• Volume 93, Issue 3

      August 1984,   pages  177-342

    • Gravito-electrodynamics and the structure of planetary ring systems

      D A Mendis

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      Recent spacecraft observations of the Saturnian and Jovian ring systems have highlighted a plethora of interesting new phenomena associated with those regions containing fine (micron and sub-micron sized) dust. Recognizing that these dust grains, by virtue of being immersed within the planetary magnetospheres, are electrostatically charged to the point that they experience comparable gravitational and electric forces, a new “gravito-electrodynamic” theory has been developed to describe their dynamics. This theory has been successful in explaining all these phenomena in a systematic way. In this review, the basic model and its range of validity are outlined, and its application to the Saturnian and Jovian ring systems are discussed.

    • Fabry-Perot spectroscopy in space science

      J N Desai

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      The paper describes use of Fabry-Perot (fp) systems in spectroscopic studies of astronomy and earth’s upper atmosphere. Factors influencing the resolution, luminosity and instrumental line shape offp spectrometer are discussed and the need for their optimization is emphasised, if desired luminosity gain is to be realised in practice. Use offp as imaging spectrometer, scanning spectrometer and as a narrow band filter are illustrated. Tandemfp systems are briefly dealt with.

    • Recent advances in solar radio physics

      M R Kundu

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      We review high spatial resolution microwave observations of solar active regions, coronal loops and flares. Observations of preflare active regions are presented; in particular we discuss the interpretations of reversal of polarization at the flare site and the role of newly emerging flux in triggering the onset of flares. We discuss the spatial locations of microwave burst emitting regions; loops or arcades of loops appear to be the sites of flare energy release in microwave bursts. We provide direct observational evidence of magnetic reconnection as the primary cause of acceleration of electrons in microwave bursts.

    • Observations of the electric fields that accelerate auroral particles

      M Temerin F S Mozer

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      Electric fields accelerate electrons and ions in the auroral zone at altitudes below 8000 km to produce several distinctive particle distributions. The electric field of electrostatic shocks and double layers produces the inverted-V precipitating electron and up-flowing ion beams. Electrostatic ion cyclotron waves heat ion beams. The electric field in low frequency plasma waves and electrostatic shocks produces ion conics and field-aligned or counterstreaming electrons. Relationships between electric fields and particle distributions are illustrated with data from the S3-3 satellite.

    • Effect of parallel electric field and geomagnetic field distortion on precipitation of charged particles into the lower ionosphere

      R N Singh R Prasad

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      Mead axisymmetric distortions in the geomagnetic field and uniform electrostatic field parallel to geomagnetic field have been assumed to derive an expression for the inhomogeneity parameter, αd. Consequent change in the pitch angle diffusion of charged particles has been obtained. Using these parameters, the variations in the precipitating electron influx with varying stand-off distances and parallel electrostatic fields have been computed.

    • Advances in microwave remote sensing of the ocean and atmosphere

      P C Pandey T A Hariharan

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      This article reviews the current state-of-the-art and future prospects of the microwave techniques for remote sensing of the earth’s atmosphere and ocean. Geophysical parameters and their relationship with measured thermal microwave radiation is established through radiative transfer processes. The atmospheric temperature profile obtained from microwave sounding unit (msu) onboardtiros-N series of satellites is operational and is used for numerical weather prediction. The demonstrated applications of scanning multichannel microwave radiometer (smmr) onboard most recent and advancedseasat satellite are highlighted.The capability ofseasat active sensors for monitoring ocean parameters have also been indicated. Feasible applications of microwave techniquese.g. moisture profile with advanced moisture sounder (amsu), and surface pressure from multifrequency active microwave pressure sounder (mps) are also described. Finally the recent and advanced microwave limb sounding (mls) technique and its applications to upper atmospheric research has been reviewed.

    • Rocket borne studies of electron density irregularities in equatorial D and E regions

      S Prakash R Pandey

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      Electron density irregularities in the equatorialD andE regions have been studied using ground-based and rocket-borne experiments. In this paper this subject is reviewed with an emphasis on the rocket-borne measurements of electron density and electric field structures and other parameters relevant for identifying processes responsible for generation of electron density irregularities. These studies have led to the identification of various causative mechanisms, in terms of plasma and neutral dynamical processes for producing irregularities. Based on these mechanisms, the irregularities are classified and discussed. There are many observations which have eluded explanation and hence call for sustained efforts.

    • Molar refraction of quartz family minerals

      S K Nataraju D Krishnamurti

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      Different polymorphs of silica and the opals exhibit significant variations in densities. The paper discusses and correlates the variations in the molar refraction with density. It emerges that in different polymorphs of silica, the increase in density involves a corresponding increase in the characteristic dispersion frequencies leading to a decrease in the molar refraction. The variation of the molar refraction with density can be represented in terms of an elementary formula. The variation of the molar refraction of opals with the water content in them is also accounted for.

    • Injected radiotracer techniques in hydrology

      S M Rao

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      Radioactive tracers which have several advantages over conventional tracers made significant contributions to the development of the injected tracer method in hydrology. A review of the nuclear and the physico-chemical characteristics of the possible radiotracer compounds leads us to conclude that the most effective groundwater tracers are tritiated water (HTO),82Br and58Co or60Co as a hexacyanocobaltate complex.

      A discussion of the various case studies in India and abroad covering the three groups of applications mentioned helps us to conclude that well established radiotracer methods with associated interpretational techniques are available for many short range studies in surface and subsurface hydrology.

    • The crustal record in Rajasthan

      K Gopalan A K Choudhary

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      Age determinations mostly by Rb/Sr whole rock isochrons of the Precambrian rocks of Rajasthan in northwest India are summarized and discussed. On present sampling and subject to its possible bias, the following conclusions can be made. The Untala Granite believed to be intrusive into the gneissic terrain (bgc) east of Udaipur has the oldest age, 2.95 b.y. yet measured for a granite in Rajasthan. This, coupled with the lead isochron age of 3.5 b.y. for detrital zircon from the Aravalli schists by Vinogradov and others extends the basement of Rajasthan well into the Archaean. The time equivalence of thebgc east of Udaipur with the Berach Granite dated only at 2.55 b.y. is not tenable. No satisfactory radiometric age control exists for the onset and duration of the Aravalli Supergroup, believed to be an early Proterozoic linear belt.

      Heron’s original Delhi Supergroup has recorded acid magmatism widely separate in space and time. The earliest activity between 1700 and 1500 m.y. is recorded mainly in the Alwar basin in northeastern Rajasthan while the younger activity between 850 and 750 m.y. is represented by the ‘Erinpura type’ granites in the central and southern Aravalli sector. This younger event not only has let its thermal overprinting on the older Alwar rocks but also marks the onset of emplacement of the Malani Igneous suite in the trans-Aravalli terrain. This raises the new possibility that the Delhi rocks of Heron represent atleast two chronologically independent sequences with varying geographical extent. The trans-Aravalli terrain is most probably floored by partly reworked, crystalline basement and developed along linear rift zones which acted as loci for high heat flow and igneous activity since about 800 m.y. ago.

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