• Volume 94, Issue 1

      March 1985,   pages  1-76

    • Tracing quartz through the environment

      D Lal J R Arnold

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      Quartz, SiO2, a pure mineral with tight crystal structure, is widespread in rocks and soil. Cosmic rays produce10Be (t1/2=1·5×106, yr) and26Al (t1/2=7·05×105 yr) in quartz exposed at or near the earth’s surface. The use of accelerator mass spectrometry permits measurement of these nuclides in samples exposed at sea level for typical periods.In situ production makes interpretation relatively straightforward. Potential applications include age determination, measurement of erosion and deposition rates, and use as a tracer for continental weathering processes.

    • Comparison of electron density models with incoherent scatter radar observations at the equator

      B T Vikram Kumar P B Rao

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      This paper points out certain discrepancies when the incoherent scatter radar observations at Jicamarca and the electron density models, (the Bent andiri) were compared. In all cases the bottomside semi-thickness of the observed profile was significantly greater than that of both Bent andiri models. The decay constants associated with the topside ionosphere for the observed profiles were generally greater than that of the two models, the difference being more pronounced in theiri model. The results call for a revision of the models so that they accurately represent the electron density distribution at the equator.

    • Hydrography and circulation off the Antarctica in the Indian Ocean region

      G S Sharma Basil Mathew

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      The hydrography and circulation pattern off Antarctica in the Indian Ocean region are studied using vertical sections of temperature, salinity and oxyty approximately along 20°E, 77°E and 90°E, and the dynamic topography of the sea surface with reference to 1000 db. Based on the oceanographic characteristics, the whole region under study can be divided into three zones, the extreme ends being characterised by the frontal structure. The dicothermal layer is conspicuous during summer south of 50°S. The surface flow around Antarctica is mainly zonal. The East Wind Drift, found as a narrow westward flow near Antarctica, is observed at a lower latitude in the eastern Indian Ocean where the land extends northword. Contrary to expectation there is evidence of a westward flowing surface current at about 35°S between 45°E and 65°E.

    • Quasi-biennial oscillation in geomagnetic disturbance field

      G K Rangarajan

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      Using the techniques of second derivatives, digital filtering and power spectral analysis, the fine structure of the quasi-biennial oscillation (qbo) in the equatorial geomagnetic field in the Indian zone is studied. The salient results are: (i) in the quiet day field,qbo is weak and the signal strength has no local time dependence; (ii) in the disturbance field the signal is strongest in the afternoon and evening hours and (iii) larger magnitudes are manifested closer to the dip equator. The difference in dawn and dusk amplitudes of the signal and the absence of significant strength close to noon in the electrojet region rules outeuv flux as the responsible agent.

    • Vertical component MAGSAT anomalies and Indian tectonic boundaries

      J G Negi P K Agrawal N K Thakur

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      MAGSAT vertical component (Z-component) of crustal anomalies are correlated for the first time with major geological and tectonic boundaries/features of the Indian subcontinent. A prominent ‘low’ is consistently observed on all the profiles centred between 19° and 23° latitudes over the broad Peninsular ‘high’. The other conspicuous ‘low’ indicated from the present work is confined to the region above Sarda depression (29° N to 31° N) in the foothills of Himalayas. Interesting magnetic signatures are identified over the Narmada-Son rift and Godavari graben.

    • The Mannapra syenite, Central Kerala, India: Geochemistry, petrogenesis and bearing on anorogenic magmatism

      M Santosh K G Thara

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      Occurrence of a syenite body near Mannapra, Trichur district, Kerala, is reported. The syenite, emplaced within charnockitic country rocks along the Idamalayar faultlineament, is exposed over an area of 8 km2. The rock, classified as quartz alkali feldspar syenite based on Q-A-P proportions, has alkali feldspar as the dominant mineral constituent which shows variation in perthitic texture from crypto- to micro- and patch-perthites. Both ortho- and clino-pyroxenes are present, with the former showing blebs of plagioclase suggesting Al-unmixing. Clinopyroxene shows subsolidus reequilibration with greenish pleochroic grain margins and local conversion to alkali amphibole. The petrochemical characters indicate that the syenite crystallized from a partial melt which equilibrated from K-rich, Rb-depleted source in the upper mantle, in response to crustal distension and mantle degassing prior to the rifting of the continent. Reaction between early formed minerals and the late peralkaline liquid towards the residual phase resulted in subsolidus reequilibration textures. The syenite is envisaged to be yet another example of the manifestation of anorogenic magmatism in this part of the Indian shield.

    • Petrology of thermally metamorphosed pelitic rocks in the Champawat Area, Kumaun Himalaya

      Brijraj K Das

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      In the Champawat area, Kumaun Himalaya, greenschist facies regionally metamorphosed rocksviz chlorite-phyllite and schist have been subjected to thermal metamorphism due to emplacement of batholithic granite/granodiorite body. As a consequence, biotite, garnet, andalusite, fibrolite, sillimanite and perthite minerals have formed in the contact rocks. The conspicuous absence of cordierite and staurolite reported from such aureole rocks is due to higher FeO/MgO ratio of the bulk rock composition in the former while the absence of staurolite is due to low Al2O3/FeO+MgO ratio in the schists. AFM diagram demonstrates that in muscovite-bearing schist, the bulk composition of chlorite- and cordierite-bearing rocks are restricted to low FeO/MgO side and thus the restricted occurrence of former and the absence of latter in the contact rocks of the area. This is further evident from the common occurrence of almandine-rich garnet in the rocks.

    • Analysis of gravity gradients over a thin infinite sheet

      G D J Sivakumar Sinha H V Ram Babu

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      Expressions are derived for the horizontal and vertical gradients of the gravity anomaly over a thin dipping sheet of infinite depth extent. The resultant of these two gradients, known as the complex gradient, is also derived and properties of the amplitude and phase responses of the complex gradient are studied. It is shown that the amplitude plot is a symmetric curve whose, shape is independent of the dip (ϕ) of the sheet whereas the phase plot is an antisymmetric curve with an offset value equal to ϕ-π/2. The depth to top of the sheet is obtained from the amplitude plot. The method is applied on a field example and the results are in good agreement with the results obtained by earlier workers.

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