Volume 94, Issue 3
November 1985, pages 187-332
pp 187-198 November 1985
Some statistical properties of the summer monsoon seasonal rainfall for India during the last 100 years (1881–1980) are presented. The most recent decade of 1971–1980 shows the lowest value of standard-decadal average monsoon rainfall (86.40 cm) and is also characterised by the second highest value of coefficient of variation in monsoon rainfall (12.4 %). The combined last two standard-decadal period of 1961–1980 was the period of the largest coefficient of variation and the lowest average monsoon rainfall for India.
The possible influence of global climatic variability on the performance of the monsoon is also examined. Analyses of correlation coefficient show that a statistically significant positive relationship with a time-lag of about six months exists between monsoon rainfall and northern hemispheric surface air temperature. A cooler northern hemisphere during January/February leads to a poor monsoon.
All the major drought years during the last 3 decades had much cooler January/February periods over the northern hemisphere—1972 having the coldest January/February with a temperature departure of −0.94°C and the most disastrous monsoon failure.
pp 199-210 November 1985
The interannual variability of all-India summer monsoon (June to September) rainfall and its teleconnections with the southern oscillation index (SOI) and sea surface temperature (SST) anomaly of the eastern equatorial Pacific ocean have been examined for the period 1871–1978 for different seasons (i.e., winter, spring, summer and autumn). The relationship (correlation coefficient) between all-India summer monsoon rainfall andSOI for different seasons is positive and highly significant. Further examination of 10-, 20- and 30-year sliding window lengths’ correlations, brings out the highly consistent and significant character of the relationships. The relationship between all-India monsoon rainfall andSST for different seasons is negative and is significant at 1 % level or above. Drought years are characterised by negative anomalies ofSOI and positive anomalies ofSST and vice versa with flood years. The relationship betweenSOI andSST is negative and significant at 0.1 % level.
The relationships between all-India summer monsoon rainfall,SOI and sst are expected to improve our understanding of the interannual variability of the summer monsoon.
pp 211-217 November 1985
Global analyses of mean monthly zonal wind component and temperature at 200, 150 and 100 mb levels have been made for the region between 60°N and 60°S, for the months May through September during two poor monsoon years (1972 and 1979) and a good monsoon year (1975). Prominent and consistent contrasting features of the zonal wind and thermal fields have been identified, with reference to the monsoon performance over India. It has been noticed that the areal spreading of easterlies over the tropics and extratropics is significantly more during a good monsoon year. Shifting of the axis of the tropical easterly jet stream to a higher level and generally stronger easterlies also characterize good monsoon activity. The upper troposphere has been found to be considerably cooler during poor monsoon years.
pp 219-235 November 1985
A zonally averaged version of the Goddard Laboratory for Atmospheric Sciences (GLAS) climate model is used to study the sensitivity of the northern hemisphere (NH) summer mean meridional circulation to changes in the large scale eddy forcing. A standard solution is obtained by prescribing the latent heating field and climatological horizontal transports of heat and momentum by the eddies. The radiative heating and surface fluxes are calculated by model parameterizations. This standard solution is compared with the results of several sensitivity studies. When the eddy forcing is reduced to 0.5 times or increased to 1.5 times the climatological values, the strength of the Ferrel cells decrease or increase proportionally. It is also seen that such changes in the eddy forcing can influence the strength of theNH Hadley cell significantly. Possible impact of such changes in the large scale eddy forcing on the monsoon circulation via changes in the Hadley circulation is discussed. Sensitivity experiments including only one component of eddy forcing at a time show that the eddy momentum fluxes seem to be more important in maintaining the Ferrel cells than the eddy heat fluxes. In the absence of the eddy heat fluxes, the observed eddy momentum fluxes alone produce subtropical westerly jets which are weaker than those in the standard solution. On the other hand, the observed eddy heat fluxes alone produce subtropical westerly jets which are stronger than those in the standard solution.
pp 237-247 November 1985
Applying the method of ‘statistical linear regression’, atomspheric water vapour over oceanic areas has been estimated from the 19GHz and 22 GHz data of the satellite microwave radiometer (SAMIR) system onboard the Bhaskara II satellite. In the absence of any simultaneousin situ measurements on water vapour over ocean, theSAMIR-derived water vapour data have been compared with like data from theNOAA-7 satellite. It is suggested that a positive bias seen in theSAMIR data could be due to calibration errors in the basic data. In view of the observed bias, the original regression equation is modified and then used to obtain water vapour distributions over ocean for winter and south-west monsoon seasons usingSAMIR data of several orbits.
pp 249-259 November 1985
Sensitivity of the radar scattering coefficient to the oceanic wind vector in the midangular range for frequencies from L- to Ku- band is studied. This is based on computations of scattering coefficient via the two-scale scattering theory employing a semi-empirical model for the ocean spectrum suggested by Fung and Lee and the slope distribution by Cox and Munk. Higher frequency and incident angles of over 45 degrees seem to yield better wind sensitivity.
pp 261-267 November 1985
HF doppler observations of the vertical drift velocity and group height of the 5.5 MHz plasma frequency level of the post-sunset bottomside F-region obtained on a fewESF (equatorial spread-F) and non-ESF days at Trivandrum are presented. The results show that on the non-ESF days, the maximum group height attained is about 400 km and the maximum velocity is less than 30 m/sec. On theESF days, however, the corresponding values are found to be in the range of 400–650 km and 30–50 m/sec. TheESF onset is found to be significantly delayed relative to the velocity peak indicating that it is more closely linked to the layer height than to the drift velocity.
pp 269-277 November 1985
The transient electromagnetic response due to a pair of horizontal conducting sheets induced by a loop field is obtained. The response characteristics in the three different regions (above the upper sheet, between the two sheets and below the lower sheet) are briefly discussed.
In the first and second regions the composite response is characterised by an overburden response asymptote during early times and a target response asymptote during late times. The transition zones are characterised by shoulder-like bends. In the third region, the composite response increases in direct proportion to the induction number, eventually merging with the target response for large values of the induction number.
pp 279-282 November 1985
A procedure for estimating minute quantities (parts per billion) of gold is described, based on dissolution of the sample in aqua regia, adsorption on activated charcoal, arcing of the charcoal ash, and measurement of the intensity of the emitted spectra.
pp 283-295 November 1985
A comprehensive set of measurements of oxygen and hydrogen isotopic ratios in groundwaters as well as waters from rivers, lakes, hot springs etc. taken from a variety of locations in India has been carried out for the first time. Isotopically the most depleted samples occur in the high altitude precipitations in the Himalayas e.g. in the lakes of Bhutan and the source water of the Ganga. The shallow groundwater data display a continental effect where the heavy isotope content decreases with distance from the coast (about 4 to 6 per mil decrease in δ18O per 1000 km). The δ D and δ18O of these fresh waters are linearly related and an analysis of this relation vis-a-vis the meteoric water line shows the unambiguous effect of enrichment due to evaporation from soils.
pp 297-303 November 1985
The major chemical components of bauxite deposits of Belgaum (76° 24′E : 15° 54′N) and Yercaud (78° 14′E : 11° 48′N) areas have been determined. A chemical continuity between parent rocks (zone I) to bauxites (zone IV) via clay (zone II) and laterites (zone III) clearly indicates that bauxites have been derived byin situ weathering of the respective parent rocks.
pp 305-313 November 1985
Gabbros at Purimetla occur in close association with the alkaline pluton. Petrography and petrochemistry of these gabbros indicate their tholeiitic nature. Chemical variation of these tholeiites suggests that an initial undersaturated tholeiitic magma yielded oversaturated fractions in the final stages of differentiation. Their regional distribution suggests that basic magmatism preceded the emplacement of the alkaline rocks in the Prakasam alkaline province.
pp 315-321 November 1985
The present paper records the occurrence of framboidal pyrite and algal pyrite in the Mussoorie phosphorite deposit. The significance of organic matter and sediment composition have also been discussed. The petrographic and analytical data indicate the dominant role of organic matter in the formation of pyrite. It is concluded from the textural study of pyrite that framboids have formed earlier in the sediment and subsequently the euhedral pyrite nucleated on them, gradually increasing in its abundance.
pp 323-332 November 1985
The responses of a sandy beach to the southwest monsoonal waves are studied based on biweekly observations. The onslaught of the first spell of monsoonal breakers causes maximum erosion in the sub-aerial section of the beach. However, further spells of high breakers do not affect this zone significantly. The erosion in the sub-aerial zone is followed by accretion in the nearshore zone and vice versa. Whereas the sub-aerial zone has a net erosion the total section of the beach including the nearshore zone shows near equilibrium condition. It is concluded that in spite of erosion or accretion of the sub-aerial zone, equilibrium conditions may be found in the total section of the beach.