Volume 91, Issue 3
November 1982, pages 167-262
pp 167-187 November 1982
The empirical orthogonal functions have been obtained for the individual summer monsoon (June through September) months using the grid point values of monthly 700 mb geopotential heights over Indian region. The data for 21 summer monsoon months for the years 1958 to 1978 have been used in the present computation.
The major variance reduction is due to the first three dominant functions accounting over 80% of the total variance in each month. The variance reduction only due to the first function ranges from 45 to 65%.
The first function has in-pbase oscillation throughout the area indicating that the area under study is homogeneous and the centre of the oscillation lies over northwest India. The amplitudes of the first function also show generally quasipers stence in their sign within a season. The second function has two centres of action over the region of monsoon trough which are in phase. The third function has also two centres oriented in the east-west direction but they are in the opposite phase.
Fairly large values of correlation coefficients between the patterns of the different monsoon months suggest that the patterns for these months corresponding to the first and the second functions respectively are quite similar. The patterns for these months also evolve with time in a related way. The spectrum analysis to the time series of amplitudes indicates the presence of the quasi-periodicity of 3 years during these monsoon months. The amplitudes corresponding to the dominant functions are found to be significantly related with the rainfall of central and western parts of India
pp 189-207 November 1982
Total precipitable water in the atmosphere over India
Electromagnetic radiation, in its passage through the atmosphere, is attenuated by absorption and scattering by atmospheric gases, dust and aerosols. The most important absorber is water vapour and the most significant parameter in atmospheric absorption studies is the total precipitable water in the atmosphere. The present paper summarises the results of a study made to compute the total precipitable water in the atmosphere over India using radiosonde and other data, as part of a programme for the computation of direct, global and diffuse solar radiation at the ground from the solar constant. Using values of air temperature and dew point from the ground up to 250 mb at 19 radiosonde stations and surface water vapour mixing ratio values at 105 surface observatories in India, precipitable water amounts have been computed for 124 stations, for each month and for the whole year. The paper describes the techniques used to extend the total precipitable water amounts derived from radiosonde data at 19 stations to 124 stations covering the major climatic zones in the country and presents the results in the form of 12 maps showing the spatial and temporal distribution of total precipitable water over India
pp 209-217 November 1982
Microwave response of green vegetation
The cavity perturbation technique has been used to measure the dielectric constant of vegetation, such as soyabean, grass, corn and green spruce at 9.5 GHz. The dielectric properties of these vegetations are highly dependent upon the moisture content. For freshly plucked specimen the dielectric constant was found to be maximum which decreased gradually as the specimen dried up. The role of these basic physical parameters in microwave scatterometer experiment has been discussed. Some parameters of remote sensing application have been estimated from these measurements and their practical role has been discussed
pp 219-234 November 1982
The use of digital models has increased significantly in recent years with the accessibility of fast computing machines. A variable dimensioned digital model was constructed for the Shadnagar granite basin using SPECTRUM-7 micro computer to integrate various hydrogeological characteristics and for their quantitative evaluation. The basin has an areal extent of 437 sq km and is demarcated with clear water divides in all directions. Transmissivity, recharge and discharge at each cell of the basin area were estimated by trial and error simulation of the hydrogeological phenomenon under steady state condition. Dynamic simulation at representative nodes facilitated the estimation of storage coefficient. The capability of the constructed model was established by the conformance of the simulated hydrographs with the actual behaviour of the ground water system. The entire studies ammended the earlier arrived estimates of various input/output hydrogeological parameters and evolved a methodology for efficient processing of aquifer simulation data
pp 235-239 November 1982
Geomagnetic calm intervals and anomalous solar cycle 20
K G Sontakke N K Thakur G K Rangarajan
Long period variations in the occurrence of prolonged intervals of calm magnetic field conditions are studied using index Ap of magnetic activity. The solar-cycle variation in occurrence is compared with the sunspot number. Anomalous behaviour for solar cycle 20, observed in other solar parameters, are shown to be manifested in the occurrence frequency of quiet intervals. Spectral characteristics of occurrence indicates a dominant long period variation of about 30 years and a more feeble 11-year oscillation
pp 241-245 November 1982
Rayleigh wave group velocity in a spherically symmetric gravitating earth model
Expressions for kinetic energy, elastic potential energy and gravitational potential energy for the spheroidal oscillations of a spherically symmetric, self-gravitating, elastic earth model have been obtained. Some inconsistencies in the expressions given by earlier authors have been pointed out. The principle of equipartition of energy and the Rayleigh principle have been used to derive a formula for Rayleigh wave group velocity in terms of energy integrals. This formula can be used to compute the group velocity without the numerical differentiation implied in its definition
pp 247-252 November 1982
A direct method for interpreting magnetic anomalies—the case of a horizontal circular cylinder
A new method is introduced here to interpret the magnetic anomalies with special reference to vertical magnetic anomalies of a horizontal circular cylinder. The parameters of the cylinder are found to be related toV, ∂V/∂x and∂V/∂z at the origin of the cylinder. HereV is the observed anomaly,∂V/∂x and∂V/∂z are its horizontal and vertical derivatives respectively. The origin may be located working out an equality,viz.,3(∂V/∂z)^{2}=2V∂^{2}V/∂z^{2} which is true only at the origin. Thus, once the cylinder is located,V, ∂V/∂x and∂V/∂z at its origin can be determined and hence its parameters. The procedure is illustrated with a theoretical example.
pp 253-262 November 1982
A second derivative method of resistivity sounding
The second vertical derivatives of gravity and magnetic potential are widely used in geophysical prospecting because of their better resolution. On the same basis an attempt has been made to obtain the expressions for the second vertical derivative of the electrical potential and to compute its nature for comparison. Derivative responses over a two-layered earth and also over an anticlinal structure have been computed and it is shown that the second vertical derivative sounding could be employed for greater accuracy in finding out the thickness of such beds or the inclination of the sides of the anticline and its depth when compared with normal resistivity sounding
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