinces in South India are deformed by an early isoclinal folding which is successively overprinted by folding on NNW and ENE striking axial planes.
pp 229-247 June 1990
The northern fold belt away from the Singhbhum Shear Zone displays a set of folds on bedding. The folds are sub-horizontal with E-W to ESE striking steep axial surfaces. In contrast, the folds in the Singhbhum Shear Zone developed on a mylonitic foliation and have a reclined geometry with northerly trending axes. There is a transitional zone between the two, where the bedding and the cleavage have become parallel by isoclinal folding and two sets of reclined folds have developed by deforming the bedding—parallel cleavage. Southward from the northern fold belt the intensity of deformation increases, the folds become tightened and overturned towards the south while the fold hinges are rotated from the sub-horizontal position to a down-dip attitude. Recognition of the transitional zone and the identification of the overlapping character of deformation in the shear zone and the northern belt enable the formulation of a bulk kinematic model for the area as a whole.
pp 249-268 June 1990
In the western part of the North Singhbhum fold belt near Lotapahar and Sonua the remobilized basement block of Chakradharpur Gneiss is overlain by a metasedimentary assemblage consisting of quartz arenite, conglomerate, slate-phyllite, greywacke with volcanogenic material, volcaniclastic rocks and chert. The rock assemblage suggests an association of volcanism, turbidite deposition and debris flow in the basin. The grade of metamorphism is very low, the common metamorphic minerals being muscovite, chlorite, biotite and stilpnomelane. Three phases of deformation have affected the rocks. The principal D1 structure is a penetrative planar fabric, parallel to or at low angle to bedding. No D1 major fold is observed and the regional importance of this deformation is uncertain. The D2 deformation has given rise to a number of northerly plunging major folds on E-W axial planes. These have nearly reclined geometry and theL2lineation is mostly downdip on theS2surface, though some variation in pitch is observed. The morphology of D2 planar fabric varies from slaty cleavage/schistosity to crenulation cleavage and solution cleavage. D3 deformation is weak and has given rise to puckers and broad warps on schistosity and bedding. The D2 major folds south of Lotapahar are second order folds in the core of the Ongarbira syncline whose easterly closure is exposed east of the mapped area. Photogeological study suggests that the easterly and westerly closing folds together form a large synclinal sheath fold. There is a continuity of structures from north to south and no mylonite belt is present, though there is attenuation and disruption along the fold limbs. Therefore, the Singhbhum shear zone cannot be extended westwards in the present area. There is no evidence that in this area a discontinuity surface separates two orogenic belts of Archaean and Proterozoic age.
pp 269-277 June 1990
Structural analysis of the Chhotanagpur gneiss and the adjoining schistose rocks of the Singhbhum Group indicates perfect conformity in their structures on macroscopic, mesoscopic and microscopic scales. This precludes the possibility of the gneissic rocks having intruded into the deformed and metamorphozed schistose rocks. The observed features can be best explained by considering the gneissic rocks as the basement and the schistose rocks as the cover, both deformed and metamorphozed together. However, this does not exclude the possibility of the gneissic rocks being reactivated and intruding elsewhere.
pp 279-290 June 1990
Multiple deformation in all the Precambrian metamorphic-migmatitic rocks has been reported from Rajasthan during the last three decades. But, whereas the Aravalli Group and the Banded Gneissic Complex show similarity in the style and sequence of structures in all their details, the rocks of the Delhi Group trace a partly independent trend. Isoclinal folds of the first generation (AF1) in the rocks of the Aravalli Group had gentle westerly plunge prior to later deformations. These folds show reclined, inclined, and upright attitude as a result of coaxial upright folding (AFla). Superposition of upright folds (AF2) of varying tightness, with axial plane striking N to NNE, has resulted in interference patterns of diverse types in the scale of maps, and deformation of earlier planar and linear structures in the scale of hand specimens. The structures of the third generation (AF3) are either open recumbent folds or reclined conjugate folds with axial planes dipping gently towards NE or SW. Structures of the last phase are upright conjugate folds (AF4) with axial planes striking NNE-SSW and E-W.
The Banded Gneissic Complex (BGC) underlies the Aravalli Group with a conglomerate horizon at the contact, especially in southern Rajasthan. But, for a major part of central and southern Rajasthan, migmatites representing BGC show a structural style and sequence identical with those in the Aravalli Group. Migmatization, broadly synkinematic with the AF1 folding, suggests extensive remobilization of the basement. Very rare relict fabric athwart to and overprinted by structures of AF, generation provide tangible evidence for a basement.
Although the structures of later phases in the rocks of the Delhi Group (DF3 and DF4) match with the late-phase structures in the Aravalli Group (AF3 and AF4), there is a contrast in the structural history of the early stages in the rocks of the two groups. The folds of the first generation in the Delhi Group (DF1) were recumbent to reclined with gentle plunge towards N to NNE or S to SSW. These were followed by coaxial upright folds of varying tightness (DF2). Absence of westerly trending AF1 folds in the Delhi Group, and extreme variation in plunge of the AF2 folds in contrast with the fairly constant plunge of the DF2 folds, provide evidence for an angular unconformity between the Aravalli and the Delhi Groups.
Depending on the importance of flattening attendant with and following buckling during AF2 deformation, the lineations of AF1 generation show different patterns. Where the AF1 lineations are distributed in circular cones around AF2 axes because of flexural-slip folding in layered rocks with high viscosity contrast, loci of early lineations indicate that the initial orientation of the AF1 axes were subhorizontal, trending towards N280°.
The orientation of the axial planes of the earlier folds has controlled the development of the later folds. In sectors where the AF, axial planes had N-S strike and gentle dips, or E-W strike with gentle to steep dips, nearly E-W horizontal compression during AF2 deformation resulted in well-developed AF2 folds. By contrast, where the AF, axial planes were striking nearly N-S with steep dips, E-W horizontal compression resulted in tightening (flattening) of the already isoclinal AF1 folds, and probably boudinage structures in some instances, without the development of any AF2 folds. A similar situation obtains when DF4 deformation is superposed on earlier structures. Where the dominant S-planes were subhorizontal, N-S compression during DF4 deformation resulted in either chevron folds with E-W striking axial plane or conjugate folds with axial plane striking NE and NW. In zones with S-planes striking E-W and dipping steeply, the N-S compression resulted in flattening of the earlier folds without development of DF4 folds.
pp 291-308 June 1990
Detailed structural and lithological mapping of the Aravalli rocks overlying the Mewar Gneiss in the area east of Udaipur, Rajasthan, suggests presence of blocks bounded by faults, showing a contrasting structural pattern. The contrast is reflected in the differential development and in the orientation of AF1, AF2 and AF4 folds in different blocks. In the central Umra block, the rocks constitute a virtually homoclinal sequence showing one dominant orientation of bedding and axial planar schistosity. Fold axes, lineations andβ orientations indicate presence of reclined folds of AF1 generation. AF2 folds are either absent or have developed only locally. The two other blocks which border the Umra block show development of large AF2 synforms and local minor antiforms having N-S or NNE-SSW trend. The folds interfere with AF4 folds producing irregular domes and basins in the western Kanpur-Kalarwas Block and minor plunge reversals in Bagdara-Dhamdhar Block. It is argued that the constituents of the different blocks which formed a collage of rift basins and horsts during sedimentation, responded differentially to deforming forces because of differential mobility of the underlying basement.
pp 309-320 June 1990
The rocks of the Delhi Supergroup, which occur around Barr-Sendra and Phulad-Deogarh regions in Central Rajasthan, show three phases of deformational episodes: (i) phase D1—tight-to-long limbed isoclinal fold (F1); phase D2—open, asymmetric fold (F2) controlling the map pattern of the formational boundaries; and (iii) phase D3—major warps (F3). Interference between nearly coaxial F1 and F2 on northerly axes produced hook-shaped and crescent patterns whereas superimposition of easterly trending F3 on F2 produced dome-and-basin patterns. The thermal peak was achieved during the second phase of deformation when the rocks were constructively metamorphozed and granites (850−750 m.y.), late synkinematic with respect to second phase of deformation, were emplaced. The sequence of deformation and the structural pattern of the rocks of the Delhi Supergroup in Central Rajasthan strikingly resemble those in northeastern Rajasthan. Structurally the characteristics of the Delhi Supergroup as verified in the entire region from NE to Central Rajasthan are: (a) the same sequence of development of folds, F1, F2 and F3, interspersed with nearly identical phases of recrystallization, (b) hook-shaped interference pattern due to near-coaxial refolding of F1 by F2, and (c) variation in axial plunge of F2 resulting in culminations and depressions. Lastly, phases of the recrystallization history indicates little time gap between F1 and F2, and a considerable gap between F2 and F3.
pp 321-338 June 1990
Strain analysis of the Baraitha conglomerate is attempted by direct measurements on extracted pebbles and by micrometric analysis. The overall deformation is of flattening type, with thek value lower by more than half in the matrix than in the pebbles. The viscosity contrast between pebbles and matrix (μi/μm) is in the ratio of 2:1 and the bulk deformation appears to be strongly controlled by Ci (concentration of pebbles expressed as percentage). The total shortening (≃35%) in the Baraitha conglomerate is comparable with the shortening accomplished in the folding of the overlying Bijawar Group volcanosedimentary sequence. The bulk strain axesXt, Yt andZt, as determined from the analysis of the deformed conglomerate, are unsymmetrically oriented with reference to folds formed by oblique flexural-slip with neitherXt norYtcoincident with the fold hinges. The lack of transection of folds by cleavage again suggests flattening deformation. The extension in theYtdirection is greater in the matrix than in the pebbles.
pp 339-355 June 1990
A small thrust sheet, named Pedda Gutta thrust sheet, consisting of calcareous to cherty argillites and cherts, and juxtaposed against tidal-intertidal cross-bedded quartzites and stromatolitic and sileceous limestone in the eastern Proterozoic belt, Godavari Valley, exhibits structures comparable in style to those of the external zone of a fold-thrust mountain belt. A wide spectrum of periodic and aperiodic mesoscopic folds varying from upright ones with rounded hinges and attenuated limbs, through noncylindrical kinks to whalebacks and sheath-like forms have developed within the small volume of the thrust sheet, the preserved thickness of which is of the order of 50 metres (comparable in scale to cleavage duplexes). Cleavage development is also heterogeneous across the width of the sheet. Displacement transfer from faults to folds and vice-versa is a common feature.
On the basis of the distribution of the mesoscopic structures of varying style within the sheet and localization of fault rocks, three slices (wedges) have been recognized, each bounded on the east by a thrust which is steep at the current erosion level but interpreted to be of listric form making the thrust network comparable in architecture, though not in scale, to a hinterland (west) dipping imbricate fan.