• Volume 96, Issue 3

      December 1987,   pages  203-290

    • Relationship between pedogenetic manifestations in some arid soil and age of the landforms

      J S Choudhari

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      Arid soils with slight variations in parent material, vegetation and climate were studied for their morphological, chemical and mineralogical characteristics. Results show that the soils are at different stages of profile development. Varying degrees of pedogenic features have been tied up with data on palaeoenvironment to develop a relationship between the soil and age of the landform. Studies reveal that Dune and Shergarh sandy soils with least degree of manifestation belong to early Holocene to latest Pleistocene, whereas Chirai sandy soil with weakly developed B horizon belongs to the upper Holocene. Soils (Khajwana and Gajsinghpura) with well-developed B horizon and a calcic layer with lime segregations belong to mid-Pleistocene whereas Pali and Pipar soils with illuvial clay in B horizon belong to early Pleistocene.

    • Auxiliary functions of the Hilbert transform in the study of gravity anomalies

      G Ramadass I Arunkumar S M Varaprasada Rao N L Mohan N Sundararajan

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      The auxiliary functions, namely amplitude, phase, envelope and instantaneous frequency of Hilbert transform over gravity anomalies of 2-D sphere, vertical fault block and horizontal circular cylinder are studied. The characteristics of these functions are established in locating and identifying the sources. The method is illustrated with a theoretical example in each case and supported by field data of gravity anomaly over Humble dome and spherical model of the Satak-Mansar area, Nagpur District, India.

    • Petrographic criteria for establishing the copper potential in granitoid plutons

      M S Naik R K Trivedi

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      A petrographic investigation and its possible relevance in mineral exploration have been studied for a mineralized granitoid pluton in Malanjkhand. Using a matrix of mineralogical, textural and structural features, the types and intensities of mineralogical changes by post-magmatic metasomatic processes can be deduced from thin sections of the rocks. The resulting petrological score provides a measure of establishing the copper potential of a granitoid pluton.

    • Estimation of hypocentral parameters of local earthquakes when crustal layers have constantP-velocities and dipping interfaces

      Irene Sarkar R Chander K N Khattri V K Gaur

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      The paper describes an algorithm for estimating the hypocentral coordinates and origin time of local earthquakes when the wave speed model to be employed is a layered one with dipping interfaces. A constrained least-squared error problem has been solved using the penalty function approach, in conjunction with the sequential unconstrained optimization technique of Fiacco and McCormick. Joint confidence intervals for the computed parameters are estimated using the approach of Bard for nonlinear problems. These results show that when a hypocentre lies outside the array of recording stations and head waves from a dipping interface are involved, then its inclination must be taken into account for dip angles exceeding 5°.

    • Weathering potential index for rocks based on density and porosity measurements

      R Pratap Singh Vijay Kumar Upadhyay Asok Das

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      Rock samples belonging to ten lithological types under different stages of weathering, were collected from different stratigraphical horizons at Bhagalpur. Their densities and porosities were determined experimentally and the data obtained were fitted empirically in a linear equation for each lithological type. The slopes of the curves, which were negative in each case, showed that the increase in porosity for the same decrease in density were in the order, white sandstone > ferruginous sandstone > white claystone > porphyritic gneiss > quartzite > pegmatite > amphibolite ≅ biotite gnejss > basalt ≅ dolerite. A new weathering potential index based on the density-porosity data was proposed and the values for a specific stage of weathering for all the lithological types studied fall within the same range.

    • Seasonal variation of the salinity in the Zuari estuary, Goa, India

      S R Shetye C S Murty

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      The annual salt budget of the Zuari is examined. The characteristics of the estuary differ markedly from the low run off season during November–May to the heavy run off period of the southwest monsoon from June to October. During November–May the estuary is vertically mixed and the two processes controlling the transport of salt are run off induced advective transport out of the estuary, and tidally induced diffusive transport into the estuary. The magnitude of the latter is about 20% larger, leading to a salinity rise in the estuary. The diffusion coefficient has been estimated to be 233 ± 101 m2/sec. With the onset of the southwest monsoon, the run off increases dramatically, and the estuary loses about 75% of its salt during the first two months of the season. About 2/3 of this loss is recovered in the next two months when the run off decreases. Because the estuary is partially stratified during June–October, gravitational circulation is expected to play a role in addition to tidal diffusion and run off. The magnitude of its contribution has, however, not yet been determined.

    • Selection of optimum frequency of a wind scatterometer

      Abhijit Sarkar Raj Kumar Mannil Mohan

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      The problem of selecting the optimum operating frequency of a scatterometer, used for remote sensing of sea surface wind speed has been addressed by applying the criteria of maximum sensitivity of backscattering coefficient to wind speed as well as its correlation with wind speed. The backscattering coefficient values for sea surface were computed by the two-scale scattering theory. To compute the atmospheric transmittance, 753 clear sky atmospheres over Indian Ocean were used. While the correlation coefficient was uniform (0.94) throughout the frequency range of 1 to 30GHz, only frequencies above 5GHz were found sensitive enough to yield a wind speed accuracy of ±2msec−1 and better, the accuracy improving with frequency.

    • Longshore grain size trends in the Kakinada-Mulapeta Beach, east coast of India

      D Satya Prasad G V S Sarma M Subba Rao

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      Shore-normal and shore-parallel variations in grain size statistics of beach sand have been studied over a period of one year along the Kakinada-Mulapeta coast. The southern beaches of this coast have been accretionary while the northern ones erosional since 125 years. The grain size gradings, beach and nearshore processes help in identifying (i) the Groins-fishing harbour beach influenced predominantly by the tidal regime. (ii) the Mulapeta-Vakalapudi beach influenced by refracted wave regime and (iii) the Vakalapudi-fishing harbour beach affected by both wave and tidal regimes at relatively subdued levels.

    • A steady state model of the Somali current

      P K Das S K Dube G S Rao

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      A steady state model of the Somali current including forcing by both the curl and the divergence of the wind stress is discussed. The model equations are linear, but the results presented are for the one nonlinear case. The grid resolution was 12 km in the zonal and 24 km in the meridional direction. The streamfunction and velocity potential of the current are presented for forcing by divergence and compared with a situation when only the curl is present. The results indicate that a two-gyre system appears in July, a representative month for the summer monsoon, only when divergence is included. Computations with available data indicate that the divergence is comparable in magnitude to the curl near the location of the Somali current. The model produces three other important features: (i) strong upwelling off the east coast of Africa, (ii) downwelling over central Arabian sea and (iii) a strong eastward current in the upper layer towards the interior of the Arabian sea near 12°N.

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